Neo classicism
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    Neo classicism Neo classicism Presentation Transcript

    • John Nash (January1752 – May1835)
    • INTRODUCTION     Born in Lambeth, London, the son of a Welsh millwright, got trained by the architect Sir Robert Taylor. Initially he seems to have pursued a career as a surveyor, builder and carpenter. This gave him an income of around £300 a year.. He established his own architectural practice in 1777. John Nash helped define the style of an era. Through his friendship with the Prince Regent, his influence on Regency art and architecture cannot be overstated. John nash’s contributions to the face of London is immense. Every part of the city was touched by the hand of Nash’s neo-classical style so admired by the Prince Regent, later George IV.
    • HIS WORKS:  He was a city planner best known for his development of Regent’s Park and Regent Street, a royal estate in northern London that he partly converted into a varied residential area, which still provides some of London’s most charming features.  He remodeled the Royal Pavilion (1815–1822)
    •  He also redesigned St. James’s Park (1827–29), London, and began to reconstruct Buckingham House, London, as a royal palace (from 1821).
    •  Buckingham Palace was a commission which he was still engaged upon when George IV died, and the work was taken off him and completed by Edward Blore. He also took away Nash's entrance to the palace forecourt, which survives as Marble Arch. The West Facade Of Buckingham Palace :
    •  Outside London, Nash's best-known work is the rebuilding of Brighton Pavilion. He built himself a mansion, East Cowes Castle, where he died in 1835.
    • REGENT’S PARK       'Regent’s Park or Mary Le Bone Park, is a spacious enclosure on the North side of the Metropolis. It is nearly of a circular form, and comprises about 450 acres, laid out in groundcovers , combined with various pieces of water and intersected by several roads. In the center are 8 villas, and around the park are noble ranges of buildings in various styles of architecture. The plan of the Park is formed upon such a scale of grandeur as to hide all other modern improvements. The objects proposed to be obtained are – The beauty of that part of the Metropolis, by the formation of a spacious area for exercise. The erection of noble mansions for the residence of the higher classes.
    •  To go in to the Park, we go around the projecting corner and garden of the earliest of the Nash Terraces (started 1820), which is Cornwall Terrace.  The architect was actually Decimus Burton, though supervised by John Nash and worked to his overall design for the Park.  Its characterized by its regularity and beauty  The ground story is rusticated, and the principal stories are of the Corinthian order, with fluted shafts, well proportioned capitals, and an entablature of equal merit.  The other embellishments of Cornwall Terrace are in writer taste, and the whole presents a facade of great architectural beauty and elegance.
    •    The next Nash terrace is the smaller, plainer Ulster Terrace, from 18241825. And beyond this are Park Square and Park Crescent. Park Crescent, with its perfect Ionic colonnade of doubled pillars all the way round, was originally conceived by Nash as the half of a complete circus, of extraordinary size, but in the event, the two facing terraces of Park Square complete the composition (1823-25).
    •      In the park, The formal Avenue Gardens opposite Park Crescent and Square contains some ornamental features. To the corner of the Park, is Nash's rather short Cambridge Terrace (1825) Then we pass Chester Terrace, an incredibly long and grand facade in Corinthian, by Nash. Later we come across, Cumberland Terrace, with the central block bearing 10 huge Corinthian pillars, with a very long pediment on top. And the park includes other large and short terraces, gardens and structures like Gloucester Gate, with the accompanying Gloucester Lodge, modern London Central Mosque, St John's Lodge Gardens, Sussex Place, Clarence Terrace etc.
    • Carlton House:  Carlton House was the town house of the Prince Regent for several decades from 1783 until it was demolished forty years later.  It faced the south side of Pall Mall, and its gardens touched St. James’s Park .  In 1783 George III handed the house over, with £60,000 to renovate it, to George, Prince of Wales on his coming of age. During the following years the interiors were remodeled and refurnished on a splendid scale.  Construction at Carlton House came to a halt because of the Prince of Wales’ mounting debts. Costs continued to soar and more money had to be found by the Prince.
    • Features: The spectacular oval staircase and a suite of rooms that led Horace Walpole to claim that when completed, Carlton House would be ―the most perfect in Europe‖.
