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Rhs level 2 certificate year 1 week 22
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Rhs level 2 certificate year 1 week 22

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Top fruit

Top fruit

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Rhs level 2 certificate year 1 week 22 Rhs level 2 certificate year 1 week 22 Presentation Transcript

  • RHS Level 2 Certificate Week 22 – Top Fruit
  • Learning Outcomes2. Top fruit .2.1 List the types of top fruit (including apples, pears, plums and cherries) and factors for their selection, to include dessert and culinary cultivars; harvesting season; and storage capability2.2 Explain the importance of cross pollination and fertilisation in top fruit, including flowering periods, compatibility, diploid and triploid cultivars.2.3 State four methods of ensuring effective pollination in fruit production.2.4 Describe the factors in choosing a suitable site for an orchard2.5 For named varieties of each of apple (pollination groups 1-5), and plum, state2.5.1: rootstock requirements, and fruiting habit (apples only)2.5.2 planting, feeding and pruning requirements (for both natural and restricted forms and for tip and spur bearers)2.5.3 describe bush, espalier, fan and cordon pruning2.5.4 describe 1 pest and 1 disease for each and their symptoms and controls2.5.5 describe harvesting and storage requirements for each2.5.6 Describe how quality and yield can be determined by the following: planting; base and top dressings; mulching; weed control; irrigation; training systems; appropriate pruning; and pest and disease control. 2.5.7 Describe the importance of formative and maintenance pruning for tree shape and
  • Site for an orchard Sheltered – top fruit depends on bees for pollination so windbreaks will improve fruit set. Sunny- south facing aspect for best ripening Good depth of soil pH 6.5-7.0 ideally. Frost protection – avoid frost pockets; use of fleece, water sprinklers, heaters.
  • Pollination Some top fruit are self fertile to some extent but this is not reliable and yields are better with cross pollination. Pollination groups provide a guide as to when the variety will flower. Need varieties in the same or adjoining groups for successful pollination. Windbreaks encourage pollinating insects Triploids – two other diploid pollinators needed
  • Rootstocks Top fruit trees do not grow to manageable sizes on their own roots. Dwarfing rootstocks enable control of size Dwarfing rootstocks also mean that the tree reaches maturity more quickly and fruits earlier MM rootstocks have woolly aphid resistance
  • Top Fruit Tree Forms Unrestricted – standard and half standard and bush forms. Grown on semi-dwarfing or vigorous root stocks, winter pruned (except for Plums which are only pruned in Summer) Restricted – espalier, cordon, fan. Grown on dwarfing or semi-dwarfing rootstocks and summer pruned.
  • Advantages and disadvantages ofrestricted forms Advantages: Fruit earlier than unrestricted forms. More fruit/more varieties for less space. Easier to spray and harvest. Will fit into small spaces. Disadvantages: Grown on dwarfing stocks that need better soil and tolerate drought less well. Need more skill to prune. Tip bearing varieties of apple cannot be grown in this way.
  • Pruning - winter Winter pruning – Apples and pears (spur fruiting). Reduce new growth on branch leaders by 1/3. Prune laterals to 3-4 buds. Thin spurs if too congested. Remove unproductive shoots and water shoots and any dead, diseased or crossing wood. Can you throw your hat through the tree? Tip bearing apples – reduce branch leaders as before. Leave laterals that have fruit buds at the tip. Prune any others to 3-4 buds from the base of the new growth to encourage fruiting laterals to develop. Remove dead, diseased etc wood as before.
  • Pruning - Summer Apples and pears in restricted forms. Shorten leaders to 2-3cm new growth. Prune laterals to 3 buds. Thin spurs. Remove any shoots that are growing the ‘wrong way’ e.g. into the wall. Plums – tree forms. Remove dead, diseased and crossing wood and prune as necessary to control size by removing branches. Plums – Fans. Prune as for restricted apples.
  • Feeding Nitrogen – encourages leafy growth. Limited requirement unless on dwarf stock in restricted form. Phosphorous – promotes root development and cold hardiness. Some supplementation required. Potassium – promotes fruit formation. Likely to need feeding in winter by applying Sulphate of Potash or wood ash to the base of each tree. Calcium – deficiency causes Bitter Pit. Applied in liquid form as a foliar feed.
  • Apples – pests and diseases Aphid (especially woolly aphid) Codling moth Canker Apple scab
  • Pears – pests and diseases Pear leaf blister mite Aphids Pear rust Fireblight
  • Plums – pests and diseases Aphids Plum sawfly Silverleaf disease Canker
  • Harvesting and storage Apples – pick once they lift off in a cupped hand. Store in dark, cool place with moderate humidity (plastic bags with holes in in a dark shed) Pears – store less well. As for apples but do not wrap. Plums – jam, bottle or freeze when cooked.
  • Learning outcomes2. Top fruit .2.1 List the types of top fruit (including apples, pears, plums and cherries) and factors for their selection, to include dessert and culinary cultivars; harvesting season; and storage capability2.2 Explain the importance of cross pollination and fertilisation in top fruit, including flowering periods, compatibility, diploid and triploid cultivars.2.3 State four methods of ensuring effective pollination in fruit production.2.4 Describe the factors in choosing a suitable site for an orchard2.5 For named varieties of each of apple (pollination groups 1-5), and plum, state2.5.1: rootstock requirements, and fruiting habit (apples only)2.5.2 planting, feeding and pruning requirements (for both natural and restricted forms and for tip and spur bearers)2.5.3 describe bush, espalier, fan and cordon pruning2.5.4 describe 1 pest and 1 disease for each and their symptoms and controls2.5.5 describe harvesting and storage requirements for each2.5.6 Describe how quality and yield can be determined by the following: planting; base and top dressings; mulching; weed control; irrigation; training systems; appropriate pruning; and pest and disease control. 2.5.7 Describe the importance of formative and maintenance pruning for tree shape and