Thaifruits

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Thaifruits

  1. 1. Introduction Thailand has been exporting fresh fruits for several years now and theDepartment of Agricultural Extension, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives hasnoted that the export of fresh fruits has increased in quantities. However it is still lowcompared with total production. A publicity campaign, therefore, has been launched toacquaint foreign overseas importers and consumers with Thai fruit. This booklet is an attempt to give clear and accurate information aboutfruits in Thailand. It is meant to be a handbook for exporters, importers and consumers,to promote the policy of exporting quality fruits in great quantities. Scientific names offruits are given together with Romanized Thai names. For further information, pleasecontact the Fruit Tree Promotion Group, Bureau of Agricultural Commodity Promotionand Management, Department of Agricultural Extension, Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900Thailand. Tel. 66-2940-6117
  2. 2. Cooperative Business Development Officewww.cpd.go.th www.thaicooperative.com
  3. 3. Preface for Chinese Version Publishing Cooperative Business Development Office, Cooperative Promotion Department and FruitTree Promotion Sub-division, Bureau of Agricultural Commodities Promotion and Management, Depart-ment of Agricultural Extension published çFruit in Thailandé in Chinese in order to disseminateinformation of cooperativesû fruit products and to expand market channel to gigantic fruit market inChina. Cooperative Business Development Office www.cpd.go.th www.thaicooperative.com Cooperative Business Development Office, Cooperative Promotion Department 12 Krungkasem Rd. Theves, Bangkok 10200 Tel. 66-2628-5534, 66-2282-6306 Fax : 66-2628-5534 E-mail : cpd_cbdo@cpd.go.th SECOND EDITION 1,000 COPIES 2006, OCTOBER
  4. 4. CONTENTS
  5. 5. 2BANANA○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○°≈⫬ Common name : Banana Thai name : Kluai Scientific name : Musa spp.
  6. 6. 3 Kluai Hom Weight : approximately 150 g/fruit, thick skin Colour : bright yellow skin; yellowish white fleshKluai Hom Taste : sweet and fragrant Kluai Khai Weight : approximately 50 g/fruit, thin skin Colour : golden yellow skin; yellowish orange flesh Taste : sweet with appetizing fragranceKluai Khai Kluai Namwa Weight : approximately 100 g/fruit, skin of moderate thickness Colour : smoky yellow skin; white sticky flesh Taste : sweetKluai Namwa Usage - Eaten fresh. - Added in fruit salad and desserts. - Make pies, cakes and blender drinks. Nutrition Good source of energy and rich of vitamins A, C, B6 and potassium. (recommened for patients suffering from high blood pressure) Storage - mature green banana : 2-4 weeks at 13-14 ÌC, 90-95 % RH - ripen banana : 5-10 days at 15-20 ÌC, 90-95 % RH - depending on cultivar and maturity stage. If refrigerated, the skins will turn black rapidly. Season availability : year round (peak period of Kluai Khai : Aug.-Nov.)
  7. 7. 4DRAGON FRUIT○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○·°â«¡—ß°√ Common name : Dragon Fruit Thai name : Kaeo Mangkon Scientific name : Hylocereus spp.
  8. 8. 5White FleshShape : elliptical shaped fruit with green sepalsColour : pink skin; white soft and juicy flesh with tiny black seedsTaste : sweetRed FleshShape : elliptical shaped fruit with green sepalsColour : pink skin; pink soft and juicy flesh with tiny black seedsTaste : sweetPreparation and eating1. Cut the fruit in half lengthwise.2. Cut each half into two pieces.3. Slice lengthwise into four pieces.Usage- Eaten fresh.- Added in fruit salad.- Make juice.NutritionRich of vitamin C and fiber. The red fleshvariety contains lycopene which is a natu-ral antioxidant known to fight cancer, heartdisease, and lower blood pressure.Storage14 days at 10 Ì C, 90% RHSeasonavailability : year roundpeak period: May-Oct.
