Learning outcomes1. Hard landscaping1.1 Describe a range of horizontal elements: paths, steps, patios and decking. Compare the benefits and limitations of a range of materials for each of the above, including concrete, paving and wood1.2 Describe a range of vertical elements: walls, fences, screens, pergolas, furniture, statuary. For each of the above, compare TWO examples of natural and man-made materials used in their manufacture.1.3 Describe rock gardens and water features. State TWO examples of manufactured and TWO of natural materials for EACH element
Hard Landscaping Refers to everything that is not living in the garden. A wide range of choices of varying cost, difficulty of construction, maintenance requirements and appearance. The choice will be partly dictated by the style of the design – so rough stone walls are more likely to be found in a cottage garden and polished steel in a formal, modern garden.
Horizontal elements Horizontal plane links the other elements of the design. Vital to creating a feeling of harmony. Simplicity works best – limited palette of materials, textures and colours. Select materials that fit the purpose, style and budget.
Materials Man made – brick pavers, concrete slabs. Variable quality available – buy the best you can afford as cheap ones can discolour or degrade. Cheaper than stone. Natural – wood and stone. Wood – hardwood is more long lasting/expensive than treated softwood. Stone – the luxury choice although gravel can give the same colours. Requires careful laying for best effect.
Hard landscaping – horizontalsurfacesMaterial Benefits LimitationsWooden decking Can be painted or stained to Not for heavy loads. any colour. Good for Can become slippery in entertaining areas near the damp. house Regular maintenancePaving slabs or Hard wearing, little Requires skill to lay,stone maintenance. Wide variety of particularly if load bearing. sizes and colours. Can bear Does not suit irregular loads. shapes wellConcrete Very hard wearing, can be Can look rather industrial. coloured or textured. Large areas will need Relatively cheap. expert installation.Pavers Can be matched to the house Not easy to lay well. bricks. Variety of patterns possible in bonds.
Vertical elements Add visual interest – break up sight lines, create mystery, can control movement, provide enclosure. Boundary structures – provide security, windbreaks, enclosure. Divide the garden into separate areas for different uses or design areas Sculptures etc provide focal points. Can include overhead elements – pergolas etc.
Hard landscaping - verticalsMaterial Benefits LimitationsWood – fence Painted or stained to any Require regularpanels colour. Define garden maintenance. Limited life boundaries; provide security. span. windbreaks for productive areas. DIY installation possible.Brick - wall Bricks come in a variety of Require expert colours and textures. Very long construction. Expensive. lasting. Create microclimatesMetal – e.g. pergolas Can be painted, create Expensive, require regular interesting detailed shapes not maintenance. possible with wood etc.Stone Natural appearance, can suit Most expensive, stone building construction materials. walls need a mason to build.
Rock Gardens Remove weeds on sunny, sloping site Excavate area to 30cm and add 15cm hard core and stones; top with inverted turf. Use only ordinary mineral top soil and grit; no nutrients added. Bed stones into ground by 1/3 then build up soil around and above them, adding stones irregularly. Any strata should be in the same plane for all stones. Aim for natural look Plant after 1 or 2 weeks; use free draining planting mixture. Water in and top dress with stones.
Materials for rock gardens Natural stone – ideal but expensive, need to be careful of source (sustainability). Gravel/shale – used for scree gardens and as a mulch on rock gardens. Must match the stones. Hypertufa (artificial stone) – mix of cement, sand and peat or sieved compost/leaf mould. Cast in holes in the ground. Long lasting if made correctly; cheaper than stone. Hard to make large units. Resin ‘stones’ – mimic stone but large ones are hard to find and they may look ‘fake’
Water Features and ponds Add reflection, movement, sound to gardens. Provide new planting zones for aquatics and bog plants. Ponds provide horizontal interest. Water features can provide vertical interest.
Materials for water features Man made pond liners: rendered block or butyl liner. Block needs professional installation, butyl is DIY. Block for formal pools, butyl for ‘natural’ ones. Natural pond liner: puddled clay – natural liner but hard to install and requires large amounts of clay. Fountains – stone fountains are expensive, cast resin can look similar but must be drained in winter.
Learning Outcomes1. Hard landscaping1.1 Describe a range of horizontal elements: paths, steps, patios and decking. Compare the benefits and limitations of a range of materials for each of the above, including concrete, paving and wood1.2 Describe a range of vertical elements: walls, fences, screens, pergolas, furniture, statuary. For each of the above, compare TWO examples of natural and man-made materials used in their manufacture.1.3 Describe rock gardens and water features. State TWO examples of manufactured and TWO of natural materials for EACH element