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garidesch grinadae snabi trewa nalabec
River Discharge <ul><li>Volume or flow of water passing a gauging station in a river at a particular time. </li></ul><ul><...
Water balance <ul><li>Overall discharge from a drainage basin = product of the relationship between precipitation and evap...
Factors affecting discharge <ul><li>Physical </li></ul><ul><li>Basin size, shape and relief </li></ul><ul><li>Rock/soil ty...
Factors affecting discharge <ul><li>Meteorological </li></ul><ul><li>Type of precipitation </li></ul><ul><li>Rainfall inte...
Factors affecting discharge <ul><li>Human </li></ul><ul><li>Land use </li></ul><ul><li>Surface water stores, eg reservoirs...
<ul><li>Basin shape, size and relief </li></ul><ul><li>Geology </li></ul><ul><li>Soil type </li></ul><ul><li>Drainage dens...
<ul><li>Graph to show river discharge over time  </li></ul><ul><li>Often a composite graph to show relationship between ri...
<ul><li>Use the data to plot a hydrograph </li></ul><ul><li>Label:  </li></ul><ul><li>rising limb, falling limb, peak rain...
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River Discharge, Water Balance And Hydrographs

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Transcript of "River Discharge, Water Balance And Hydrographs"

  1. 1. garidesch grinadae snabi trewa nalabec
  2. 2. River Discharge <ul><li>Volume or flow of water passing a gauging station in a river at a particular time. </li></ul><ul><li>Amount of water originating from precipitation that reaches the channel – directly, from overland flow, throughflow and baseflow. </li></ul><ul><li>discharge = velocity (m/sec) x cross-sectional area (m 2 ) </li></ul><ul><li>So… discharge measured in cumecs (cubic metres per sec) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Water balance <ul><li>Overall discharge from a drainage basin = product of the relationship between precipitation and evapotranspiration, and a number of factors which control the amount of water stored in the drainage basin… </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, water balance equation: </li></ul><ul><li>drainage basin discharge = pptn – (evap + transp) +/- changes in storage </li></ul>
  4. 4. Factors affecting discharge <ul><li>Physical </li></ul><ul><li>Basin size, shape and relief </li></ul><ul><li>Rock/soil type </li></ul><ul><li>Drainage area and drainage pattern </li></ul><ul><li>Height above sea level </li></ul><ul><li>Surface water stores, eg lakes, glaciers </li></ul>
  5. 5. Factors affecting discharge <ul><li>Meteorological </li></ul><ul><li>Type of precipitation </li></ul><ul><li>Rainfall intensity, amount and duration </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution of precipitation across the drainage basin </li></ul><ul><li>Factors affecting evapotranspiration (eg wind, temperature, humidity and season) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Factors affecting discharge <ul><li>Human </li></ul><ul><li>Land use </li></ul><ul><li>Surface water stores, eg reservoirs </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Basin shape, size and relief </li></ul><ul><li>Geology </li></ul><ul><li>Soil type </li></ul><ul><li>Drainage density </li></ul><ul><li>Precipitation </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Land use </li></ul><ul><li>Teach the rest of the group how your factor affects river discharge. </li></ul><ul><li>Use board or IWB (or any other method you wish!) </li></ul><ul><li>10 minutes to prepare </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Graph to show river discharge over time </li></ul><ul><li>Often a composite graph to show relationship between river discharge and a storm event </li></ul><ul><li>River discharge shown as line graph </li></ul><ul><li>Rainfall event shown as bar graph </li></ul>Flood Hydrographs
  9. 9. <ul><li>Use the data to plot a hydrograph </li></ul><ul><li>Label: </li></ul><ul><li>rising limb, falling limb, peak rainfall, peak discharge, lag time </li></ul>Flood Hydrographs http://www.bbc.co.uk/scotland/education/int/geog/rivers/flash.shtml
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