Winter pruning – Apples and pears (spur fruiting). Reduce new growth on branch leaders by 1/3. Prune laterals to 3-4 buds. Thin spurs if too congested. Remove unproductive shoots and water shoots and any dead, diseased or crossing wood. Can you throw your hat through the tree?
Tip bearing apples – reduce branch leaders as before. Leave laterals that have fruit buds at the tip. Prune any others to 3-4 buds from the base of the new growth to encourage fruiting laterals to develop. Remove dead, diseased etc wood as before.