    •  Carlton House was approximately 202′ long, and 130′ deep when completed.  Visitors entered the house through a hexa style portico of Corinthian columns that led to a foyer that was flanked on either side by anterooms.  Carlton House was unusual in that the visitor entered the house on the main floor. (Most London mansions and palaces of the time followed the Palladian architectural concept of a low ground floor (or rustic) with the principal floor above.)  From the foyer, the visitor entered the two storey top lit entrance hall that was decorated with Ionic columns of yellow marble . Beyond the hall was an octagonal room that was also top lit.
    •  On becoming King George IV in 1820 the Prince Regent felt that his own residence; the official royal residence of St. James’s Palace and his father’s Buckingham House were all inadequate for his needs. Some consideration was given to rebuilding Carlton House on a far larger scale, but in the end Buckingham House was rebuilt as Buckingham Palace instead. Carlton House was demolished in 1826-27 and replaced with two grand white terraces of houses known as Carlton House Terrace.
    • The interiors were sumptuous and splendid. The entrance hall gave no real hint of the magnificence to come
    • Some other works: London  Regent's Canal  Haymarket Theatre  Clarence House  Cumberland Terrace  Trafalgar Square (first version)  The Royal Mews England & Wales  Cardigan Gaol  The Brighton Royal Pavilion  Luscombe Castle  Sandridge Park  Guildhall, Newport, Isle of Wight  Castle House  Hereford Gaol  Whitson Court, near Newport  Sandridge Park  Caerhays Castle, Cornwall  Ravensworth
    • SIR JOHN SOANE (1753-1837)
    • Early Life  He was an English architect who specialised in the    Neo-Classical style. He was son of a bricklayer, rose to the top of his profession, becoming professor of architecture at the Royal Academy, an official architect to the Office of Works and received a knighthood in 1831. His architectural works are distinguished by their clean lines, massing of simple form, decisive detailing, careful proportions and skillful use of light sources. It was not until the late 19th century that the influence of Sir John's architecture was widely felt.
    • Known works His best-known work was the Bank of England (his work there is largely destroyed), a building which had widespread effect on commercial architecture.  He also design Dulwich Picture Gallery, with its top lit galleries it was a major influence on the planning of subsequent art galleries and museums.  His major legacy is Sir John Soane's Museum, in Lincoln's Inn Fields, London, formed from his former home and office that he designed to display art works and architectural artifacts that he collected during his lifetime. 
    • BANK OF ENGLAND
    • Dulwich picture gallery
    • Soane museum, London
    • SOANE MUSEUM, LONDON HISTORY     Sir John Soane's Museum was formerly the home of the neo-classical architect Sir John Soane. It holds many drawings and models of his projects and the collections of paintings, drawings and antiquities that he assembled. The Museum is in the Holborn district of central London, England, on Lincoln's Inn Fields. It is a non-departmental public body sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.
    • The picture on left hand shows the facade of Sir John Soane's House (No. 12) around 1812, before it was purchased him. It is just a normal house with conventional plain brick in that period. And the picture on right hand shows the facade of it today. It is constructed in stone and brick, the stone having been subsequently painted for preservation. Before the rebuilding, the house had 4 floors (including the basement) but it is 5 floors nowadays. Those original balconies on ground floor, first floor and second floor were replaced by windows after the rebuilding.
    • How it came into existence? Soane demolished and rebuilt three houses in succession on the north side of Lincoln's Inn Fields.  He began with No. 12 (between 1792 and 1794), externally a plain brick house. After becoming Professor of Architecture at the Royal Academy in 1806, Soane purchased No. 13, the house next door, today the Museum, and rebuilt it in two phases in 1808-09 and 1812. 
    •     In 1808-09 he constructed his drawing office and "museum" on the site of the former stable block at the back, using primarily top lighting. In 1812 he rebuilt the front part of the site, adding a projecting Portland Stone facade to the basement, ground and first floor levels and the centre bay of the second floor. Originally this formed three open loggias, but Soane glazed the arches during his lifetime. In 1823, when he was over 70, he purchased a third house, No. 14, which he rebuilt in 1823-24. This project allowed him to construct a picture gallery, linked to No.13, on the former stable block of No. 14.