  9. 9. 6DURIAN○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○∑ÿ‡√’¬π Common name : Durian Thai name : Thurian Scientific name : Durian zibethinus Murr.
  10. 10. 7 King of tropical fruits Varieties Chani Shape : the base tapers to a point at theChani stalk, the tip is broad and obtuse Weight : 2-4 kg Colour : greenish brown skin; golden yellow flesh Taste : sweet Kan Yao Shape : globularKan Yao Weight : 2-5 kg Colour : greenish brown skin; creamy yellow flesh Taste : sweet, firm and mellow Kradum Thong Shape : globular Weight : 1.5-3 kgKradum Thong Colour : greenish brown skin; intense yellow flesh Taste : sweet, firm and mellow Mon Thong Shape : elongated, the base has a pronounced beak Weight : 2-5 kg Colour : golden brown skin; creamyMon Thong yellow flesh Taste : sweet Preparation and eating 1. The fruit ready for eating must have a good smell. 2. Slit the fruit with a knife from end to end, along two of the grooves in the skin in the center of the sections, on opposite sides of the fruit. 3. Prise apart the slits to open the fruit. 4. Separate the sections. 5. Take out the segments and remove the seed. Usage - Eaten fresh, frozen. - Make cakes, ice-cream. Nutrition High in energy, protein and various minerals. Storage - mature unripe durian : 10-15 days at 14-16 ÌC, 85-90% RH - ripen durian (whole fruit) : 7-14 days at 13-15 ÌC, 90-95% RH - without refrigeration the ripen fruit has a shelf life only 2-5 days. The pulp can be refrigerated up to 7 days in closed pack aging or frozen for later use. Season availability : year round peak period : Apr.-Aug.
  11. 11. 8GUAVA○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○Ω√—Ëß Common name : Guava Thai name : Farang Scientific name : Psidium guajava L.
  12. 12. 9VarietiesPan Si ThongShape : globularWeight : 500-700 gColour : light green skin, white fleshTaste : crispy, sweet and slightly sourPreparation and eating1. Use a knife to slice the fruit lengthwise into 4-6 pieces.2. Slice off the part containing the seeds.Usage- Eaten fresh.- Make juice.- Added in fruit salad, green salad.NutritionRich of vitamin C, dietary fiber and vita-min B2.Storage- mature-green and partially-ripe : 2-3 weeks at 8-10 ÌC, 90-95% RH- fully ripe : 1 week at 5-8 ÌC, 90-95% RHSeasonavailability : year round
  13. 13. 10JACK FRUIT○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○¢πÿπ Common name : Jackfruit Thai name : Khanun Scientific name : Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.
  14. 14. 11 There are many jackfruit varietiesin Thailand and these varieties areseparated into 2 main groups as follows :1. The yellow flesh groupShape : ovate or oblongWeight : 7-15 kgColour : yellowish brown skin; golden yellow fleshTaste : sweet and fragrant Jackfruits of this group are planted widely.2. The yellowish orange flesh groupShape : ovate or oblongWeight : 7-15 kgColour : yellowish brown skin; yellowish orange fleshTaste : sweet and fragrantPreparation and eating1. Cut the fruit in half lengthwise.2. Wipe out all the latex with paper.3. Remove the core.4. Place each the half fruit on a table or a flat surface; press the skin along the edge down with your hands to separate fruit sections5. Pull out each section.6. Cut open the flesh and remove the seed.Usage- Eaten fresh and frozen.- Added in fruit salad, ice-cream and desserts.NutritionHigh in protein, calcium, phosphorus,vitamins A and C.Storage2-4 weeks at 12-14 ÌC, 85-90% RHdepending on cultivar and maturity stage.The pulp can be refrigerated up to 7 daysin closed packaging.Seasonavailability : year roundpeak period : Apr.-May
  15. 15. 12JAVA APPLE○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○™¡æŸà Common name : Wax jambu, Wax apple. Java apple Thai name : Chomphu Scientific name : Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merr.&L.M.Perry
  16. 16. 13 Varieties Thapthim Chan Shape : big bell shaped fruit Colour : shiny and dark red skin; white thick firm and crispy flesh;Thapthim Chan no seed Taste : sweet and fragrant Thun Klao Shape : cone shaped fruit. Colour : shiny and pale green skin; white thick firmThun Klao and crispy flesh; no seed Taste : sweet with a touch of flavor Preparation and eating 1. Cut the fruit in half lengthwise. 2. Slice each half lengthwise into two pieces. 3. Arrange the pieces on a plate. Usage - Eaten fresh. - Added in fruit salad, green salad. Nutrition Good source of vitamins C, B2 and phos- phorus. Storage 1-2 weeks at 12-14 ÌC, 90-95% RH Season availability : year round peak period : Jan.-Mar.
