Rhs year 2 week 3 presentation 20

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Rhs year 2 week 3 presentation 20

  1. 1. RHS Level 2CertificateYear 2 Week 3 – cultivation and soilwater
  2. 2. Quiz Tests last two week’s material. 15 minutes, test conditions.
  3. 3. Quiz Answers Surface capping arises when the particles in the soil (particularly in silty soils) bond together. This means that water cannot soak into the soil and air cannot enter. This prevents seedlings from breaking through the soil surface. It also means that roots cannot get the oxygen they need to respire. Cultivation pan may either be made up of iron leached from the top soil and bonded to clay particles, or of stones that have settled out of the top soil during cultivation. This prevents the roots of plants from penetrating into the sub soil and may lead to poor establishment. Cultivation pan may be rectified by double digging
  4. 4. Quiz answers continued Question 2 – (a) and (c) Question 3 – (c) Question 4 – (a) Question 5 – Sandy soil Question 6 – 40% sand, 40% silt and 20% clay. Question 7 – (b) Better than 3 or 4 out of 7 is a good result at this stage. Less than that you need to review your notes again.
  5. 5. Learning Outcomes2.5 Describe the benefits and limitations of basic cultivation techniques.2.6 Describe the use of pedestrian operated soil cultivating machines2.7 Describe the management of minimal cultivation systems e.g. no dig systems.3.6 Describe two methods by which soil structure can be improved and two practices which damage soil structure, to include: incorporation of organic matter; addition of inorganic soil improvers; compaction; and cultivation techniques. 3.7 State what is meant by ‘surface capping’; explain how it may happen and what effects it can have on plant establishment and growth.3.8 Describe how a cultivation pan can be formed, what effect it has on plant growth, and how it can be rectified.4.1 Describe the relationship between air and water content in the pore space of soils and growing media. 4.2 Explain the importance of an appropriate balance between air and water for the healthy growth of plants..4.4 Identify a range of management techniques for maintaining soil moisture at appropriate levels4.5 Identify the surface symptoms of poor drainage, to include: standing water, surface run-off and indicator plant species.
  6. 6. Cultivation techniques Single digging – used for previously cultivated soil with good structure. Double digging – for uncultivated soil or to improve clay soils or those with cultivation pan, poor drainage etc. Rotavation – for larger areas. Safety considerations – PPE, maintenance, correct operation.
  7. 7. Benefits and limitations - diggingBenefits LimitationsImproves the structure of the soil – Disturbs natural structure of the soil andallows access for water and air may harm beneficial organismsExposes pests to predators and the Can damage soil structure if the textureweather. Allows clay clods to be frosted. and wetness of the soil are not taken into account.Breaks up cultivation pans and improves Brings dormant weed seeds to thedrainage. surface where light will stimulate germinationIncorporates organic matter and buries Leaves a bare surface which may lead tocrop residues and weeds leaching or capping
  8. 8. Benefits and Limitations - RotavationBenefits LimitationsLess hard work than manual digging Expensive to buy or hire, safety considerations.Makes larger areas more manageable Can produce a very ‘fluffy’ tilth with large air pockets – will need raking and possibly firming before plantingProvides a good tilth in a short period of Will not effectively break up hard or stonetime pan and may cause a cultivation pan by smearing wet clay soils.Has most of the benefits of single Not ideal for incorporating organic matterdigging.
  9. 9. No Dig SystemsBenefits LimitationsLess work than traditional digging Will not remedy soil structure problemsapproaches to soil management like hard pan or poor drainageDoes not damage soil structure where Large amounts of organic matter arethis is already good requiredWeed seeds are not brought to the Some risk of long term soil acidificationsurface – which reduces beneficial organismsSoil organisms are not disturbed Pests may build up in the soil as the larvae are not exposed by winter digging
  10. 10. How Water is lost from the soil
  11. 11. What water is available toplants?
  12. 12. Drainage Symptoms of poor drainage – standing water; gleys; indicator plant species; surface run off. Cures – double digging; incorporate coarse organic matter; install tile drains or sub-soiling (clay soils) on large areas.
  13. 13. Water retention and irrigation Irrigate to restore capillary water – so add enough to do so when needed rather than water little and often. Mulches and timing of irrigation can reduce evaporation. Water at the roots – not on the leaves and bare soil. Organic matter acts like a sponge and creates aggregates with both intermediate and macro pores.
  14. 14. Learning Outcomes2.5 Describe the benefits and limitations of basic cultivation techniques.2.6 Describe the use of pedestrian operated soil cultivating machines2.7 Describe the management of minimal cultivation systems e.g. no dig systems.3.6 Describe two methods by which soil structure can be improved and two practices which damage soil structure, to include: incorporation of organic matter; addition of inorganic soil improvers; compaction; and cultivation techniques. 3.7 State what is meant by ‘surface capping’; explain how it may happen and what effects it can have on plant establishment and growth.3.8 Describe how a cultivation pan can be formed, what effect it has on plant growth, and how it can be rectified.4.1 Describe the relationship between air and water content in the pore space of soils and growing media. 4.2 Explain the importance of an appropriate balance between air and water for the healthy growth of plants..4.4 Identify a range of management techniques for maintaining soil moisture at appropriate levels4.5 Identify the surface symptoms of poor drainage, to include: standing water, surface run-off and indicator plant species.

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