RHS Level 2 Certificate Week 21 – Outdoor food production.  Vegetables – root vegetables and miscellaneous
Learning Outcomes <ul><li>1.  Root vegetables.  For named varieties of each of radish, carrots (early and main crop), pota...
Root vegetables – general points <ul><li>Root vegetables are discussed together but have particular and differing requirem...
Carrots ( Daucus carota ) Varieties <ul><li>Round rooted – good for heavy or stony soil. E.g. ‘Parmex’ , ‘Paris Market’ </...
Carrots - cultivation <ul><li>Dig the soil in Autumn but do not manure or add compost.  </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare a stale ...
Carrots – after care <ul><li>Water regularly after germination. Irregular watering causes split roots. </li></ul><ul><li>T...
Carrots – pests and diseases <ul><li>Carrot root fly – low flying insect lays eggs in the soil and crowns of plants.  Cont...
Potatoes ( Solanum tuberosum ) Varieties <ul><li>Early:  ‘Pentland Javelin’ Good disease resistance and some resistance to...
Potatoes – cultivation <ul><li>Chit the seed potatoes before planting. Plant only certified virus free seed potatoes. </li...
Potatoes - harvest <ul><li>Harvest Early potatoes once they have flowered.  They should be chicken egg sized. Earlies do n...
Potatoes – pests <ul><li>Slugs – soil dwelling Keeled Slugs so pellets of limited use.  Good cultivation and use nematode ...
Potatoes - diseases <ul><li>Blight – brown patches on leaves, dark spots on tubers which then rot.  Grow resistant varieti...
Alliums – general points <ul><li>Need open sunny site – fine leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Neutral to slightly alkaline soil </...
Onions <ul><li>Grow from seed or from ‘sets’ (specially grown and treated baby onions). </li></ul><ul><li>Need consolidate...
Leeks <ul><li>Transplant into deep holes and do not backfill </li></ul><ul><li>Do not consolidate ground </li></ul><ul><li...
Learning outcomes <ul><li>1.  Root vegetables.  For named varieties of each of radish, carrots (early and main crop), pota...
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Rhs level 2 certificate year 1 week 21 2012

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Rhs level 2 certificate year 1 week 21 2012

  1. 1. RHS Level 2 Certificate Week 21 – Outdoor food production. Vegetables – root vegetables and miscellaneous
  2. 2. Learning Outcomes <ul><li>1. Root vegetables. For named varieties of each of radish, carrots (early and main crop), potatoes (early and main crop), onions (spring, main crop and overwintering), leeks and beetroot, state: </li></ul><ul><li>1.1 state the place in seasonal rotation and successional cropping </li></ul><ul><li>1.2 state cultivation, propagation and care requirements </li></ul><ul><li>1.3 state 1 pests and 1 diseases of each, their symptoms and their control </li></ul><ul><li>1.4 state harvesting period and technique and storage </li></ul><ul><li>1.5 Describe how quality and yield may be determined by the following: base and top dressings, thinning, weed control, crop support, irrigation and pest and disease control </li></ul>
  3. 3. Root vegetables – general points <ul><li>Root vegetables are discussed together but have particular and differing requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>Generally, apart from carrots, manure is applied when digging the plot the previous autumn. </li></ul><ul><li>Use a stale seed bed and apply a balanced fertilizer when preparing this. </li></ul><ul><li>Lime requirements vary depending on the crop. </li></ul><ul><li>Watering is important and should be consistent – lack of water leads to split roots. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Carrots ( Daucus carota ) Varieties <ul><li>Round rooted – good for heavy or stony soil. E.g. ‘Parmex’ , ‘Paris Market’ </li></ul><ul><li>Early – ‘Amsterdam Forcing’ </li></ul><ul><li>Main Crop: ‘Chantenay’ </li></ul><ul><li>Late Main Crop: ‘Autumn King’ </li></ul><ul><li>Resistant to Carrot Root Fly: ‘Resistafly F1’ </li></ul>
  5. 5. Carrots - cultivation <ul><li>Dig the soil in Autumn but do not manure or add compost. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare a stale seed bed, adding balanced fertilizer but do not lime. </li></ul><ul><li>Sow where they are to grow, carrots resent transplantation. </li></ul><ul><li>Sow in 1cm deep drills about 15cm apart, very thinly to avoid the need to thin. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Carrots – after care <ul><li>Water regularly after germination. Irregular watering causes split roots. </li></ul><ul><li>Thin if necessary to 4-6cm apart. On a damp overcast day and remove all thinnings. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep weeds under control until well established. Use a mulch between the rows. </li></ul><ul><li>Control pests and diseases. