RHS Level 2 Certificate Week 16 – budding and grafting continued, review of Botanical naming conventions; Genetics and Inh...
Learning outcomes <ul><li>Define the terms: ‘budding’ and ‘grafting’. </li></ul><ul><li>State the reasons for use of buddi...
Propagation by grafting and budding <ul><li>The joining of separate plant parts together, such that they form a union and ...
Reasons for grafting or budding <ul><li>Plants that cannot be produced by other means </li></ul><ul><li>To obtain earlier ...
Stages of graft union formation <ul><li>It is essential that the cambium on the scion and stock is matched up </li></ul><u...
FACTORS AFFECTING SUCCESS OF GRAFTING AND BUDDING  <ul><li>Plant type – scion and stock from same species (intra-generic g...
Types of graft and budding <ul><li>Apical wedge graft </li></ul><ul><li>T-budding </li></ul><ul><li>Chip budding </li></ul>
Apical wedge graft <ul><li>Used for trees such as  Fagus sylvatica  and for shrubs such as  Syringia  and  Daphne </li></u...
T- Budding <ul><li>Used to propagate roses.  </li></ul><ul><li>Carried out in the Summer (July/August) </li></ul><ul><li>M...
Chip Budding <ul><li>Used to propagate fruit trees, can be used for roses.  Done in Summer </li></ul><ul><li>Method – take...
Botanical names – naming structure <ul><li>Genus - A group of species that bear close resemblance to each other.  </li></u...
Botanical naming conventions <ul><li>Genus and species in  italics  (underlined when handwritten).  Genus name starts with...
Genetics and Inheritance <ul><li>Chromosomes are made up of pairs of genes </li></ul><ul><li>Genes may be dominant or rece...
F1 Hybrids <ul><li>A cross between two pure bred parent lines – one homozygous for the dominant trait, the other homozygou...
Plant growth regulators <ul><li>Auxin </li></ul><ul><li>Cytokinins </li></ul><ul><li>Gibberellins </li></ul><ul><li>Ethyle...
Function of auxin <ul><li>In combination with cytokinins promotes the differentiation of callus cells into root initials i...
Learning outcomes <ul><li>Define the terms: ‘budding’ and ‘grafting’. </li></ul><ul><li>State the reasons for use of buddi...
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RHS Level 2 Certificate Year 1 Week 16

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RHS Level 2 Certificate Year 1 Week 16

  1. 1. RHS Level 2 Certificate Week 16 – budding and grafting continued, review of Botanical naming conventions; Genetics and Inheritance and Plant Growth Regulators
  2. 2. Learning outcomes <ul><li>Define the terms: ‘budding’ and ‘grafting’. </li></ul><ul><li>State the reasons for use of budding and grafting for the production of particular plants. Define ‘Compatibility’ in this context </li></ul><ul><li>State the reasons why botanical/horticultural nomenclature is important. </li></ul><ul><li>Define the meaning of ‘family’, ‘genus’, ‘species, ‘subspecies’, ‘variety’ and ‘cultivar’. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain and apply the conventions for writing botanical names, including use of italics and standard script, cultivar and hybrid indicators etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Define the terms ‘dominant’ and ‘recessive’ and explain how these are expressed in plant generations </li></ul><ul><li>Complete a Punnett square for a mono-hybrid cross. </li></ul><ul><li>State the significance of F1 hybrid seeds and explain the term hybrid vigour </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the principle Plant Growth Regulators and their main influences on plant growth and development </li></ul><ul><li>Describe two examples of how auxin influences plant growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe what is meant by the term phototropism </li></ul>
  3. 3. Propagation by grafting and budding <ul><li>The joining of separate plant parts together, such that they form a union and grow   as one plant.  Most apple, pear and stone fruit trees are propagated in this way. </li></ul><ul><li>Scion – the wood from the desired variety from which the graft or bud is taken </li></ul><ul><li>Rootstock – the rooted plant of the same species (occasionally same genera) onto which the scion is attached. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Reasons for grafting or budding <ul><li>Plants that cannot be produced by other means </li></ul><ul><li>To obtain earlier cropping </li></ul><ul><li>To obtain desirable characteristics of the rootstock e.g. dwarfing </li></ul><ul><li>To change the variety of an established tree (topworking) </li></ul><ul><li>To repair damage (bridge grafting) </li></ul><ul><li>To create particular ornamental or useful forms (e.g. standard roses or family apple trees) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Stages of graft union formation <ul><li>It is essential that the cambium on the scion and stock is matched up </li></ul><ul><li>1) Callus formation by both stock and scion  </li></ul><ul><li>2) Intermingling of callus from stock and scion  </li></ul><ul><li>3) New cambium forms in callus between stock and scion  </li></ul><ul><li>4) New secondary xylem and phloem from new cambium to connect stock and scion  </li></ul>
  6. 6. FACTORS AFFECTING SUCCESS OF GRAFTING AND BUDDING <ul><li>Plant type – scion and stock from same species (intra-generic grafts may be feasible – e.g. Pyrus communis scion onto Cydonia oblonga rootstock). Only dicots and gymnosperms can be grafted. </li></ul><ul><li>Incompatibility – due to physiological factors; virus infection; physical abnormality of the vascular tissues in the graft union. </li></ul><ul><li>Season and growth state </li></ul><ul><li>Environment – temperature, humidity. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Types of graft and budding <ul><li>Apical wedge graft </li></ul><ul><li>T-budding </li></ul><ul><li>Chip budding </li></ul>