    • PLAN Ground floor plan for Sir John Soane's Museum. a.Entrance Hall b.Library c.Dining room d.Sepulchral chamber (in basement) e.Breakfast Parlour f.Anteroom g.New Court h.New picture room i .Central dome j.Colonnade k.Dressing room l .Small Study room m.Monk's parlour n .Recessed room
    • The most famous spaces in the house are those at the rear of the Museum - the Dome Area, Colonnade and Museum Corridor. View of picture room and Monks parlour (below)
    •     These are mostly toplit that provide idea of ingenious lighting. The ingeniously designed Picture Gallery has walls composed of large 'moveable planes' (like large cupboard doors)that allow it to house three times as many items as a space of this size could normally accommodate. When visiting, it is necessary to request the planes to be opened and wait for a group to gather before this is done. The more domestic rooms of No. 13 are at the front of the house, many of them highly unusual, but often in subtle ways.
    • •The picture on left shows the basement plan of the No.13 and extension behind No.14. The front part of the drawing ( bottom the drawing) is conventional domestic offices. On the left top corner ,it is the alabaster sarcophagus of Seti I. It is named Sepulchral chamber by Sir John Soane. •The Soane's first house, No.12 is to the left, and where the Museum's temporary exhibition space is today located, is not shown on this plan. The half part in the front of the house are rooms for living. • Those rooms were build by wood. •Walls, floors and staricases are all wooden materials
    • Breakfast room has a domed ceiling , has a round window in the center and is surrounded by convex mirrors. Although it is a breakfast room, drawings are hung on walls , sculptures are on tables and on top of fireplace. •Drawings are hung on the flat celling in the library room, the constructive design bookcase form, a big mirror in the center of the room and two big windows face to street.Windows in the house have big size, and celling windows also provide natural light from sky. •Those detail design reflects the architect's features again, simple form, and skillful use of light sources.
    • The Library-Dining Room reflects the influence of Etruscan tombs and perhaps even gothic design in its list of small pendants like those in fan vaulting. It is decorated in a rich 'Pompeian' red. DRAWING ROOM
    • SECTION Picture above shows the section of the museum, the space is fully used to its maximum. Every detail is a artwork, such as a lamp, a chair, window's frame , staircases, patterns on the window and so on.
    • BANK OF ENGLAND
    • Introduction     On 16 October 1788, he succeeded Sir Robert Taylor as architect and surveyor to the Bank of England. His appointment to the Bank was the most important of his distinguished career. He extended the Bank's site and eventually enclosed it in 1828 with a windowless wall. The structure of 'Soane's Bank of England' remained more or less untouched until it was demolished and a new building erected by the architect Herbert Baker between the two World Wars.
    • GROUND FLOOR PLAN
    • Extension of the Bank to the northwest, the exterior wall was extended around the junction of Lothbury and Princes Street, forming the 'Tivoli Corner' which is based on the Temple of Vesta, Tivoli that Soane had visited and much admired. The Colonial office, Consols office and great rotunda were large public halls ,dignified, spacious and remarkably imaginative in design. He used arch forms, windowed drum clerestories, and domes to create spaces that are intricate in form but simple in detail.
    • Perspective of Lothbury Court, the back entrance to the Bank Its triumphal architecture was not lost, however, as it was glorified in many popular guidebooks and Soane exhibited his design for it at the Royal Academy. The Court's architecture resembled an imperial Roman forum, suggesting the Bank of England as a self-contained city. Lothbury Court represented the Bank's own glories. Despite its grandeur, Lothbury Court was merely a service entrance to the Bank, for bullion vans to enter and unload their valuable goods. For security purposes, its pedestrian passageway was never used, and so the Court probably remained quite remote.
    • Rotunda is a major architectural Feature of the museum and dates from 1930’s when bank was rebuilt in its present from. Large showcases around the perimeter of rotunda, each focusing on an important theme or period, complete the chronological history of the bank. The draped female figures supporting the ends of the showcases and columns in the lantern are Soane originals, rescued from demolition in 1920’s and re-used by Baker.