  17. 17. 14LONGAN○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○≈”‰¬ Common name : Longan Thai name : Lamyai Scientific name : Dimocarpus longan Lour.
  18. 18. 15 Varieties Biao Khiao Shape : globular, but the top distorted Colour : brownish green skin; white flesh Taste : sweet and fragrantBiao Khiao Do Shape : flattened spherical shape Colour : brown skin; white flesh Taste : sweet Si ChomphuDo Shape : globular Colour : reddish brown skin; white flesh with slightly pink Taste : sweet and fragrant Preparation and eating 1. Slit the skin with a knife or using a strong thumb-nail around the fruitSi Chomphu from end to end. 2. Remove the skin. 3. Remove the seed. Usage - Eaten fresh and frozen. - Added in fruit salad and desserts. Nutrition High in sugar and vitamin C. Storage 2-3 weeks at 4-7 ÌC, 90-95% RH Season availability : year round peak period : Jun.-Aug.
  19. 19. 16LONGKONG○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○≈Õß°Õß Common name : Longkong Thai name : Longkong Scientific name : Aglaia sp.
  20. 20. 17Shape : globularColour : creamy yellow skin; smoky white flesh with bitter seedsTaste : sweet with slightly sour and fragrantPreparation and eating1. Press lightly with your fingers to break and open the skin at the stalk point.2. Separate the fruit in half.3. Take the flesh out and it is ready for eating, do not bite the seed because it is bitter.UsageEaten fresh.NutritionGood source of vitamins C, B1, niacin andphosphorus.Storage2-3 weeks at 18 ÌC, 90% RHSeasonavailability : May-Sep.
  21. 21. 18LYCHEE○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○≈‘π®’Ë È Common name : Lychee, Lichi Thai name : Linchi Scientific name : Litchi chinensis Sonn.
  22. 22. 19 Varieties Honghuai Shape : oval Colour : pinkish red skin Taste : sweet, slightly sour and fragrantHonghuai Kimcheng Shape : globular; small seed Colour : bright red skin Taste : sweet, slightly sour and fragrant O-hiaKimcheng Shape : heart shaped Colour : dark red skin Taste : sweet, slightly sour and fragrant Chakraphat Shape : globular Colour : bright red skin Taste : sweet, slightly sour and fragrantO-hia Preparation and eating 1. Slit the skin with a knife or using strong thumb-nail around the fruit from end to end. 2. Remove the skin. 3. Remove the seed.Chakraphat Usage - Eaten fresh and frozen. - Make juice and jam. - Added in desserts. Nutrition Very good source of vitamin C. Storage 3-5 weeks at 2-5 ÌC, 90-95% RH Do not leave the fruits directly exposed to ambient air because the red rind will turn dark brown rapidly Season availability : Apr.-Jun.
  23. 23. 20MANGO○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○¡–¡à«ß Common name : Mango Thai name : Mamuang Scientific name : Mangifera indica L.
