RHS Level 2 Certificate Week 16 – Review of PGR, Genetics and Secondary Growth; Environmental issues in gardening
Learning objectives <ul><li>1.  Identify the principle plant growth regulators from a description of their effects </li></...
Plant Growth regulators - review <ul><li>Control plant physiological processes – principally cell division and differentia...
Plant Growth Regulators review 2 <ul><li>Auxin – elongation of cells and fruit formation </li></ul><ul><li>Cytokinins - pr...
Genetics and inheritance <ul><li>Basic unit = gene. </li></ul><ul><li>Genes exist in pairs. Each pair determines a charact...
Secondary Growth <ul><li>Responsible for thickening of stems in woody dicots and gymnosperms.  </li></ul><ul><li>Vascular ...
Environmental issues – growing media <ul><li>Peat is a problem – why? </li></ul><ul><li>Useful in many ways – light, moist...
Methods of pest and disease control  - risks to the environment <ul><li>One man’s pest is another creature’s dinner – dest...
Methods of pest and disease control – alternatives to chemical controls <ul><li>Correct care of plants and the environment...
Non-native plants – environmental issues <ul><li>Most UK plants are strictly speaking non-native – the Ice Age left very f...
Water management and conservation <ul><li>Save rain water for use in the garden </li></ul><ul><li>Water effectively.  No p...
Learning outcomes <ul><li>1.  Identify the principle plant growth regulators from a description of their effects </li></ul...
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Rhs level 2 year 1 week 16 2011

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Rhs level 2 year 1 week 16 2011

  1. 1. RHS Level 2 Certificate Week 16 – Review of PGR, Genetics and Secondary Growth; Environmental issues in gardening
  2. 2. Learning objectives <ul><li>1. Identify the principle plant growth regulators from a description of their effects </li></ul><ul><li>2. Identify the impact of dominant and recessive genes on a specified plant characteristic controlled by a single gene pairing. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Describe the process of secondary growth and explain why this is limited to gymnosperms and dicots. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Environmental issues in gardening. Identify and explain the environmental protection issues in relation to the following: </li></ul><ul><li>4.1 Growing media </li></ul><ul><li>4.2 pest and disease control </li></ul><ul><li>4.3 non-native plants </li></ul><ul><li>4.4 water usage and water disposal </li></ul>
  3. 3. Plant Growth regulators - review <ul><li>Control plant physiological processes – principally cell division and differentiation and tissue development (progress to maturity and senescence) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Plant Growth Regulators review 2 <ul><li>Auxin – elongation of cells and fruit formation </li></ul><ul><li>Cytokinins - promotes cell division (mitosis), delays the senescence of leaves. </li></ul><ul><li>Gibberellins - cell division and elongation of stems. Promote flowering and also bolting in ‘long day’ plants and seed germination. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethylene - ripening of fruit and senescence of leaves and flowers. Induces abscission of leaves in deciduous plants (the process of leaf fall). </li></ul><ul><li>Abscisic acid maintains dormancy in seeds and possibly in buds. It also is responsible for causing the closing of stomata – produced in response to ethylene(?). </li></ul>
  5. 5. Genetics and inheritance <ul><li>Basic unit = gene. </li></ul><ul><li>Genes exist in pairs. Each pair determines a characteristic. </li></ul><ul><li>The pairs need not be the same </li></ul><ul><li>Dominant genes control characteristics in plants if present in the pair. </li></ul><ul><li>Recessive genes will only be expressed if both genes in the pair are recessive </li></ul><ul><li>One gene of each pair from each parent – randomly assorted. </li></ul><ul><li>Creates new varieties and allows adaptation to conditions (survival of the fittest to reproduce) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Secondary Growth <ul><li>Responsible for thickening of stems in woody dicots and gymnosperms. </li></ul><ul><li>Vascular bundles join up to create a structure of vascular cambium with secondary xylem on the inside and secondary phloem on the outside. </li></ul><ul><li>Repeated cell divisions each growing season lead to layers of xylem being created which expands the stem. More water carrying capacity. </li></ul><ul><li>Creates growth rings. </li></ul><ul><li>One layer of phloem created – previous years phloem is broken up and crushed. New phloem each year. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Environmental issues – growing media <ul><li>Peat is a problem – why? </li></ul><ul><li>Useful in many ways – light, moisture retentive, low in nutrients, open structured and clean to use and handle </li></ul><ul><li>However, cutting peat means destroying irreplaceable natural habitats and their plants, birds, animals and insects. </li></ul><ul><li>What are the alternatives? Coir, composted bark, composted green waste, biosolids. </li></ul><ul><li>Do they work? Yes, provided cultivation techniques are adapted. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Methods of pest and disease control - risks to the environment <ul><li>One man’s pest is another creature’s dinner – destroying garden pests can have an effect on food webs in the garden </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance and withdrawal of products mean that the choice of chemical controls is becoming very limited. For some pests (e.g. greenhouse whitefly) there is no effective chemical control available to amateur gardeners. </li></ul><ul><li>Some chemical controls pose a threat to the operator and to beneficial insects. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Methods of pest and disease control – alternatives to chemical controls <ul><li>Correct care of plants and the environment – well grown plants that are not under stress are less likely to succumb to pests and diseases. </li></ul><ul><li>Toleration of some damage </li></ul><ul><li>Barriers, traps, biological controls and ‘organic’ plant based sprays </li></ul>
  10. 10. Non-native plants – environmental issues <ul><li>Most UK plants are strictly speaking non-native – the Ice Age left very few true natives. </li></ul><ul><li>Some non-native plants however are invasive and uncontrolled by natural processes in this country e.g. Fallopia japonica </li></ul><ul><li>Such plants can cause physical damage to buildings and block watercourses; crowd out native species and provide little or no habitat for native insects, birds and animals </li></ul><ul><li>Do not buy ‘problem plants’, do not dispose of them in green waste (burn them); do not give them away or dump them. </li></ul><ul><li>If you want to attract more insects and birds to your garden choose ‘native’ plants. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Water management and conservation <ul><li>Save rain water for use in the garden </li></ul><ul><li>Water effectively. No point wetting the soil to depths below the root zone, or watering anywhere other than at the roots. </li></ul><ul><li>Give the plants what they need – pay attention to rain fall and do not water if it is unnecessary. Choose plants that need little additional water. </li></ul><ul><li>Mulch – used to conserve moisture in the soil, prevents evaporation. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Learning outcomes <ul><li>1. Identify the principle plant growth regulators from a description of their effects </li></ul><ul><li>2. Identify the impact of dominant and recessive genes on a specified plant characteristic controlled by a single gene pairing. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Describe the process of secondary growth and explain why this is limited to gymnosperms and dicots. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Environmental issues in gardening. Identify and explain the environmental protection issues in relation to the following: </li></ul><ul><li>4.1 Growing media </li></ul><ul><li>4.2 pest and disease control </li></ul><ul><li>4.3 non-native plants </li></ul><ul><li>4.4 water usage and water disposal </li></ul>
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