Rhs year 1 week 4 2011
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Rhs year 1 week 4 2011 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. RHS Level 2 Certificate Year 1 Week 4 Parts of the Plant Roots
  • 2. Learning objectives
    • 1.2 Parts of the plant – an overview
    • 1.2.1 State the parts of a typical seed bearing plant and their respective purposes.
    • 1.3 Roots.(1)
    • 1.3.1 Describe how the root system develops from the radicle.
    • 1.3.2 Define the meaning of ‘primary’, ‘secondary’, ‘tap’, ‘lateral’, ‘fibrous’, and ‘adventitious’ roots.
    • 1.3.3 Describe the external structure of the root tip and the role of the root cap and root hairs.
    • 1.3.4 Describe how the root is adapted in order to perform specific functions.
    • 1.3.5 Root fungi - symbiosis
    • 1.3.6 Describe transverse sections of the young dicotyledon root; these should include the location of the following: epidermis, cortex, xylem, phloem, pith, cambium, vascular bundles, endodermis, pericycle, cuticle .
  • 3. Parts of a seed bearing plant
    • Review the parts of a plant
    • Introduction to their function
    • We will look at each in turn over the next few weeks – to understand how to grow plants effectively it is important to know how they work.
  • 4.  
  • 5. Roots
    • What do roots do?
      • Provide support and anchorage for most plants (not floating aquatics!)
      • Absorb water and nutrients from the soil (by osmosis)
      • Store food to allow the plant to survive periods of dormancy – for example carrots ( Dacus carota) and parsnips (Pastinaca sativa).
  • 6. Root structure
  • 7. Types of Root
    • Primary root
    • Secondary root
    • Tap root
    • Fibrous root
    • Lateral root
    • Adventitious roots
  • 8. Parts of the Root
    • Radicle – first root on germination
    • Root cap – protective, disposable cells covering root tip
    • Root hairs – adapted epidermis cells, absorb water and nutrients
    • Cortex – packing cells, protect other tissues and store carbohydrates
    • Pericycle – meristem, produces branching roots and thickening growth
  • 9. Parts of the root
    • Root tip – root apical meristem
    • Epidermis – ‘skin’ or bark of the root
    • Endodermis – layer of cells outside the pericycle that control entry and exit of water and dissolved nutrients
    • Xylem – carries water and dissolved nutrients from the roots to the tip of the shoots
    • Phloem – carries dissolved sugars and carbohydrates etc from the leaves to where they are needed.
  • 10. Parts of the root – cross section
  • 11. Parts of the Root
    • Root cap
    • Root tip
    • Root hairs
  • 12. Root development
    • Radicle (first root produced at germination) – rapid cell division at root apex meristem, production of root hairs and subsequently branching root development from the pericycle (lateral meristem of the root).
    • Root branches in turn grow, produce root hairs and further branches.
  • 13. Root adaptations – adventitious roots Adventitious roots – develop from leaf nodes or from damage to the stem. Here adventitious roots on a Swiss Cheese Plant ( Monstera deliciosa ) enable the plant to climb
  • 14. Root adaptations – food storage
    • Adapted cortex (parenchyma) cells store carbohydrates. Carrots ( Daucus carota) are biennials; food made in the first year is stored for use in the second when the flowers and seed are produced.
  • 15. Root adaptations – very wet and very dry. Which is which?
  • 16. Symbiosis – working together.
    • Nitrogen fixing – bacteria that live in nodules on the roots of legumes (peas, beans, some trees) convert nitrogen gas into compounds that plants can use.
    • Mycorrhizal fungi – connect to roots (particularly trees) and take carbohydrate and water and give nutrients, especially potassium.
  • 17. Learning outcomes -review
    • 1.2 Parts of the plant – an overview
    • 1.2.1 State the parts of a typical seed bearing plant and their respective purposes.
    • 1.3 Roots.(1)
    • 1.3.1 Describe how the root system develops from the radicle.
    • 1.3.2 Define the meaning of ‘primary’, ‘secondary’, ‘tap’, ‘lateral’, ‘fibrous’, and ‘adventitious’ roots.
    • 1.3.3 Describe the external structure of the root tip and the role of the root cap and root hairs.
    • 1.3.4 Describe how the root is adapted in order to perform specific functions.
    • 1.3.5 Root fungi - symbiosis
    • 1.3.6 Describe transverse sections of the young dicotyledon root; these should include the location of the following: epidermis, cortex, xylem, phloem, pith, cambium, vascular bundles, endodermis, pericycle, cuticle