  24. 24. 21 Varieties Khiao Sawoei Shape : oblong Colour : dark green skin; yellowish white fleshKhiao Sawoei Taste : sweet, slightly sour and crispy Itûs better to eat at mature green stage Rad Shape : ovate with rounded tip Colour : yellowish orange skin;Rad yellowish orange flesh Taste : sweet and slightly sour Nam Dokmai Shape : ovate with sharppointed tip Colour : golden yellow skin; deep yellow fleshNam Dokmai Taste : sweet and fragrant Preparation and eating ripe mango 1. Carve the flesh lengthwise on both sides, keeping the knife as close as possible to the seed. 2. Chop into squares. 3. Eat with a fork. Usage - Eaten fresh and frozen. - Make juice, jam and sauce. - Added in fruit salad and desserts. Nutrition Rich of vitamins A, C, dietary fiber and various minerals. Storage 2-3 weeks at 10-13 ÌC, 85-90% RH Season availability : year round peak period : Mar.-May
  25. 25. 22MANGOSTEEN○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○¡—ߧÿ¥ Common name : Mangosteen Thai name : Mangkhut Scientific name : Garcinia mangostana L.
  26. 26. 23Queen of tropical fruitsShape : globularWeight : 70-110 gColour : thick skin with dark purple colour; white fleshTaste : sweet juicy and mild fragrantPreparation and eating1. Cut the rind around the middle.2. Open the fruit, the segments inside will stick to the basal part.3. Use a fork to lift the segments out.Usage- Eaten fresh and frozen.- Added in fruit salad and desserts.NutritionGood source of vitamins B1, B2, C,various minerals and dietary fiber.Storage3-4 weeks at 13 ÌC, 90-95% RHSeasonavailability : Apr.-Dec.peak period : Apr.-Aug.
  27. 27. 24PAPAYA○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○¡–≈–°Õ Common name : Papaya Thai name : Malako Scientific name : Carica papaya L.
  28. 28. 25 Varieties Khaek Dam Shape : cylindrical shape with a pointed tip Colour : reddish orange skin; red flesh Taste : sweetKhaek Dam Khaek Nuan Shape : cylindrical Colour : yellow skin; yellowish orange flesh Taste : sweet Preparation and eating 1. Cut the fruit crosswise into rings.Khaek Nuan 2. Peel with a knife. 3. Remove the seeds. 4. Cut into pieces for eating. Usage - Eaten fresh. - Added in fruit salad and desserts. Nutrition High in fiber, vitamins A, C and potas- sium. Storage 1-3 weeks at 13 ÌC, 85-90% RH Season availability : year round
  29. 29. 26PINEAPPLE○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ —∫ª–√¥ Common name : Pineapple Thai name : Supparot Scientific name : Ananas comosus (L.)Merr.
  30. 30. 27 Varieties Pattawia Shape : big, cylindrical, and shallow seedy sections Colour : dark green or yellowishPattawia orange rind; mild yellow flesh Taste : sweet and sour Phuket (Trat Si Thong) Shape : medium, cylindrical, and bulging seedy sections Colour : brownish yellow rind; bright yellow flesh Taste : pungent sweet fragrantPhuket (Trat Si Thong) Preparation and eating 1. Remove the rind with a knife remove all the seedy sections. 2. Slice the fruit lengthwise into 8-10 pieces. 3. Remove the core. 4. Cut up the pieces crosswise and arrange them on a plate. Usage - Eaten fresh. - Make juice and jam. - Added in fruit salad, green salad and desserts. Nutrition High in vitamin C (Fresh pineapple is the perfect ending to a dinner because its enzymes aid digestion) Storage - Pattawia variety : 2-4 weeks at 7-13 ÌC, 85-90% RH - Phuket variety : 1-2 weeks at 15-20 ÌC, 85-90% RH Season availability : year round peak period : Apr.-Jul.
