Global warming
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Global warming Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Global Warming: The GlobalGlobal Warming: The Global WarningWarning Biology 2201Biology 2201
  • 2. Global WarmingGlobal Warming P r e s e n t a t io n L a y o u t W h a t is G lo b a l W a r m in g ? T h e C a u s e s o f G lo b a l W a r m in g T h e W o r ld E ffe c t o f G lo b a l W a r m in g T h e S o lu t io n s t o G lo b a l W a r m in g G lo b a l P e r s p e c t iv e
  • 3. What is Global Warming?What is Global Warming? Global Warming is defined as the increaseGlobal Warming is defined as the increase in earth’s temperature due to the use ofin earth’s temperature due to the use of fossil fuels and other industrial processesfossil fuels and other industrial processes leading to a buildup of “greenhouse gases”leading to a buildup of “greenhouse gases” in the atmosphere.in the atmosphere. These gases include carbon dioxide,These gases include carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, andmethane, nitrous oxide, and chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s).chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s).
  • 4. Gas IncreasesGas Increases We have observed the following gasesWe have observed the following gases increase:increase: Carbon dioxide: 30%Carbon dioxide: 30% Methane: 145%Methane: 145% Nitrous oxide: 15%Nitrous oxide: 15%
  • 5. What is Global WarmingWhat is Global Warming Since 1896, it has been known that theseSince 1896, it has been known that these gases help stop the sun’s infrared radiationgases help stop the sun’s infrared radiation from escaping into space and thus functionfrom escaping into space and thus function to maintain the earth’s relatively warmto maintain the earth’s relatively warm temperature.temperature. This process is called the greenhouseThis process is called the greenhouse effect.effect.
  • 6. The Greenhouse EffectThe Greenhouse Effect The greenhouse effect is the role theThe greenhouse effect is the role the atmosphere plays in insulating andatmosphere plays in insulating and warming the earth’s surface.warming the earth’s surface. The atmosphere is largely transparent toThe atmosphere is largely transparent to incoming short-wave solar radiation, whichincoming short-wave solar radiation, which is absorbed by the earth’s surface.is absorbed by the earth’s surface.
  • 7. The Greenhouse EffectThe Greenhouse Effect Much of this radiation is then remitted fromMuch of this radiation is then remitted from the earth at infrared wavelengths, but isthe earth at infrared wavelengths, but is reflected back to the earth by thereflected back to the earth by the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The reflected radiation maintains theThe reflected radiation maintains the temperature of the earth in a range that istemperature of the earth in a range that is hospitable to life.hospitable to life.
  • 8. The Greenhouse EffectThe Greenhouse Effect This heating effect is the basis of theThis heating effect is the basis of the theories concerning global warming.theories concerning global warming.
  • 9. The Greenhouse EffectThe Greenhouse Effect
  • 10. The ProblemThe Problem The problem of this issue is whether theThe problem of this issue is whether the measurably increasing levels of carbonmeasurably increasing levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere over the lastdioxide in the atmosphere over the last century will lead to elevated globalcentury will lead to elevated global temperatures which could result in coastaltemperatures which could result in coastal flooding and major climatic changes andflooding and major climatic changes and have serious implications for agriculturalhave serious implications for agricultural productivity.productivity.
  • 11. The Depletion of Our Ozone LayerThe Depletion of Our Ozone Layer The ozone layer, a region of the atmosphereThe ozone layer, a region of the atmosphere above the earth’s surface, is directlyabove the earth’s surface, is directly effected by greenhouse gases and CFC’seffected by greenhouse gases and CFC’s (chlorofluorocarbons).(chlorofluorocarbons).
  • 12. Human Contribution of CFC’s andHuman Contribution of CFC’s and Greenhouse Gases (%)Greenhouse Gases (%) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 North America South America Europe Asia Africa Australia Antartica
  • 13. Human Contribution of CFC’s andHuman Contribution of CFC’s and Greenhouse GasesGreenhouse Gases North America (34%)- Mainly caused by theNorth America (34%)- Mainly caused by the former industry of refrigerants and aerosolformer industry of refrigerants and aerosol spray propellants. Even though the USspray propellants. Even though the US administration has banned CFC’s for moreadministration has banned CFC’s for more suitable substitutions in 1978, that damagesuitable substitutions in 1978, that damage has already been done.has already been done.
