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RHS Level 2 Certificate Week 23 – Top Fruit
Learning Outcomes <ul><li>1.  Top fruit . </li></ul><ul><li>1.1 List the factors to be considered when choosing suitable c...
Site for an orchard <ul><li>Sheltered – top fruit depends on bees for pollination so windbreaks will improve fruit set. </...
Pollination <ul><li>Some top fruit are self fertile to some extent but this is not reliable and yields are better with cro...
Rootstocks <ul><li>Top fruit trees do not grow to manageable sizes on their own roots. </li></ul><ul><li>Dwarfing rootstoc...
Top Fruit Tree Forms <ul><li>Unrestricted – standard and half standard and bush forms. Grown on semi-dwarfing or vigorous ...
Advantages and disadvantages of restricted forms <ul><li>Advantages:  Fruit earlier than unrestricted forms.  More fruit/m...
Pruning - winter <ul><li>Winter pruning – Apples and pears (spur fruiting).  Reduce new growth on branch leaders by 1/3.  ...
Pruning - Summer <ul><li>Apples and pears in restricted forms.  Shorten leaders to 2-3cm new growth.  Prune laterals to 3 ...
Feeding <ul><li>Nitrogen – encourages leafy growth.  Limited requirement unless on dwarf stock in restricted form. </li></...
Apples – pests and diseases <ul><li>Aphid (especially woolly aphid) </li></ul><ul><li>Codling moth </li></ul><ul><li>Canke...
Pears – pests and diseases <ul><li>Pear leaf blister mite </li></ul><ul><li>Aphids </li></ul><ul><li>Pear rust </li></ul><...
Plums – pests and diseases <ul><li>Aphids </li></ul><ul><li>Plum sawfly </li></ul><ul><li>Silverleaf disease </li></ul><ul...
Harvesting and storage <ul><li>Apples – pick once they lift off in a cupped hand.  Store in dark, cool place with moderate...
Learning outcomes <ul><li>1.  Top fruit . </li></ul><ul><li>1.1 List the factors to be considered when choosing suitable c...
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Rhs level 2 certificate year 1 week 23

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Transcript of "Rhs level 2 certificate year 1 week 23"

  1. 1. RHS Level 2 Certificate Week 23 – Top Fruit
  2. 2. Learning Outcomes <ul><li>1. Top fruit . </li></ul><ul><li>1.1 List the factors to be considered when choosing suitable cultivars and rootstocks for top fruit. </li></ul><ul><li>1.2 Explain the importance of pollination for top fruit and the concept of pollination groups. </li></ul><ul><li>1.3 Describe the factors in choosing a suitable site for an orchard </li></ul><ul><li>2 For named varieties of each of apple (pollination groups 1-5), pear and plum, state </li></ul><ul><li>2.1: rootstock requirements, and fruiting habit (apples only) </li></ul><ul><li>2.2 planting, feeding and pruning requirements (for both natural and restricted forms and for tip and spur bearers) </li></ul><ul><li>2.3 describe bush, espalier, fan and cordon pruning </li></ul><ul><li>2.4 describe 2 pests and 2 diseases for each and their controls </li></ul><ul><li>2.5 describe harvesting and storage requirements for each </li></ul>
  3. 3. Site for an orchard <ul><li>Sheltered – top fruit depends on bees for pollination so windbreaks will improve fruit set. </li></ul><ul><li>Sunny- south facing aspect for best ripening </li></ul><ul><li>Good depth of soil </li></ul><ul><li>pH 6.5-7.0 ideally. </li></ul><ul><li>Frost protection – avoid frost pockets; use of fleece, water sprinklers, heaters. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Pollination <ul><li>Some top fruit are self fertile to some extent but this is not reliable and yields are better with cross pollination. </li></ul><ul><li>Pollination groups provide a guide as to when the variety will flower. Need varieties in the same or adjoining groups for sucessful pollination. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Rootstocks <ul><li>Top fruit trees do not grow to manageable sizes on their own roots. </li></ul><ul><li>Dwarfing rootstocks enable control of size </li></ul><ul><li>Dwarfing rootstocks also mean that the tree reaches maturity more quickly and fruits earlier </li></ul><ul><li>MM rootstocks have woolly aphid resistance </li></ul>
