RHS Level 2 Certificate Year 1 Week 15 overview
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  • 1. RHS Level 2 Certificate Week 15- vegetative reproduction by layering, division, budding and grafting
  • 2. Learning outcomes
    • 1.1 State the physiological factors to be fulfilled for successful propagation by layering.
    • 1.2 Describe a range of different types of layering.
    • 1.3 Describe the aftercare required for plants raised by layering.
    • 1.4 State the conditions which have to be met to ensure successful propagation by division.
    • 1.5 Describe the propagation of plants by division.
    • 1.6 Describe the aftercare of plants propagated by division.
    • 1.7 Define the terms: ‘budding’ and ‘grafting’.
    • 1.8 State the reasons for use of budding and grafting for the production of particular plants. Define ‘Compatibility’ in this context.
  • 3. Propagation by division
    • Used for perennials – clump forming, suckering and rhizomes.
    • Use more juvenile offsets from the edge of the clump or plant.
    • Divide summer flowering plants in the spring or autumn e.g, Iris ensata
    • Divide spring flowering plants in the summer after flowering e.g. Epimedium rubrum
    • Aftercare – weed to reduce competition, do not allow soil to dry out.
  • 4. Plants that can be divided
    • Iris ensata (or any rhizomatous iris)
    • Epimedium rubrum
    • Bergenia purpurescens
    • Hosta sieboldiana
    • Phyllostachys nigra
  • 5. Propagation by layering
    • Simple layering – advantages: can be used to propagate hard to root plants; needs little equipment; no hardening off
    • Disadvantages – produces relatively few plants and is slow.
  • 6. Propagation by layering
    • Serpentine layering -Used for woody climbers e.g, Lonicera . Produces several plants per stem however it needs quite a lot of space.
    • Air Layering – used for plants with rigid stems e.g. Magnolia grandiflora
  • 7. Aftercare for layered plants
    • Keep soil moist (sphagnum moss in air layering) until rooting occurs.
    • Once rooted (and shoots are produced in serpentine layering) detach from the parent plant and move to final position or into a pot to grow on. Remove any residual stem from the parent plant without leaving a snag.
  • 8. Propagation by grafting and budding
    • The joining of separate plant parts together, such that they form a union and grow   as one plant.  Most apple, pear and stone fruit trees are propagated in this way.
    • Scion – the wood from the desired variety from which the graft or bud is taken
    • Rootstock – the rooted plant of the same species (occasionally same genera) onto which the scion is attached.
  • 9. Reasons for grafting or budding
    • Plants that cannot be produced by other means
    • To obtain earlier cropping
    • To obtain desirable characteristics of the rootstock e.g. dwarfing
    • To change the variety of an established tree (topworking)
    • To repair damage (bridge grafting)
    • To create particular ornamental or useful forms (e.g. standard roses or family apple trees)
  • 10. Stages of graft union formation
    • It is essential that the cambium on the scion and stock is matched up
    • 1) Callus formation by both stock and scion 
    • 2) Intermingling of callus from stock and scion 
    • 3) New cambium forms in callus between stock and scion 
    • 4) New secondary xylem and phloem from new cambium to connect stock and scion 
  • 11.  
  • 12.  
  • 13. FACTORS AFFECTING SUCCESS OF GRAFTING AND BUDDING
    • Plant type – scion and stock from same species (intra-generic grafts may be feasible – e.g. Pyrus communis scion onto Cydonia oblonga rootstock). Only dicots and gymnosperms can be grafted.
    • Incompatibility – due to physiological factors; virus infection; physical abnormality of the vascular tissues in the graft union.
    • Season and growth state
    • Environment – temperature, humidity.
  • 14. Types of graft and budding
    • Whip and tongue graft
    • Apical wedge graft
    • T-budding
    • Chip budding
  • 15. Learning outcomes
    • 1.1 State the physiological factors to be fulfilled for successful propagation by layering.
    • 1.2 Describe a range of different types of layering.
    • 1.3 Describe the aftercare required for plants raised by layering.
    • 1.4 State the conditions which have to be met to ensure successful propagation by division.
    • 1.5 Describe the propagation of plants by division.
    • 1.6 Describe the aftercare of plants propagated by division.
    • 1.7 Define the terms: ‘budding’ and ‘grafting’.
    • 1.8 State the reasons for use of budding and grafting for the production of particular plants. Define ‘Compatibility’ in this context.