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Rhs level 2 certificate year 1 week 21 2012
 

Rhs level 2 certificate year 1 week 21 2012

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Root veg

Root veg

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    Rhs level 2 certificate year 1 week 21 2012 Rhs level 2 certificate year 1 week 21 2012 Presentation Transcript

    • RHS Level 2 Certificate Week 21 – Outdoor food production. Vegetables – root vegetables and miscellaneous
    • Learning Outcomes
      • 1. Root vegetables. For named varieties of each of radish, carrots (early and main crop), potatoes (early and main crop), onions (spring, main crop and overwintering), leeks and beetroot, state:
      • 1.1 state the place in seasonal rotation and successional cropping
      • 1.2 state cultivation, propagation and care requirements
      • 1.3 state 1 pests and 1 diseases of each, their symptoms and their control
      • 1.4 state harvesting period and technique and storage
      • 1.5 Describe how quality and yield may be determined by the following: base and top dressings, thinning, weed control, crop support, irrigation and pest and disease control
    • Root vegetables – general points
      • Root vegetables are discussed together but have particular and differing requirements.
      • Generally, apart from carrots, manure is applied when digging the plot the previous autumn.
      • Use a stale seed bed and apply a balanced fertilizer when preparing this.
      • Lime requirements vary depending on the crop.
      • Watering is important and should be consistent – lack of water leads to split roots.
    • Carrots ( Daucus carota ) Varieties
      • Round rooted – good for heavy or stony soil. E.g. ‘Parmex’ , ‘Paris Market’
      • Early – ‘Amsterdam Forcing’
      • Main Crop: ‘Chantenay’
      • Late Main Crop: ‘Autumn King’
      • Resistant to Carrot Root Fly: ‘Resistafly F1’
    • Carrots - cultivation
      • Dig the soil in Autumn but do not manure or add compost.
      • Prepare a stale seed bed, adding balanced fertilizer but do not lime.
      • Sow where they are to grow, carrots resent transplantation.
      • Sow in 1cm deep drills about 15cm apart, very thinly to avoid the need to thin.
    • Carrots – after care
      • Water regularly after germination. Irregular watering causes split roots.
      • Thin if necessary to 4-6cm apart. On a damp overcast day and remove all thinnings.
      • Keep weeds under control until well established. Use a mulch between the rows.
      • Control pests and diseases.
    • Carrots – pests and diseases
      • Carrot root fly – low flying insect lays eggs in the soil and crowns of plants. Control – barriers of fine mesh, nematode control available. Good crop hygiene at harvest.
      • Aphids – spread viruses so control by using fatty acid spray as soon as they are seen
      • Violet root rot – no control, apart from long rotation and crop hygiene, improve drainage.
      • Dwarf Motley virus – discoloured leaves and poor yield. Spread by aphids so control is to control aphids.
    • Potatoes ( Solanum tuberosum ) Varieties
      • Early: ‘Pentland Javelin’ Good disease resistance and some resistance to eel worm
      • Salad: ‘Pink Fir Apple’ Good flavour and unusual appearance, smaller yields than traditional varieties
      • Main Crop: ‘Cara’. Good blight resistance.
    • Potatoes – cultivation
      • Chit the seed potatoes before planting. Plant only certified virus free seed potatoes.
      • Do not lime – encourages scab.
      • Early varieties – plant in March, main crop in April (provide frost protection on cold nights)
      • Water regularly at the base of the plants.
      • Earth up when haulms are about 30cm tall to half their height.
      • Main Crop varieties benefit from high nitrogen and potash liquid feed when the canopy begins to touch. No need to feed Early varieties
    • Potatoes - harvest
      • Harvest Early potatoes once they have flowered. They should be chicken egg sized. Earlies do not store well. Treat Salad varieties as for Earlies.
      • Main Crop – harvest once the haulms are dieing back (but do not leave too long because of late blight). Lift and allow to dry before storing in a cool, dark, dry place.
    • Potatoes – pests
      • Slugs – soil dwelling Keeled Slugs so pellets of limited use. Good cultivation and use nematode control.
      • Wire Worm – avoid planting on newly converted grassland. Use traps and cultivate soil well to expose the pest. Adjust planting times.
    • Potatoes - diseases
      • Blight – brown patches on leaves, dark spots on tubers which then rot. Grow resistant varieties, spray if necessary with copper fungicide. Avoid splashing the leaves of the plants when watering.
      • Mosaic virus – yellow mottled leaves, weak plants and poor yield. Control the aphid that spread the virus.
    • Alliums – general points
      • Need open sunny site – fine leaves
      • Neutral to slightly alkaline soil
      • Very vulnerable to weed competition – there is even a special hand hoe called an onion hoe!
      • Need careful watering though the exact requirements differ for onions and leeks
    • Onions
      • Grow from seed or from ‘sets’ (specially grown and treated baby onions).
      • Need consolidated soil
      • Pests and diseases – onion root fly, stem and bulb eelworm, onion white rot
      • Harvest – stop watering once leaves begin to die back and shoulders are above ground, need to be lifted and allowed to dry before storage.
    • Leeks
      • Transplant into deep holes and do not backfill
      • Do not consolidate ground
      • Liquid feed for mid-season varieties mid to late summer
      • Harvest as needed – mid and late season varieties stand well into winter.
    • Learning outcomes
      • 1. Root vegetables. For named varieties of each of radish, carrots (early and main crop), potatoes (early and main crop), onions (spring, main crop and overwintering), leeks and beetroot, state:
      • 1.1 state the place in seasonal rotation and successional cropping
      • 1.2 state cultivation, propagation and care requirements
      • 1.3 state 1 pests and 1 diseases of each, their symptoms and their control
      • 1.4 state harvesting period and technique and storage
      • 1.5 Describe how quality and yield may be determined by the following: base and top dressings, thinning, weed control, crop support, irrigation and pest and disease control