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Rhs level 2 certificate year 1 session 13 overview 2011
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Rhs level 2 certificate year 1 session 13 overview 2011

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Cuttings

Cuttings

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  • 1. RHS Level 2 Certificate Week 14- vegetative reproduction by cuttings
  • 2. Christmas Prize Quiz
    • Test conditions
    • 30 minutes
    • Ho! Ho! Ho!
  • 3. Learning outcomes
    • 1.1 State the role of physiological factors upon the speed and success of rooting of cuttings.
    • 1.2 Name the types of stem cuttings.
    • 1.3 Describe the propagation of plants using a range of stem cuttings.
    • 1.4 Describe the propagation of plants using a range of leaf cuttings.
    • 1.5 Describe the propagation of one plant using root cuttings.
    • 1.6 State the environmental requirements for successful rooting of each of the types of cutting in 1.2, 1.3, 1.4 and 1.5.
    • 1.7 Describe the equipment required to propagate plants by cuttings.
    • 1.8 Describe the aftercare required for plants raised by cuttings.
  • 4. What is vegetative reproduction?
    • growing a new plant from some part of an existing plant e.g. strawberry
    • a plant that is produced in this way is genetically identical to the original plant – it is a clone
    • Note - all suitable subjects are perennials .
  • 5. How does it work?
    • Newly produced plant cells contain all the genetic information needed to make a new individual ( totipotent cells )
    • New plant cells are made by plant meristems
    • They divide and under the influence of plant growth regulators become part of plant organs (e.g. roots)
  • 6. What happens when a cutting is taken?
    • The cutting is taken at a leaf node or across vascular bundles, there is a large area of meristem.
    • The cells divide quickly and form callus
    • These callus cells differentiate under the influence of auxin and cytokinin and become root cells
  • 7. Physiological factors and rooting success
    • Juvenility – ideal cutting material is juvenile as the PGRs produced in mature tissue, particularly flower buds, inhibit rooting.
    • Turgidity – the cutting materials cells must be full of water.
    • Plant Growth Regulators – Auxin and cytokinin act together at the base of the cutting to produce roots. Using artificial auxin in powder form can assist this.
  • 8. Physical factors and rooting success
    • Material must be healthy and true to type.
    • Cut carefully from the stock plant– no snags. Secateurs are fine here.
    • Use a sharp cutting knife or scalpel to prepare the cutting – to avoid crushing the xylem and phloem in the cutting stem which will form the basis of the vascular system of the new plant.
    • Remember that cuttings have polarity – it matters which way up they are planted.
  • 9. Health and safety
    • The scalpels are very sharp. Take care when cutting.
    • Some people are allergic to the sap of some plants – use the latex gloves if you are or may be affected.
    • Do not get the rooting powder on your skin. Use the wet wipes if you do. Do not inhale the hormone rooting powder – put the lid on when not in use.
  • 10. Leaf Cuttings
    • Plantlets form from callus that is created at the cut surfaces of leaf veins, provided these are touching the compost.
    • Various forms of cutting depending on species.
    • Two used often are leaf petiole cuttings and leaf section cuttings.
    • Do not leave a snag on the stock plant
    • Do not touch the cut surfaces
    • No need for rooting powder
  • 11. Leaf petiole cuttings
    • Remove entire leaf and petiole from parent plant
    • Trim petiole to 3cm and insert into compost so the leaf edge is just touching the compost
    • Water and keep warm and relatively humid.
    • Suitable for Saintpaulia ionantha, Kalanchoe blossfeldiana, Peperomia caperata
  • 12. Leaf Section cuttings
    • For long leaves, select fully expanded healthy leaf, remove from parent plant.
    • Cut into sections across the leaf, making shallow chevrons that point towards the base helps show polarity.
    • Discard tip and very bottom section.
    • Insert into compost by about 1/3 height of cutting. Must be the right way up.
  • 13. After care of a cutting
    • To grow a cutting needs the following:
        • Moisture Warmth
        • Light Oxygen
    • Control of transpiration in leafy cuttings is key to success – humidity, moisture in the growing medium, shade and air temperature.
    • Cuttings compost is low nutrient so once rooted the new plants need to be planted up into 9cm pots to grow on.
  • 14. Other types of cutting
    • Semi-ripe cuttings – leafy; taken when the new growth has started to turn woody. Need less heat than softwood. Rooting powder used. Shrubs.
    • Hardwood cuttings – taken whilst stock plant is dormant. Rooted outdoors or in cold frame. Plant the right way up! Trees
    • Root cuttings – taken when stock plant is dormant. Plant the right way up! Herbaceous perennials
    • Soft wood or soft tip cuttings – taken from new growth in spring. Very sensitive to dehydration so need humidity control, gently bottom heat often helpful. Some but not all need rooting powder.
  • 15. Plants for cutting types (1).
    • Softwood cuttings – Lavatera ‘Rosaea’, Fuschia sp. Many deciduous trees, shrubs and herbaceous plants will root by this method.
    • Semi-ripe cuttings- Weigela florida; Ligustrum ovalifolium; Lavendula angustifolia ‘Hidcote’
    • Hardwood cuttings – Salix magnifica; Populus nigra; Forsythia x intermedia.
  • 16. Plants for cutting types (2)
    • Root cuttings – Papaver orientalis; Phlox panniculata.
    • Leaf petiole – Sainpaulia ionantha; Peperomia caperata.
    • Leaf blade – Begonia rex (whole leaf); Streptocarpus rexii (remove central vein)
    • Leaf section - Begonia rex; Streptocarpus rexii ; Sanseveria trifasciata ‘Laurentii’
  • 17. Learning outcomes
    • 1.4 Describe the sowing and aftercare of a range of seed types sown outdoors (to complete from last week)
    • 1.1 State the role of physiological factors upon the speed and success of rooting of cuttings.
    • 1.2 Name the types of stem cuttings.
    • 1.3 Describe the propagation of plants using a range of stem cuttings.
    • 1.4 Describe the propagation of plants using a range of leaf cuttings.
    • 1.5 Describe the propagation of one plant using root cuttings.
    • 1.6 State the environmental requirements for successful rooting of each of the types of cutting in 1.2, 1.3, 1.4 and 1.5.
    • 1.7 Describe the equipment required to propagate plants by cuttings.
    • 1.8 Describe the aftercare required for plants raised by cuttings.
  • 18. Term Dates
    • Classes start again on the 4 th January
    • Happy homework !
    • HAPPY CHRISTMAS!