RHS Year 1 week 15 2011

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Budding and grafting

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  • hi - thanks for your question. The answer I'm afraid is not entirely straightforward as it varies depending on the type of plant (conifer, fruit tree, rose etc) being grafted and the type of graft or budding technique.



    However - apple rootstocks are usually 1 or 2 years old at sale for grafting (when the stem is thick enough to match the scion wood which is one year old of course). Conifers vary in stem development and rootstocks may be anything from 1 to 4 years old.



    Rose rootstocks are sold by size of stem, not age.



    The main issue is stem size on the rootstock but all will be young to maintain juvenility and vigour of the stock



    I hope this helps.

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  • Clear explanations. But how old is the rootstock?
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RHS Year 1 week 15 2011

  1. 1. RHS Level 2 Certificate Week 15- vegetative reproduction by budding and grafting
  2. 2. Learning objectives <ul><li>1.1 Define the terms: ‘budding’ and ‘grafting’. </li></ul><ul><li>1.2 State FOUR reasons for use of budding and grafting for the production of particular plants. Define ‘Compatibility’ in this context. </li></ul><ul><li>1.3 State TWO benefits and TWO limitations of grafting. </li></ul><ul><li>1.4 Describe how to propagate ONE NAMED plant by EACH of the following types of budding: ‘T’; and ‘Chip’. </li></ul><ul><li>1.5 Describe how to propagate ONE NAMED plant by EACH of the following types of grafting: ‘whip and tongue’ (in the field); ‘side veneer graft’ (bench grafting). </li></ul><ul><li>1.6 State the aftercare required for plants propagated by budding and grafting </li></ul>
  3. 3. Propagation by grafting and budding <ul><li>The joining of separate plant parts together, such that they form a union and grow   as one plant.  Most apple, pear and stone fruit trees are propagated in this way. </li></ul><ul><li>Scion – the wood from the desired variety from which the graft or bud is taken </li></ul><ul><li>Rootstock – the rooted plant of the same species (occasionally same genera) onto which the scion is attached. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Reasons for grafting or budding <ul><li>Plants that cannot be produced by other means </li></ul><ul><li>To obtain earlier cropping </li></ul><ul><li>To obtain desirable characteristics of the rootstock e.g. dwarfing </li></ul><ul><li>To change the variety of an established tree (topworking) </li></ul><ul><li>To repair damage (bridge grafting) </li></ul><ul><li>To create particular ornamental or useful forms (e.g. standard roses or family apple trees) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Benefits and limitations <ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced time to flowering or fruiting </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced disease (e.g. aphid resistant apple rootstock) or control of size </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations </li></ul><ul><li>Requires skill to carry out – much more than cuttings etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Resulting plants tend to be more expensive than those grown from cuttings or seed. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Stages of graft union formation <ul><li>It is essential that the cambium on the scion and stock is matched up </li></ul><ul><li>1) Callus formation by both stock and scion  </li></ul><ul><li>2) Intermingling of callus from stock and scion  </li></ul><ul><li>3) New cambium forms in callus between stock and scion  </li></ul><ul><li>4) New secondary xylem and phloem from new cambium to connect stock and scion  </li></ul>
  7. 9. FACTORS AFFECTING SUCCESS OF GRAFTING AND BUDDING <ul><li>Plant type – scion and stock from same species (intra-generic grafts may be feasible – e.g. Pyrus communis scion onto Cydonia oblonga rootstock). Only dicots and gymnosperms can be grafted. </li></ul><ul><li>Incompatibility – due to physiological factors; virus infection; physical abnormality of the vascular tissues in the graft union. </li></ul><ul><li>Season and growth state </li></ul><ul><li>Environment – temperature, humidity. </li></ul>
  8. 10. Whip and tongue graft <ul><li>Very important that scion and stock match in size. </li></ul><ul><li>The tongue allows for a stable graft. </li></ul><ul><li>Diagonal cuts maximise the exposed cambium – leading to a strong union. </li></ul><ul><li>Carried out on rootstocks growing in the field. </li></ul>
  9. 11. Side Veneer Graft <ul><li>Often used for conifers that do not root easily – often dwarf forms. Bench grafted. </li></ul><ul><li>A shallow wedge shaped slice is removed from the rootstock near the base. The top growth is left. </li></ul><ul><li>The scion base is trimmed on one side to match. </li></ul><ul><li>The two are matched and bound tightly together. </li></ul><ul><li>Union should occur within 3 months – once the scion is growing the top growth on the stock is removed in two stages . </li></ul>
  10. 12. T-Budding <ul><li>Used for roses and fruit trees – usual method for varietal roses. </li></ul><ul><li>For example – Rosa ‘Churchill’ </li></ul>
  11. 13. Chip Budding <ul><li>Used mainly for fruit trees </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Malus ‘ Bramley’s Seedling’. </li></ul><ul><li>Important to match cambium but the scion and rootstock could be different sizes, unlike grafting. </li></ul>
  12. 14. Aftercare <ul><li>Keep well watered </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature requirements vary – field grafted or budded plants need no additional protection. Side veneer grafted conifers may achieve better graft unions if given additional warmth. </li></ul><ul><li>Check tape/binding shortly after grafting or budding – if this loosens the union will not form. </li></ul><ul><li>Top growth on the rootstock on budded or side veneered plants needs to be cut back to just above the bud/graft once it has taken. </li></ul>
  13. 15. Learning outcomes <ul><li>1.1 Define the terms: ‘budding’ and ‘grafting’. </li></ul><ul><li>1.2 State FOUR reasons for use of budding and grafting for the production of particular plants. Define ‘Compatibility’ in this context. </li></ul><ul><li>1.3 State TWO benefits and TWO limitations of grafting. </li></ul><ul><li>1.4 Describe how to propagate ONE NAMED plant by EACH of the following types of budding: ‘T’; and ‘Chip’. </li></ul><ul><li>1.5 Describe how to propagate ONE NAMED plant by EACH of the following types of grafting: ‘whip and tongue’ (in the field); ‘side veneer graft’ (bench grafting). </li></ul><ul><li>1.6 State the aftercare required for plants propagated by budding and grafting </li></ul>

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