    • Henri Labrouste ( Paris ,1801 1875)
    • INTRODUCTION       Henri was a French architect. After spending six years at Rome , he opened an architectural training workshop, which quickly became the center of the Rationalist view. He was noted for his use of iron frame construction, and was one of the first to realize the importance of its use. Henri Labrouste, born in Paris under the Consulate comes from a family of lawyers favorable to revolutionary ideas but moderate. Labrouste entered Collège Sainte-Barbe as a student in 1809. In 1823 he won the departmental prize, and worked as a lieutenantinspector (sous-inspecteur). 1824 was a turning point in Labrouste's life, as he won the competition with a design of a Supreme Court of Appeals. In November he left Paris for Italy.
    •  Henri Labrouste is one of the few 19th-century architects who still inspires admiration, both in France and abroad. The rationality of the solutions he found to complex building programs, the powerful quality of his projects and creations, the strange singularity of their ornament, and the importance of iron and cast iron in their construction make his work an essential milestone in the evolution of architecture.  As recipient of the Prix de Rome in architecture, Henri Labrouste lived in Italy from 1825 to 1830. During his stay, he executed, a series of yearly projects, as well as making numerous studies of ancient monuments.  Already in Italy, Labrouste showed a distinct interest in complex building programs:, charterhouses, slaughterhouses. The first competitions that he won, for a cantonal asylum in Lausanne (1837) and a prison in Alessandria (1840), brought him his first professional successes.
    • BIBLIOTHEQUE SAINTE-GENEVIEVE  The Bibliotheque Sainte-Genevieve is a French National Library in Paris, France.  The current structure, built by architect Henri Labrouste in 1851, was built on the original site of the College de Montaigu.  The Library is built on a narrow piece of land 85 meters long and 21 meters wide on top of the Montagne Sainte-Genevieve.
    •  Scholar E. Stuart Saunders describes the Bibliotheque Sainte-Genevieve as, "Born as an abbey library, reconstituted in the 17th century as a scholarly library, it has evolved into an encyclopedic library for scholars, students, and the general public. In the 18th century it had one of the largest collections in France; for much of the 19th and 20th centuries it attracted perhaps more patrons than any other library in France.  The driving factors behind the new construction are twofold :  The previous structure had fallen on disrepair.  The number of patrons were increasing so rapidly that the space become overcrowded. To accommodate the needs of patrons, the library added evening hours in 1831. On peak days, the library would receive around 1000 visitors.
    • Upon consultation by the Parisian government, architect Henri Labrouste suggested a demolition and new construction on the historic site. Labrouste's project was approved in July 1843 and completed in 1851.  Henri's design and "outstandingly sympathetic" handling of iron as a building material is considered revolutionary.  Henri described his task in his journal stating, "I first considered for the central axis of the first floor reading room a row of stone or marble columns carrying arches, but I had to acknowledge that the end arcades would not be sufficiently strong. I had therefore to rely upon very thin columns for the bearing points in the middle of the room, letting air and light circulate in all directions; I was thus led to propose an iron structure. 
    •  Slender cast-iron columns that run down the center of the room, and the pierced leaf-patterned cast-iron arches that support the twin barrel vaults, allowed Henri to dispense with massive masonry and give the room a floating verve not usually associated with products of the industrial age.  Lined the reading room with two tiers of books, one along the floor and the other on a level backed up against the exterior walls. On the outside of these walls, Henri inscribed the stone with the names of the great thinkers to show the chain of human thought.  A copy of Raphael's School of Athens was painted on the wall of the ceremonial stairwell that leads to the main-floor reading room.
    •  The ground floor consists primarily of storage areas to house the three collections: the General Fund collection of over one million volumes, The Reserve collection of 4300 manuscripts, 160,000 rare books, 50,000 drawings, prints, photographs and other works of art, and, The Nordic Library of 160,000 volumes, including serials and musical scores.  The main floor houses the famous reading room. This large, central hall is the length of 18 fine fluted iron columns supporting the roof.