  • 14. Human Contribution of CFC’s andHuman Contribution of CFC’s and Greenhouse GasesGreenhouse Gases South America (36%)- Caused by theSouth America (36%)- Caused by the massive burning of rain forests, releasingmassive burning of rain forests, releasing massive doses of carbon dioxide in the air.massive doses of carbon dioxide in the air. Europe (5%)- Caused by the total ban of CFCEurope (5%)- Caused by the total ban of CFC and the environmental movement of theand the environmental movement of the European UnionEuropean Union Africa (7%)- Caused by the burning of someAfrica (7%)- Caused by the burning of some forestry, and the overall environmentalforestry, and the overall environmental statestate
  • 15. Human Contribution of CFC’s andHuman Contribution of CFC’s and Greenhouse GasesGreenhouse Gases Asia (16%)- Caused by overall pollution andAsia (16%)- Caused by overall pollution and the burning of some forestrythe burning of some forestry Australia (2%)- Caused by the smallAustralia (2%)- Caused by the small percentage of forestry burning.percentage of forestry burning. Antarctica (0%)- The very few inhabitants ofAntarctica (0%)- The very few inhabitants of the continent contribute 0.01% to globalthe continent contribute 0.01% to global warming.warming.
  • 16. The Demise of CFC’sThe Demise of CFC’s Presently, a total ban of the use of CFC’s isPresently, a total ban of the use of CFC’s is almost impossible due to scientificalmost impossible due to scientific confusion and the US influence left behindconfusion and the US influence left behind of the antienvironmental Reaganof the antienvironmental Reagan administration.administration.
  • 17. The Demise of CFC’sThe Demise of CFC’s Another problem that is realized is that forAnother problem that is realized is that for exampleexample ifif a total ban of CFC’s is achieveda total ban of CFC’s is achieved by the year 2005, the atmosphere wouldby the year 2005, the atmosphere would still contain more CFC’s in the year 2005still contain more CFC’s in the year 2005 than it does today, and 90% of the CFC’s inthan it does today, and 90% of the CFC’s in the air will still be there by there year 2015the air will still be there by there year 2015..
  • 18. Antarctic Ozone HoleAntarctic Ozone Hole Beginning in the lateBeginning in the late 1970’s, research1970’s, research scientists working inscientists working in Antarctica haveAntarctica have detected a periodicdetected a periodic loss of ozone in theloss of ozone in the atmosphere highatmosphere high above that continent,above that continent, due to the effect ofdue to the effect of CFC’sCFC’s
  • 19. Further Ozone HolesFurther Ozone Holes The World Meteorological OrganizationThe World Meteorological Organization observed a 45% depletion of the ozoneobserved a 45% depletion of the ozone layer over one-third of the northernlayer over one-third of the northern hemisphere, from Greenland to westernhemisphere, from Greenland to western Siberia, for several days during the winterSiberia, for several days during the winter of 1995-1996.of 1995-1996.
  • 20. Indirect ImplicationsIndirect Implications Destruction of the ozone layer hasDestruction of the ozone layer has indirectly caused increases in skin cancerindirectly caused increases in skin cancer and cataracts, damage to certain crops andand cataracts, damage to certain crops and to plankton and the marine food web, anto plankton and the marine food web, an increase in carbon dioxide due to theincrease in carbon dioxide due to the decrease in plants, polar ice- cap melting,decrease in plants, polar ice- cap melting, and other global problems.and other global problems.
  • 21. Temperature AnomaliesTemperature Anomalies Since 1850 there has been a mean rise inSince 1850 there has been a mean rise in global temperature of approximately 1global temperature of approximately 1OO C.C. A United Nations panel of scientistsA United Nations panel of scientists attributed the warming to human influenceattributed the warming to human influence and predicted that if greenhouse-gasand predicted that if greenhouse-gas emissions are not reduced, the averageemissions are not reduced, the average global temperature will rise by 1 degree toglobal temperature will rise by 1 degree to 3.53.5OO C, with a best estimate of 2C, with a best estimate of 2 OO C by 2100.C by 2100.
  • 22. Temperature AnomaliesTemperature Anomalies This would cause sea level to rise by 20This would cause sea level to rise by 20 inches; further warming a sea-level riseinches; further warming a sea-level rise would follow.would follow.
  • 23. Global Effects of Planet Earth
  • 24. Legend to World Map and GlobalLegend to World Map and Global EffectsEffects Heat waves and periods of unusually warm weather Sea level rise and coastal flooding Glaciers melting Arctic and Antarctic warming
  • 25. Legend to World Map and GlobalLegend to World Map and Global EffectsEffects Spreading diseases Earlier spring arrival Plant and animal range shifts and population declines Coral reef bleaching Downpours, heavy snowfalls, and flooding Droughts and fires
  • 26. Africa
  • 27. AntarcticaAntarctica
  • 28. AsiaAsia
  • 29. Central AmericaCentral America
  • 30. Europe and RussiaEurope and Russia
  • 31. North America *North America *
  • 32. OceanicOceanic
  • 33. South AmericaSouth America
  • 34. ““ Hot SpotsHot Spots ” of The World” of The World
  • 35. The Solutions to Global WarmingThe Solutions to Global Warming Eliminate CFC’s, fossil fuels, andEliminate CFC’s, fossil fuels, and greenhouse gasesgreenhouse gases Better environmental precautions to takeBetter environmental precautions to take care of pollutioncare of pollution Alternative energy uses that do not requireAlternative energy uses that do not require exothermic reactions and any other gasexothermic reactions and any other gas releasesreleases The creation of safe methods engineeredThe creation of safe methods engineered to stop global warming.to stop global warming.