  8. 8. Apical wedge graft <ul><li>Used for trees such as Fagus sylvatica and for shrubs such as Syringia and Daphne </li></ul><ul><li>Method – cut off top of rootstock about 5cm from the ground and make a vertical cut in the centre </li></ul><ul><li>Cut the scion to a wedge </li></ul><ul><li>Insert and bind firmly. </li></ul><ul><li>Aftercare – remove tape once the graft has taken, keep well watered. </li></ul>
  9. 9. T- Budding <ul><li>Used to propagate roses. </li></ul><ul><li>Carried out in the Summer (July/August) </li></ul><ul><li>Method – cut T shape cut through the bark on the rootstock (about 5cm from ground) and open out </li></ul><ul><li>Remove a bud with a sliver of wood and slip into the opened out T </li></ul><ul><li>Bind with tape. </li></ul><ul><li>When the bud has taken (or in the spring) remove the tape and cut off the rootstock just above the bud. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Chip Budding <ul><li>Used to propagate fruit trees, can be used for roses. Done in Summer </li></ul><ul><li>Method – take a chip of wood from the rootstock (again low down), remove a matching chip including a bud from the scion. </li></ul><ul><li>Match the cambium and bind together. </li></ul><ul><li>Aftercare – once the bud has taken remove the tape and cut back the rootstock to just above the bud. Keep well watered during the growing season </li></ul>
  11. 11. Botanical names – naming structure <ul><li>Genus - A group of species that bear close resemblance to each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Species - A group of individuals that are very closely related structurally and functionally. Individuals in a single species interbreed freely and breed true to type. </li></ul><ul><li>Variety – a naturally occurring distinct sub- population within a species that will either come true from seed or can be reproduced vegetatively (for example by cuttings). </li></ul><ul><li>Cultivar – a man made variety. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Botanical naming conventions <ul><li>Genus and species in italics (underlined when handwritten). Genus name starts with a capital letter, species name starts lower case. </li></ul><ul><li>Variety names are in italics </li></ul><ul><li>Cultivar names are in inverted single commas and in normal script. Not underlined when handwritten. </li></ul><ul><li>Hybrids – indicated by an X. Placed between the genus and species names in inter-specific crosses and before the genus name in inter-generic crosses. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Genetics and Inheritance <ul><li>Chromosomes are made up of pairs of genes </li></ul><ul><li>Genes may be dominant or recessive for a given characteristic e.g. flower colour </li></ul><ul><li>Each gene of a pair may be the same or different </li></ul><ul><li>If both genes are the same the plant is homozygous for that characteristic </li></ul><ul><li>If the two genes are different the plant is heterozygous </li></ul><ul><li>If one gene is dominant and the other recessive the dominant trait is expressed in the appearance of the plant. </li></ul>
  14. 14. F1 Hybrids <ul><li>A cross between two pure bred parent lines – one homozygous for the dominant trait, the other homozygous for the recessive </li></ul><ul><li>The offspring all show the dominant trait but are not all genetically the same </li></ul><ul><li>F2 generation will not all show the dominant trait. </li></ul><ul><li>The cross gives hybrid vigour to the offspring in the F1 generation whilst giving predictable appearance. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Plant growth regulators <ul><li>Auxin </li></ul><ul><li>Cytokinins </li></ul><ul><li>Gibberellins </li></ul><ul><li>Ethylene </li></ul><ul><li>Abscisic acid </li></ul>
  16. 16. Function of auxin <ul><li>In combination with cytokinins promotes the differentiation of callus cells into root initials in the base of cuttings. Use of artificial auxin. </li></ul><ul><li>The higher concentrations of auxins produced by the apical bud of a shoot suppress the growth of axial shoots; removing the apical bud allows these to grow. Pinching out </li></ul><ul><li>The movement of auxins to the shaded side of a stem causes the cells to elongate so the plant grows towards the light – phototropism. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Learning outcomes <ul><li>Define the terms: ‘budding’ and ‘grafting’. </li></ul><ul><li>State the reasons for use of budding and grafting for the production of particular plants. Define ‘Compatibility’ in this context </li></ul><ul><li>State the reasons why botanical/horticultural nomenclature is important. </li></ul><ul><li>Define the meaning of ‘family’, ‘genus’, ‘species, ‘subspecies’, ‘variety’ and ‘cultivar’. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain and apply the conventions for writing botanical names, including use of italics and standard script, cultivar and hybrid indicators etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Define the terms ‘dominant’ and ‘recessive’ and explain how these are expressed in plant generations </li></ul><ul><li>Complete a Punnett square for a mono-hybrid cross. </li></ul><ul><li>State the significance of F1 hybrid seeds and explain the term hybrid vigour </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the principle Plant Growth Regulators and their main influences on plant growth and development </li></ul><ul><li>Describe two examples of how auxin influences plant growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe what is meant by the term phototropism </li></ul>
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