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River Discharge, Water Balance And Hydrographs
River Discharge, Water Balance And Hydrographs
River Discharge, Water Balance And Hydrographs
River Discharge, Water Balance And Hydrographs
River Discharge, Water Balance And Hydrographs
River Discharge, Water Balance And Hydrographs
River Discharge, Water Balance And Hydrographs
River Discharge, Water Balance And Hydrographs
River Discharge, Water Balance And Hydrographs
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River Discharge, Water Balance And Hydrographs

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  • 1. garidesch grinadae snabi trewa nalabec
  • 2. River Discharge
    • Volume or flow of water passing a gauging station in a river at a particular time.
    • Amount of water originating from precipitation that reaches the channel – directly, from overland flow, throughflow and baseflow.
    • discharge = velocity (m/sec) x cross-sectional area (m 2 )
    • So… discharge measured in cumecs (cubic metres per sec)
  • 3. Water balance
    • Overall discharge from a drainage basin = product of the relationship between precipitation and evapotranspiration, and a number of factors which control the amount of water stored in the drainage basin…
    • Therefore, water balance equation:
    • drainage basin discharge = pptn – (evap + transp) +/- changes in storage
  • 4. Factors affecting discharge
    • Physical
    • Basin size, shape and relief
    • Rock/soil type
    • Drainage area and drainage pattern
    • Height above sea level
    • Surface water stores, eg lakes, glaciers
  • 5. Factors affecting discharge
    • Meteorological
    • Type of precipitation
    • Rainfall intensity, amount and duration
    • Distribution of precipitation across the drainage basin
    • Factors affecting evapotranspiration (eg wind, temperature, humidity and season)
  • 6. Factors affecting discharge
    • Human
    • Land use
    • Surface water stores, eg reservoirs
  • 7.
    • Basin shape, size and relief
    • Geology
    • Soil type
    • Drainage density
    • Precipitation
    • Temperature
    • Land use
    • Teach the rest of the group how your factor affects river discharge.
    • Use board or IWB (or any other method you wish!)
    • 10 minutes to prepare
  • 8.
    • Graph to show river discharge over time
    • Often a composite graph to show relationship between river discharge and a storm event
    • River discharge shown as line graph
    • Rainfall event shown as bar graph
    Flood Hydrographs
  • 9.
    • Use the data to plot a hydrograph
    • Label:
    • rising limb, falling limb, peak rainfall, peak discharge, lag time
    Flood Hydrographs http://www.bbc.co.uk/scotland/education/int/geog/rivers/flash.shtml

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