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RHS Year 1 week 14 2011

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Cuttings, division, layering

Cuttings, division, layering

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  • 1. RHS Level 2 Certificate Week 14- vegetative reproduction by stem cuttings, layering and division.
  • 2. Learning objectives
    • Review of stem cuttings.
    • 1.1 State the physiological factors to be fulfilled for successful propagation by layering.
    • 1.2 Describe how to propagate ONE NAMED plant for EACH of the following types of layering: air; simple; and serpentine
    • 1.3 Describe the aftercare required for plants raised by layering.
    • 1.4 State the conditions which have to be met to ensure successful propagation by division.
    • 1.5 Describe how to propagate by division ONE NAMED plant of EACH of the following types: a suckering shrub; a fibrous-rooted perennial; a perennial with distinct buds (eyes).
    • 1.6 Describe the aftercare of plants propagated by division.
  • 3. Stem cuttings
    • Semi-ripe cuttings – leafy; taken when the new growth has started to turn woody. Need less heat than softwood. Rooting powder used. Shrubs.
    • Hardwood cuttings – taken whilst stock plant is dormant. Rooted outdoors or in cold frame. Plant the right way up! Trees
    • Root cuttings – taken when stock plant is dormant. Plant the right way up! Herbaceous perennials
    • Soft wood or soft tip cuttings – taken from new growth in spring. Very sensitive to dehydration so need humidity control, gently bottom heat often helpful. Some but not all need rooting powder.
  • 4. Characteristics of plant material for propagation
    • True to type – must show the characteristics you want.
    • Healthy – no signs of virus, no obvious or severe infestation or infection.
    • Turgid – must be well watered and protected from dehydration after removal from parent.
    • Juvenile – the more juvenile the material the better it is likely to root.
  • 5. Propagation by division
    • Used for perennials – clump forming, suckering and rhizomes.
    • Use more juvenile offsets from the edge of the clump or plant.
    • Divide summer flowering plants in the spring or autumn e.g, Iris ensata
    • Divide spring flowering plants in the summer after flowering e.g. Epimedium x rubrum
    • Aftercare – weed to reduce competition, do not allow soil to dry out.
  • 6. Plants that can be divided
    • Iris ensata (or any rhizomatous iris)
    • Epimedium x rubrum
    • Bergenia purpurescens
    • Hosta sieboldiana
    • Phyllostachys nigra
    • Sarcoccoa hookeriana
  • 7. Propagation by layering
    • Simple layering – advantages: can be used to propagate hard to root plants; needs little equipment; no hardening off
    • Disadvantages – produces relatively few plants and is slow.
  • 8. Propagation by layering
    • Serpentine layering -Used for woody climbers e.g, Lonicera . Produces several plants per stem however it needs quite a lot of space.
    • Air Layering – used for plants with rigid stems e.g. Magnolia grandiflora
  • 9. Aftercare for layered plants
    • Keep soil moist (sphagnum moss in air layering) until rooting occurs.
    • Once rooted (and shoots are produced in serpentine layering) detach from the parent plant and move to final position or into a pot to grow on. Remove any residual stem from the parent plant without leaving a snag.
  • 10. Learning outcomes
    • Review of stem cuttings.
    • 1.1 State the physiological factors to be fulfilled for successful propagation by layering.
    • 1.2 Describe how to propagate ONE NAMED plant for EACH of the following types of layering: air; simple; and serpentine
    • 1.3 Describe the aftercare required for plants raised by layering.
    • 1.4 State the conditions which have to be met to ensure successful propagation by division.
    • 1.5 Describe how to propagate by division ONE NAMED plant of EACH of the following types: a suckering shrub; a fibrous-rooted perennial; a perennial with distinct buds (eyes).
    • 1.6 Describe the aftercare of plants propagated by division.