    • Karl Friedrich Schinke (1781-1841)
    • Early Life •He was a Prussian architect, city planner, and painter who also designed furniture and stage sets. •He was one of the most prominent architects of Germany and designed both neoclassical and neogothic buildings. •Schinkel's style, in his most productive period, is defined by a turn to Greek rather than Imperial Roman architecture, an attempt to turn away from the style that was linked to the recent French occupiers. •His most famous buildings include Neue Wache (1816–1818), National Monument for the Liberation Wars (1818–1821), the Schauspielhaus (1819– 1821), and the Altes Museum (old museum)on Museum Island (1823–1830). He also carried out improvements to the Crown Prince's Palace. •Schinkel, however, is noted as much for his theoretical work and his architectural drafts as for the relatively few buildings that were actually executed to his designs.
    • ALTES MUSEUM
    • INTRODUCTION •The Altes Museum (German for Old Museum) is one of several internationally renowned museums on Museum Island in Berlin, Germany. •Since restoration work in 1966, it houses the Antikensammlung (antique collection) of the Berlin State Museums. • The museum was built between 1823 and 1830 by the architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel in the neoclassical style to house the Prussian royal family's art collection. •The historic, protected building counts among the most distinguished in neoclassicism and is a high point of Schinkel's career. •The design of the building follows the pattern of an antique temple and reminds the Roman Pantheon. •The Altes Museum is the eldest museum building in Berlin.
    • PLAN
    • The Altes Museum was commissioned by King Friedrich Wilhelm III as the first public museum of Berlin and the nucleus of the Museum Island which was PLANNING AND intended to symbolize the cultural and political LOCATION middle of Prussia. Schinkel's plans incorporated the Museum into an ensemble of buildings, which surround the Berliner Lustgarten (pleasure garden). The Stadtschloss in the south was a symbol of worldly power, the Zeughaus in the west represented military might, and the Berliner Dom in the east was the embodiment of divine authority. The museum to the north of the garden, which was to provide for the education of the people, stood as a symbol for science and art—and not least for their torchbearer: the self-aware bourgeoisie(range of socio-
    • EXTERIOR Statues along the portico of the museum The Altes Museum takes the Greek Stoa in Athens as a model, borrowing heavily from Greek antiquity and classical architecture. The museum employs the Ionic order to articulate the 87 m (285 ft.) face of the building, which is the only part of the exterior with any visual sign of the Orders; the other three remaining facades are of brick and stone banding. Eighteen Ionic columns grace the front of this grand museum. The rectangular shaped building encloses two generous courtyards and a two-story centrally-located rotunda, based on the design on the Pantheon in Rome.
    • After the broad staircase and Ionic columns, the portico leads through a bronze portal to a double staircase ending in an upper hall. The staircase and hall are separated by a colonnade providing a panorama of Berlin The exhibition rooms of the museum are grouped around two inner courtyards; the center of the building is the two-story (23 m), skylit rotunda, which is surrounded by a gallery supported by twenty Corinthian columns. Like the Pantheon in Rome, its interior surface is adorned with coffering (rectangular, sunken panels). A portion of the museum's statue collection is displayed between the rotunda's twenty columns.
    • •From behind the entrance lobby rises a two-winged, grand stairway, which is at once inside and outside, enclosed only with columns. •Schinkel illustrated his idea of the purpose of the building with decorative figures on the walls of the stairway: it should provide material for direct observation and instruction (illustrated by a father and son) but also be able to encourage further thought and discussion (illustrated by two men in the ceilings were built as vaults. After •Originally conversation). the destructions of Second World War the ceilings were rebuilt as reinforced concrete constructions. •The walls are built by quite regular limestone in the basement and brick for the upper storeys.
    • SECTION
    • The Antique Collection The Altes Museum was originally constructed to house all of the city's collections of fine arts. However, since 1904, the museum has housed the Collection of Classical Antiquities. Since 1998 the Collection of Classical Antiquities has displayed its Greek collection, including the treasury, on the ground floor of the Altes Museum. Special exhibitions are displayed on the second floor of the museum. The permanent collection here includes a vast variety of ancient Greek and Roman decorative art including vases and statues.
    • Submitted By Praniti jain 2010uar168 Vinoti Kabara 2010uar144