RHS Level 2 Certificate Year 1 Week 15 overview

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RHS Level 2 Certificate Year 1 Week 15 overview

  1. 1. RHS Level 2 Certificate Week 15- vegetative reproduction by layering, division, budding and grafting
  2. 2. Learning outcomes <ul><li>1.1 State the physiological factors to be fulfilled for successful propagation by layering. </li></ul><ul><li>1.2 Describe a range of different types of layering. </li></ul><ul><li>1.3 Describe the aftercare required for plants raised by layering. </li></ul><ul><li>1.4 State the conditions which have to be met to ensure successful propagation by division. </li></ul><ul><li>1.5 Describe the propagation of plants by division. </li></ul><ul><li>1.6 Describe the aftercare of plants propagated by division. </li></ul><ul><li>1.7 Define the terms: ‘budding’ and ‘grafting’. </li></ul><ul><li>1.8 State the reasons for use of budding and grafting for the production of particular plants. Define ‘Compatibility’ in this context. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Propagation by division <ul><li>Used for perennials – clump forming, suckering and rhizomes. </li></ul><ul><li>Use more juvenile offsets from the edge of the clump or plant. </li></ul><ul><li>Divide summer flowering plants in the spring or autumn e.g, Iris ensata </li></ul><ul><li>Divide spring flowering plants in the summer after flowering e.g. Epimedium rubrum </li></ul><ul><li>Aftercare – weed to reduce competition, do not allow soil to dry out. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Plants that can be divided <ul><li>Iris ensata (or any rhizomatous iris) </li></ul><ul><li>Epimedium rubrum </li></ul><ul><li>Bergenia purpurescens </li></ul><ul><li>Hosta sieboldiana </li></ul><ul><li>Phyllostachys nigra </li></ul>
  5. 5. Propagation by layering <ul><li>Simple layering – advantages: can be used to propagate hard to root plants; needs little equipment; no hardening off </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages – produces relatively few plants and is slow. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Propagation by layering <ul><li>Serpentine layering -Used for woody climbers e.g, Lonicera . Produces several plants per stem however it needs quite a lot of space. </li></ul><ul><li>Air Layering – used for plants with rigid stems e.g. Magnolia grandiflora </li></ul>
  7. 7. Aftercare for layered plants <ul><li>Keep soil moist (sphagnum moss in air layering) until rooting occurs. </li></ul><ul><li>Once rooted (and shoots are produced in serpentine layering) detach from the parent plant and move to final position or into a pot to grow on. Remove any residual stem from the parent plant without leaving a snag. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Propagation by grafting and budding <ul><li>The joining of separate plant parts together, such that they form a union and grow   as one plant.  Most apple, pear and stone fruit trees are propagated in this way. </li></ul><ul><li>Scion – the wood from the desired variety from which the graft or bud is taken </li></ul><ul><li>Rootstock – the rooted plant of the same species (occasionally same genera) onto which the scion is attached. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Reasons for grafting or budding <ul><li>Plants that cannot be produced by other means </li></ul><ul><li>To obtain earlier cropping </li></ul><ul><li>To obtain desirable characteristics of the rootstock e.g. dwarfing </li></ul><ul><li>To change the variety of an established tree (topworking) </li></ul><ul><li>To repair damage (bridge grafting) </li></ul><ul><li>To create particular ornamental or useful forms (e.g. standard roses or family apple trees) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Stages of graft union formation <ul><li>It is essential that the cambium on the scion and stock is matched up </li></ul><ul><li>1) Callus formation by both stock and scion  </li></ul><ul><li>2) Intermingling of callus from stock and scion  </li></ul><ul><li>3) New cambium forms in callus between stock and scion  </li></ul><ul><li>4) New secondary xylem and phloem from new cambium to connect stock and scion  </li></ul>
  11. 13. FACTORS AFFECTING SUCCESS OF GRAFTING AND BUDDING <ul><li>Plant type – scion and stock from same species (intra-generic grafts may be feasible – e.g. Pyrus communis scion onto Cydonia oblonga rootstock). Only dicots and gymnosperms can be grafted. </li></ul><ul><li>Incompatibility – due to physiological factors; virus infection; physical abnormality of the vascular tissues in the graft union. </li></ul><ul><li>Season and growth state </li></ul><ul><li>Environment – temperature, humidity. </li></ul>
  12. 14. Types of graft and budding <ul><li>Whip and tongue graft </li></ul><ul><li>Apical wedge graft </li></ul><ul><li>T-budding </li></ul><ul><li>Chip budding </li></ul>
  13. 15. Learning outcomes <ul><li>1.1 State the physiological factors to be fulfilled for successful propagation by layering. </li></ul><ul><li>1.2 Describe a range of different types of layering. </li></ul><ul><li>1.3 Describe the aftercare required for plants raised by layering. </li></ul><ul><li>1.4 State the conditions which have to be met to ensure successful propagation by division. </li></ul><ul><li>1.5 Describe the propagation of plants by division. </li></ul><ul><li>1.6 Describe the aftercare of plants propagated by division. </li></ul><ul><li>1.7 Define the terms: ‘budding’ and ‘grafting’. </li></ul><ul><li>1.8 State the reasons for use of budding and grafting for the production of particular plants. Define ‘Compatibility’ in this context. </li></ul>

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