  31. 31. 28PUMMELO○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ â¡‚Õ Common name : Pummelo, Pomelo, Shaddock Thai name : Som-o Scientific name : Citrus grandis Osbeck. : syn. C. maxima Merr.
  32. 32. 29 Varieties Khao Namphung Shape : pear shaped Colour : yellowish green skin; yellowish brown fleshKhao Namphung Taste : sweet Khao Phuang Shape : pear shaped, with a pronounced basal topknot Colour : yellowish green skin; white flesh Taste : sweet and slightly sourKhao Phuang Thong Di Shape : globular Colour : dark green skin; pink flesh Taste : sweet and juicy Preparation and eating 1. Use a knife to curve the outerThong Di green skin off. 2. Use a knife to peel off the white fleshy part of the skin. 3. Use a knife to separate the fruit into two pieces. 4. Separate into segments. 5. Remove the skin on the segments, and the seeds. Usage - Eaten fresh. - Make Juice. - Added in fruit salad. Nutrition summary High in vitamins C, B1 and phosphorus. Storage 4-6 weeks at 12-15 ÌC, 95% RH Season availability : year round peak period : Oct.-Dec.
  33. 33. 30RAMBUTAN○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○‡ß“– Common name : Rambutan Thai name : Ngo Scientific name : Nephelium lappaceum L.
  34. 34. 31 Varieties Rong Rian Shape : ovate Colour : bright red skin with green hair; white fleshRong Rian Taste : sweet and fragrant Si Chomphu Shape : ovate Colour : pink skin with pink hair; white flesh Taste : sweetSi Chomphu Preparation and eating 1. Cut the fruit in lengthwise. 2. Remove the seed. Usage - Eaten fresh and frozen. - Make jam. - Added in fruit salad and desserts. Nutrition High in vitamin C and potassium, various minerals and dietary fiber. Storage 3-5 weeks at 2-5 ÌC, 90-95% RH Do not leave the fruits directly exposed to ambient air, because the hair and red rind will turn dark brown rapidly. Season availability : Apr.-Aug.
  35. 35. 32SALA○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ –≈– Common name : Sala Thai name : Sala Scientific name : Salacca sp.
  36. 36. 33VarietiesNern WongShape : pear shapedColour : dark brown scaly skin; thick soft and juicy yellow flesh; small seedsTaste : sweet with a touch of sour flavorPreparation and eating1. Hold the fruit with both hands.2. Break the skin the small end with your fingers.3. Pull it off around the fruit anticlockwise.4. Arrange flesh on a plate.Usage- Eaten fresh.- Make juice, jam and pickle (in syrup).NutritionGood source of vitamins C and B2.Storage: 8-10 days at ambient condition: 3-5 weeks at 2-5 ÌC, 90-95% RHSeasonavailability : year roundpeak period : Apr.-Aug.
  37. 37. 34SUGAR APPLE○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○πâÕ¬Àπà“ Common name : Sugar Apple Thai name : Noina Scientific name : Annona squamosa L.
  38. 38. 35 Varieties Fai Shape : heart shaped Colour : green skin; white flesh Taste : sweet and fragrantFai Nang Shape : heart shaped Colour : golden yellow skin; white flesh Taste : sweet and fragrant Preparation and eatingNang 1. The fruit is soft fragrant when ripe. 2. Break the fruit open with your hands. 3. Eat the flesh with a spoon, discarding the seeds and skin. Usage Eaten fresh. Nutrition Good source of vitamins C and B2. Storage : 5-7 days at 12-15 ÌC, 90-95% RH : 2-3 days at ambient temperature Season availability : year round peak period : Apr.-Aug.
  39. 39. 36SWEET TAMARIND○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○¡–¢“¡À«“π Common name : Tamarind Thai name : Ma-kham Wan Scientific name : Tamarindus india L.