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Carrots – pests and diseases <ul><li>Carrot root fly – low flying insect lays eggs in the soil and crowns of plants. Control – barriers of fine mesh, nematode control available. Good crop hygiene at harvest. </li></ul><ul><li>Aphids – spread viruses so control by using fatty acid spray as soon as they are seen </li></ul><ul><li>Violet root rot – no control, apart from long rotation and crop hygiene, improve drainage. </li></ul><ul><li>Dwarf Motley virus – discoloured leaves and poor yield. Spread by aphids so control is to control aphids. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Potatoes ( Solanum tuberosum ) Varieties <ul><li>Early: ‘Pentland Javelin’ Good disease resistance and some resistance to eel worm </li></ul><ul><li>Salad: ‘Pink Fir Apple’ Good flavour and unusual appearance, smaller yields than traditional varieties </li></ul><ul><li>Main Crop: ‘Cara’. Good blight resistance. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Potatoes – cultivation <ul><li>Chit the seed potatoes before planting. Plant only certified virus free seed potatoes. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not lime – encourages scab. </li></ul><ul><li>Early varieties – plant in March, main crop in April (provide frost protection on cold nights) </li></ul><ul><li>Water regularly at the base of the plants. </li></ul><ul><li>Earth up when haulms are about 30cm tall to half their height. </li></ul><ul><li>Main Crop varieties benefit from high nitrogen and potash liquid feed when the canopy begins to touch. No need to feed Early varieties </li></ul>
  10. 10. Potatoes - harvest <ul><li>Harvest Early potatoes once they have flowered. They should be chicken egg sized. Earlies do not store well. Treat Salad varieties as for Earlies. </li></ul><ul><li>Main Crop – harvest once the haulms are dieing back (but do not leave too long because of late blight). Lift and allow to dry before storing in a cool, dark, dry place. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Potatoes – pests <ul><li>Slugs – soil dwelling Keeled Slugs so pellets of limited use. Good cultivation and use nematode control. </li></ul><ul><li>Wire Worm – avoid planting on newly converted grassland. Use traps and cultivate soil well to expose the pest. Adjust planting times. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Potatoes - diseases <ul><li>Blight – brown patches on leaves, dark spots on tubers which then rot. Grow resistant varieties, spray if necessary with copper fungicide. Avoid splashing the leaves of the plants when watering. </li></ul><ul><li>Mosaic virus – yellow mottled leaves, weak plants and poor yield. Control the aphid that spread the virus. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Alliums – general points <ul><li>Need open sunny site – fine leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Neutral to slightly alkaline soil </li></ul><ul><li>Very vulnerable to weed competition – there is even a special hand hoe called an onion hoe! </li></ul><ul><li>Need careful watering though the exact requirements differ for onions and leeks </li></ul>
  14. 14. Onions <ul><li>Grow from seed or from ‘sets’ (specially grown and treated baby onions). </li></ul><ul><li>Need consolidated soil </li></ul><ul><li>Pests and diseases – onion root fly, stem and bulb eelworm, onion white rot </li></ul><ul><li>Harvest – stop watering once leaves begin to die back and shoulders are above ground, need to be lifted and allowed to dry before storage. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Leeks <ul><li>Transplant into deep holes and do not backfill </li></ul><ul><li>Do not consolidate ground </li></ul><ul><li>Liquid feed for mid-season varieties mid to late summer </li></ul><ul><li>Harvest as needed – mid and late season varieties stand well into winter. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Learning outcomes <ul><li>1. Root vegetables. For named varieties of each of radish, carrots (early and main crop), potatoes (early and main crop), onions (spring, main crop and overwintering), leeks and beetroot, state: </li></ul><ul><li>1.1 state the place in seasonal rotation and successional cropping </li></ul><ul><li>1.2 state cultivation, propagation and care requirements </li></ul><ul><li>1.3 state 1 pests and 1 diseases of each, their symptoms and their control </li></ul><ul><li>1.4 state harvesting period and technique and storage </li></ul><ul><li>1.5 Describe how quality and yield may be determined by the following: base and top dressings, thinning, weed control, crop support, irrigation and pest and disease control </li></ul>
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