  6. 6. Top Fruit Tree Forms <ul><li>Unrestricted – standard and half standard and bush forms. Grown on semi-dwarfing or vigorous root stocks, winter pruned (except for Plums which are only pruned in Summer) </li></ul><ul><li>Restricted – espalier, cordon, fan. Grown on dwarfing or semi-dwarfing rootstocks and summer pruned. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Advantages and disadvantages of restricted forms <ul><li>Advantages: Fruit earlier than unrestricted forms. More fruit/more varieties for less space. Easier to spray and harvest. Will fit into small spaces. </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: Grown on dwarfing stocks that need better soil and tolerate drought less well. Need more skill to prune. Tip bearing varieties of apple cannot be grown in this way. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Pruning - winter <ul><li>Winter pruning – Apples and pears (spur fruiting). Reduce new growth on branch leaders by 1/3. Prune laterals to 3-4 buds. Thin spurs if too congested. Remove unproductive shoots and water shoots and any dead, diseased or crossing wood. Can you throw your hat through the tree? </li></ul><ul><li>Tip bearing apples – reduce branch leaders as before. Leave laterals that have fruit buds at the tip. Prune any others to 3-4 buds from the base of the new growth to encourage fruiting laterals to develop. Remove dead, diseased etc wood as before. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Pruning - Summer <ul><li>Apples and pears in restricted forms. Shorten leaders to 2-3cm new growth. Prune laterals to 3 buds. Thin spurs. Remove any shoots that are growing the ‘wrong way’ e.g. into the wall. </li></ul><ul><li>Plums – tree forms. Remove dead, diseased and crossing wood and prune as necessary to control size by removing branches. </li></ul><ul><li>Plums – Fans. Prune as for restricted apples. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Feeding <ul><li>Nitrogen – encourages leafy growth. Limited requirement unless on dwarf stock in restricted form. </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphorous – promotes root development and cold hardiness. Some supplementation required. </li></ul><ul><li>Potassium – promotes fruit formation. Likely to need feeding in winter by applying Sulphate of Potash or wood ash to the base of each tree. </li></ul><ul><li>Calcium – deficiency causes Bitter Pit. Applied in liquid form as a foliar feed. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Apples – pests and diseases <ul><li>Aphid (especially woolly aphid) </li></ul><ul><li>Codling moth </li></ul><ul><li>Canker </li></ul><ul><li>Apple scab </li></ul>
  12. 12. Pears – pests and diseases <ul><li>Pear leaf blister mite </li></ul><ul><li>Aphids </li></ul><ul><li>Pear rust </li></ul><ul><li>Fireblight </li></ul>
  13. 13. Plums – pests and diseases <ul><li>Aphids </li></ul><ul><li>Plum sawfly </li></ul><ul><li>Silverleaf disease </li></ul><ul><li>Canker </li></ul>
  14. 14. Harvesting and storage <ul><li>Apples – pick once they lift off in a cupped hand. Store in dark, cool place with moderate humidity (plastic bags with holes in in a dark shed) </li></ul><ul><li>Pears – store less well. As for apples but do not wrap. </li></ul><ul><li>Plums – jam, bottle or freeze when cooked. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Learning outcomes <ul><li>1. Top fruit . </li></ul><ul><li>1.1 List the factors to be considered when choosing suitable cultivars and rootstocks for top fruit. </li></ul><ul><li>1.2 Explain the importance of pollination for top fruit and the concept of pollination groups. </li></ul><ul><li>1.3 Describe the factors in choosing a suitable site for an orchard </li></ul><ul><li>2 For named varieties of each of apple (pollination groups 1-5), pear and plum, state </li></ul><ul><li>2.1: rootstock requirements, and fruiting habit (apples only) </li></ul><ul><li>2.2 planting, feeding and pruning requirements (for both natural and restricted forms and for tip and spur bearers) </li></ul><ul><li>2.3 describe bush, espalier, fan and cordon pruning </li></ul><ul><li>2.4 describe 2 pests and 2 diseases for each and their controls </li></ul><ul><li>2.5 describe harvesting and storage requirements for each </li></ul>
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