  • 36. Eliminating CFC’s and OtherEliminating CFC’s and Other GasesGases Eliminate all use of CFC’s: includesEliminate all use of CFC’s: includes achieving a total world ban among allachieving a total world ban among all nations, eliminating the CFC industry, andnations, eliminating the CFC industry, and coming up with suitable substitutes.coming up with suitable substitutes. Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC’s),causesHydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC’s),causes less damage to the ozone layer, and can beless damage to the ozone layer, and can be used instead.used instead.
  • 37. Eliminating CFC’s and OtherEliminating CFC’s and Other GasesGases United Nations must convince all worldUnited Nations must convince all world nations to agree to cooperate in thenations to agree to cooperate in the protection of our ozone layer.protection of our ozone layer. In 1987, the Montreal Protocol, a treaty forIn 1987, the Montreal Protocol, a treaty for the protection of the ozone layer, wasthe protection of the ozone layer, was signed and later ratified by 36 nations.signed and later ratified by 36 nations. More countries must be added to the list.More countries must be added to the list.
  • 38. Eliminating CFC’s and OtherEliminating CFC’s and Other GasesGases The main cause to the usage of fossil fuelsThe main cause to the usage of fossil fuels is the automobile. Alternative energy usesis the automobile. Alternative energy uses such as the battery or solar energy must besuch as the battery or solar energy must be incorporated in the automobile industry toincorporated in the automobile industry to stop the use of fossil fuels.stop the use of fossil fuels. Other methods include immediate actionOther methods include immediate action and prevention to forests fires worldwide,and prevention to forests fires worldwide, and to help stop natural emissions ofand to help stop natural emissions of carbon dioxide in the air.carbon dioxide in the air.
  • 39. Eliminating CFC’s and OtherEliminating CFC’s and Other GasesGases To eliminate natural emissions of methane,To eliminate natural emissions of methane, and carbon dioxide, the UN must convinceand carbon dioxide, the UN must convince farmers to stop methane emissions fromfarmers to stop methane emissions from livestock.livestock. The elimination of forestry cutting and theThe elimination of forestry cutting and the plantation of more trees, stops carbonplantation of more trees, stops carbon dioxide emissions as plants consumedioxide emissions as plants consume those gases.those gases.
  • 40. Take Care of Pollution !Take Care of Pollution ! Pollution has an indirect but powerfulPollution has an indirect but powerful impact on the ozone layer.impact on the ozone layer. Every nation must promote and endorseEvery nation must promote and endorse their country to Reduce, Re-use, andtheir country to Reduce, Re-use, and Recycle.Recycle. Taking care of pollution involves cleanupTaking care of pollution involves cleanup at home to cleanup worldwide.at home to cleanup worldwide.
  • 41. Alternative EnergyAlternative Energy Although it is highly impossible to change,Although it is highly impossible to change, alternative energies must be found.alternative energies must be found. Gases emitted from exothermic reactionsGases emitted from exothermic reactions of energy plants, such as smog, directlyof energy plants, such as smog, directly deplete the ozone layer.deplete the ozone layer. Alternative energy usage must start atAlternative energy usage must start at home.home.
  • 42. Total Estimates of Costs toTotal Estimates of Costs to Combat Global WarmingCombat Global Warming $ 100 Billion$ 100 Billion
  • 43. Support Is Needed!Support Is Needed! In conclusion, our planet must realize theIn conclusion, our planet must realize the grave reality of global warming.grave reality of global warming. Organizations such as NASA andOrganizations such as NASA and Greenpeace have already taken action intoGreenpeace have already taken action into the extensive research of the problem. Thethe extensive research of the problem. The role that is proposed to the UN is that therole that is proposed to the UN is that the support of the world government is the lastsupport of the world government is the last piece of the puzzle in internationalpiece of the puzzle in international cooperation against global warming.cooperation against global warming.
  • 44. CreditsCredits Directed by Michael ParconDirected by Michael Parcon Produced by Michael ParconProduced by Michael Parcon Written by Michael ParconWritten by Michael Parcon Screenplay by Michael ParconScreenplay by Michael Parcon Technical Equipment provided by C. LakeTechnical Equipment provided by C. Lake
  • 45. CastCast AngieAngie Angela GormanAngela Gorman MikeMike Michael GoughMichael Gough The Scientific GeniusThe Scientific Genius Michael ParconMichael Parcon