Why the British needed a new trading settlement in this region
Why Singapore was chosen
How Raffles succeeded in establishing a trading settlement in Singapore
Sir Stamford Raffles was known for……………………………..
Being ‘founder’ or ‘architect of Singapore’
Can you name places associated with Raffles today?
Founding role reflected in books , journals and articles
Why Singapore was chosen by the British
What was the relationship between the British and Dutch East India companies ?
Fierce competition for? :
Monopoly of trade routes
The British had already developed commerce
and the Malay Archipelago
The Dutch had already developed commerce
Java and Melaka
Why do think the ships cannot enter the boundary ?
Will they be permitted to enter into Malay Archipelago?
What must they do ?
Pay high fees for using the port
Pay high taxes on goods which were bought or sold.
All Asian boats have to carry a Dutch Flag and carry a Dutch permit or pass.
Why do think the British were interested in Singapore?
In the 19 th century:
Britain’s Trade with China became very lucrative.
What goods was Britain exchanging with China? Hint Look at the map on pg 23
The British had two trading settlements: which were:
Penang and Bencoolen
But why were they looking for another trading Settlement:
Lets analyze the situation:
Both Penang and Bencoolen were located far from the main trading area:
Proved to be a poor trading centre. Why?
Situated on the wrong side of Sumatra
Facing the Indian Ocean instead of the straits of Melaka
Lying far north of the Straits of Melaka
Was not very useful for controlling the straits of Melaka
Did not protect British Ships using the Straits of Melaka.
But why were they looking for another trading Settlement:
What was preventing The British to use Singapore as a trading centre? :
Do not forget the competition between the British East India Company and Dutch East India Company
The Dutch controlled both the Straits of Melaka and the Sunda Straits.
The Dutch were spreading their monopoly of trade (Refer to Map on Pg 23)
The Dutch extending authority over the Archipelago
Raffles was concerned and wrote to his Directors of the British East India Company:
The Dutch controlled the main trade routes within the Malay Archipelago
Melaka and the Sunda Straits
Not an inch of ground between India and china
This prompted The British to search……………………………
A new British trading settlement south of Dutch Melaka
Why did Raffles thought of choosing the South of Dutch Melaka?
What prompted Raffles to see Melaka as an ideal choice
Occupied a better position
Natural advantages as an excellent harbour and a good supply of drinking water
A commanding position to protect ships against Pirate attacks
What Problems did the British Face in starting a trading settlement in Singapore?
British reached Singapore on 28 th January 1819
The island was covered with jungle and mangrove trees
What other things did the British see and hear ?
The Orang Lauts
What was the good news the British heard?
Did Raffles took this opportunity?
Whom did Raffles visit to seek permission to set a trading settlement in Singapore
According to the Temenggong…..
Only the Sultan has the right to give a permission
There was another problem to this ?
Sultan was under the control of the Dutch
Read the comic strip on pg 26
But Raffles recognised …….
Tengku Hussein as the rightful Sultan
Decided to obtain his permission to start the settlement
What was Tengku Hussein’s response to this plan?
On the 6 th February 1819……
Sultan Hussein and Temenggong signed the treaty with the British
The British were finally permitted to set up a settlement in the southern part of Singapore
What was the price of the agreement ?
Why was the Treaty important to the British ?
It gave the right to establish a trading settlement in the southern par of Singapore.
He called Singapore his ‘child’ and ‘ my new colo ny’
Why was Raffles very happy ?
However, this agreement angered somebody…….
The Dutch protested strongly
Luckily no war erupted due to this tension
Why and what were the reasons?
If both sides go to war……..
There was nothing to gain from war
Only losses in terms of territory and more importantly casualties
Peace is the best remedy
Finally The Dutch and the British signed a treaty in 1824
This allowed the British to keep Singapore
Was called the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 17 March 1824’ or the ‘Treaty of London’
Now, the Malay Peninsula and the Singapore came within the British sphere of influence
There was a mutual exchange of trading ports between the British and the Dutch
Melaka was given by the Dutch in exchange for Britain’s Bencoolen
The British now has ……..
Three ports in the Straits of Melaka:
Did Singapore become a British colony in 1819?
The British were only given rights to start a trading settlement
They were only given a piece of land in the southern part of Singapore Island
Singapore was still under the control of a Sultan
It officially became a colony in August 1824
Who was the official who made Singapore a British possession?
How did the New Settlement come to life ?
As Raffles left for an assignment at Bencoolen…..
Farquhar was left in-charge of the new British Settlement
Farquhar served as a resident or the local ruler of settlement
Was also the commander of British and Indian troops on the island
Farquhar had a difficult job of getting the new settlement started……… 2. A filthy and unhygienic living environment 3. How to end or stop the Violence? 4. Where to get steady supply of food? 1. How to convince people to settle in Singapore ?
What did Farquhar do …… 1. Had to get People to come to trade and live in Singapore 2. Campaign to kill Rats and Centipedes to keep Singapore Clean 3. Started a new police force to curb violence and keep law and order 4. To maintain sufficient supply of food to keep our new settlers at Singapore
The following pictures were taken from the following books:
Singapore From Settlement to Nation 1819-1971, PanPac Education
My Singapore , Sketches by Morgan Chua
A Picture History of Singapore, 3 rd edition By Amy Chua