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RHS Level 2 Year 1 Week 6 2011
 

RHS Level 2 Year 1 Week 6 2011

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    RHS Level 2 Year 1 Week 6 2011 RHS Level 2 Year 1 Week 6 2011 Presentation Transcript

    • RHS Level 2 Certificate Week 6 – Flowers and Seeds
    • Learning objectives
      • 1. Parts of the flower
      • 1.1 Name the main types of inflorescence found on plants.
      • 1.2 Describe the structure of a typical dicotyledonous flower.
      • 1.3 State the role of each component of the flower.
      • 1.4 Define the terms: ‘monoecious’, ‘dioecious’ and ‘hermaphrodite’.
      • 1.5 Describe how petals and sepals are modified to tepals in specific genera.
      • 2. Fruits and seeds
      • 2.1 Define the term: ‘seed’ and state the role of seeds in plant reproduction.
      • 2.2 Define the term ‘fruit’ and state the role of the fruit in plant reproduction.
      • 2.3 State that fruits can be divided into dry types (dehiscent and indehiscent) and fleshy (succulent ) types (true and false); and that these can be distributed by wind, water, animals (externally), and animals (internally).
      • 2.4 Name one example of each type of fruit listed in 2.3, and one example for each distribution method.
      • 2.5 Describe the internal and external structure of the seed of a monocotyledon (examples to include maize, Zea mays ) and a dicotyledon (examples to include French bean, Phaseolus vulgaris and broad bean, Vicia faba ).
      • .
    • Parts of the flower Female parts Carpel = Stigma + style + ovary + ovule Male Parts Stamen = Anther + filament External parts Petal; Sepal; Bract; Pedicel or peduncle
    • Role of each part of the flower
      • Male parts – anthers produce pollen which contains ‘sperm’. Supported on the filament.
      • Female parts – stigma receives pollen, ovules contain ‘eggs’ awaiting fertilization. Stigma supported on stamen
      • Petals – brightly coloured, ultraviolet sensitive pigments
      • Sepal – leaf like structure that encloses and protects the flower bud
      • Bract – modified leaf below flower or inflorescence
      • Tepal – modified leaf that takes the place of petals in some species e.g. Tulipa sp.
    • Pollination strategies
      • Insect pollinated flowers – brightly coloured and large; produce nectar as a lure; pollen contains protein which bees and other insects feed on; scented to attract pollinators.
      • Wind pollinated – no need to attract pollinators, so no scent, nectar or protein in pollen. Very large amounts of very light pollen.
      • Many monocots and trees are wind pollinated, but not all. The size and structure of the flower reveals the strategy used.
    • Different types of flower
      • Monoecious – separate male and female flowers on the same plant
      • Dioecious – male and female flowers on different plants
      • Hermaphrodite – flowers containing male and female organs (which may or may not be self compatible)
    • Male flower? Female Flower?
    • Fruits and Seeds
      • Seed – formed from the mature fertilized ovule and containing the embryo and stored food.
      • Fruit – A mature ovary. Functions – protection of seed, encourage ingestion, control germination, facilitate seed dispersal.
      • False fruit – a structure that resembles a fruit but which is not derived from an ovary. E.g. Yew Taxus baccatta, Apple Malus domestica.
    • Types of fruit
      • Dry – e.g. Papaver somniferum
      • Fleshy- having juicy flesh formed from the ovary . E.g. a drupe such as Prunus x domestica ‘Victoria’
      • Indehiscent – the pericarp does not split open to release the seeds. E.g. Quercus robur (English Oak).
      • Dehiscent – the pericarp splits to release the seeds e.g., Lathyrus odoratus (Sweet Pea)
    • Types of Fruit
      • Simple
      • Aggregate
      • Multiple
    • Structure of seeds
      • Testa – coat
      • Cotyledon – seed leaf
      • Plumule – first shoot
      • Radicle – first root
      • Hypocotyl – first stem below the seed leaves
      • Micropyle – small hole where seed joined plant.
      • Dicots and monocot differences. Monocots have endosperm, dicots generally do not.
    • Seed dispersal –method and examples
      • Dry fruit – dispersed by wind Taraxacum officinale (Dandelion)
      • Fleshy fruit – dispersed by birds (internally) Sorbus acuparia (Mountain Ash)
      • Indeheiscent fruit – dispersed by animals Quercus robur (English Oak) by squirrels.
      • Deheiscent fruit – dispersed by water Impatiens glandulifera (Himalayan Balsam)
    • Learning outcomes
      • 1. Parts of the flower
      • 1.1 Name the main types of inflorescence found on plants.
      • 1.2 Describe the structure of a typical dicotyledonous flower.
      • 1.3 State the role of each component of the flower.
      • 1.4 Define the terms: ‘monoecious’, ‘dioecious’ and ‘hermaphrodite’.
      • 1.5 Describe how petals and sepals are modified to tepals in specific genera.
      • 2. Fruits and seeds
      • 2.1 Define the term: ‘seed’ and state the role of seeds in plant reproduction.
      • 2.2 Define the term ‘fruit’ and state the role of the fruit in plant reproduction.
      • 2.3 State that fruits can be divided into dry types (dehiscent and indehiscent) and fleshy (succulent ) types (true and false); and that these can be distributed by wind, water, animals (externally), and animals (internally).
      • 2.4 Name one example of each type of fruit listed in 2.3, and one example for each distribution method.
      • 2.5 Describe the internal and external structure of the seed of a monocotyledon (examples to include maize, Zea mays ) and a dicotyledon (examples to include French bean, Phaseolus vulgaris and broad bean, Vicia faba ).