Rhs level 2 certificate year 1 week 23
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Rhs level 2 certificate year 1 week 23

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    Rhs level 2 certificate year 1 week 23 Rhs level 2 certificate year 1 week 23 Presentation Transcript

    • RHS Level 2 Certificate Week 23 – Top Fruit
    • Learning Outcomes
      • 1. Top fruit .
      • 1.1 List the factors to be considered when choosing suitable cultivars and rootstocks for top fruit.
      • 1.2 Explain the importance of pollination for top fruit and the concept of pollination groups.
      • 1.3 Describe the factors in choosing a suitable site for an orchard
      • 2 For named varieties of each of apple (pollination groups 1-5), pear and plum, state
      • 2.1: rootstock requirements, and fruiting habit (apples only)
      • 2.2 planting, feeding and pruning requirements (for both natural and restricted forms and for tip and spur bearers)
      • 2.3 describe bush, espalier, fan and cordon pruning
      • 2.4 describe 2 pests and 2 diseases for each and their controls
      • 2.5 describe harvesting and storage requirements for each
    • Site for an orchard
      • Sheltered – top fruit depends on bees for pollination so windbreaks will improve fruit set.
      • Sunny- south facing aspect for best ripening
      • Good depth of soil
      • pH 6.5-7.0 ideally.
      • Frost protection – avoid frost pockets; use of fleece, water sprinklers, heaters.
    • Pollination
      • Some top fruit are self fertile to some extent but this is not reliable and yields are better with cross pollination.
      • Pollination groups provide a guide as to when the variety will flower. Need varieties in the same or adjoining groups for sucessful pollination.
    • Rootstocks
      • Top fruit trees do not grow to manageable sizes on their own roots.
      • Dwarfing rootstocks enable control of size
      • Dwarfing rootstocks also mean that the tree reaches maturity more quickly and fruits earlier
      • MM rootstocks have woolly aphid resistance
    • Top Fruit Tree Forms
      • Unrestricted – standard and half standard and bush forms. Grown on semi-dwarfing or vigorous root stocks, winter pruned (except for Plums which are only pruned in Summer)
      • Restricted – espalier, cordon, fan. Grown on dwarfing or semi-dwarfing rootstocks and summer pruned.
    • Advantages and disadvantages of restricted forms
      • Advantages: Fruit earlier than unrestricted forms. More fruit/more varieties for less space. Easier to spray and harvest. Will fit into small spaces.
      • Disadvantages: Grown on dwarfing stocks that need better soil and tolerate drought less well. Need more skill to prune. Tip bearing varieties of apple cannot be grown in this way.
    • Pruning - winter
      • Winter pruning – Apples and pears (spur fruiting). Reduce new growth on branch leaders by 1/3. Prune laterals to 3-4 buds. Thin spurs if too congested. Remove unproductive shoots and water shoots and any dead, diseased or crossing wood. Can you throw your hat through the tree?
      • Tip bearing apples – reduce branch leaders as before. Leave laterals that have fruit buds at the tip. Prune any others to 3-4 buds from the base of the new growth to encourage fruiting laterals to develop. Remove dead, diseased etc wood as before.
    • Pruning - Summer
      • Apples and pears in restricted forms. Shorten leaders to 2-3cm new growth. Prune laterals to 3 buds. Thin spurs. Remove any shoots that are growing the ‘wrong way’ e.g. into the wall.
      • Plums – tree forms. Remove dead, diseased and crossing wood and prune as necessary to control size by removing branches.
      • Plums – Fans. Prune as for restricted apples.
    • Feeding
      • Nitrogen – encourages leafy growth. Limited requirement unless on dwarf stock in restricted form.
      • Phosphorous – promotes root development and cold hardiness. Some supplementation required.
      • Potassium – promotes fruit formation. Likely to need feeding in winter by applying Sulphate of Potash or wood ash to the base of each tree.
      • Calcium – deficiency causes Bitter Pit. Applied in liquid form as a foliar feed.
    • Apples – pests and diseases
      • Aphid (especially woolly aphid)
      • Codling moth
      • Canker
      • Apple scab
    • Pears – pests and diseases
      • Pear leaf blister mite
      • Aphids
      • Pear rust
      • Fireblight
    • Plums – pests and diseases
      • Aphids
      • Plum sawfly
      • Silverleaf disease
      • Canker
    • Harvesting and storage
      • Apples – pick once they lift off in a cupped hand. Store in dark, cool place with moderate humidity (plastic bags with holes in in a dark shed)
      • Pears – store less well. As for apples but do not wrap.
      • Plums – jam, bottle or freeze when cooked.
    • Learning outcomes
      • 1. Top fruit .
      • 1.1 List the factors to be considered when choosing suitable cultivars and rootstocks for top fruit.
      • 1.2 Explain the importance of pollination for top fruit and the concept of pollination groups.
      • 1.3 Describe the factors in choosing a suitable site for an orchard
      • 2 For named varieties of each of apple (pollination groups 1-5), pear and plum, state
      • 2.1: rootstock requirements, and fruiting habit (apples only)
      • 2.2 planting, feeding and pruning requirements (for both natural and restricted forms and for tip and spur bearers)
      • 2.3 describe bush, espalier, fan and cordon pruning
      • 2.4 describe 2 pests and 2 diseases for each and their controls
      • 2.5 describe harvesting and storage requirements for each