  40. 40. 37 Varieties Prakai Thong Pod shape : big and slightly straight pod Colour : brown and dusty shell; thick and soft with light brown fleshPrakai Thong Taste : sweet Khanti Pod shape : medium and straight pod Colour : light brown shell; soft and brown flesh Taste : sweet with a slightly sour flavorKhanti Intha-phalum Pod shape : medium and slightly curved pod Colour : brown shell; soft with dark brown flesh Taste : sweet with a touch of sour flavorIntha-phalum Sri Chomphu Pod shape : straight pod Colour : light brown shell; reddish brown soft flesh; seeds can be removed easily Taste : sweet with a touch of sourSri Chomphu flavor Si Thong Pod shape : big and curved pod Colour : brown shell; soft and reddish brown flesh Taste : sweet Preparation and eatingSi Thong 1. Pick up a sweet tamarind pod. 2. Crack the pod and remove the shell. 3. Remove lateral vein fiber from the flesh. 4. Arrange all sweet tamarind flesh on a tray. Usage Eaten fresh. Nutrition High in calcium, phosphorus, iron, vita- mins B1, B2 and C. Storage (in plastic bags at the ambient condition) - dry ripe pods : 4 months - dry ripe pulp : 3 months Season availability : Late Dec.-Feb.
  41. 41. 38TANGERINE○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ â¡‡¢’¬«À«“π Common name : Tangerine Thai name : Som Khiao Wan Scientific name : Citrus reticulata Blanco.
  42. 42. 39Shape : flattened sphere with easily separated sectionsColour : thin yellowish green rind, easy to peel offTaste : sweet and slightly sour, juicyPreparation and eating1. Break open the fruit by pressing your thumbs at the dented spot in the bottom.2. Separate the fruit in half.3. Peel the rind and remove all the fibrous filaments.Usage- Eaten fresh.- Make juice.NutritionHigh in potassium, Betacarotene and vitamin C.Storage2-4 weeks at 5-8 ÌC, 90-95% RHSeasonavailability : year roundpeak period : Oct.-Feb.
  43. 43. 40YOUNG COCONUT○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○¡–æ√â“«ÕàÕπ Common name : Coconut Thai name : Maphrao On Scientific name : Cocos nucifera L.
  44. 44. 41VarietiesNam HomShape : globularColour : green skin, white fleshTaste : tender and sweet flesh; sweet and scent waterPreparation and eating1. Pare the outer rind from the bottom of the coconut (opposite the stalk).2. Cut the bottom of the fruit wide enough for a spoon to scrape the flesh inside.3. Drink the juice with a straw and eat the flesh with a spoon.Usage- Eaten fresh (water and white flesh).- Make pie, jelly and desserts.NutritionGood source of vitamins B1, B2, C, mag-nesium, potassium, phoshorus, manganese,calcium and copper.Storage (de-husked or shaped young fruit)- wrapped : 3-4 weeks at 3-6 ÌC, 90-95 % RH- non wrapped : 2-7 days at ambient temperatureSeasonavailability : year round
  45. 45. 42○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Miscellaneous fruits ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○  “‡° Common name : Bread fruit Thai name : Sa-ke Scientific name : Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg ·§πµ“≈Ÿª Common name : Cantaloupe Thai name : Cantaloupe Scientific name : Cucumis melo L. ¡–‡øóÕß Common name : Carambola, Star fruit Thai name : Mafuang Scientific name : Averrhoa carambola L. ¡–ª√“ß Common name : Gandaria, Maprang, Marian plum Thai name : Ma-prang Scientific name : Bouea macrophylla Griff.
  46. 46. 43○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Õßÿàπ Common name : Grape Thai name : A-ngun Scientific name : Vitis spp. æÿ∑√“ Common name : Jujube Thai name : Phutsa Scientific name : Zizyphus mauritiana Lam. ¡–π“« Common name : Lime Thai name : Manao Scientific name : Citrus aurantifolia Swingle ‡ “«√  Common name : Passion fruit Thai name : Saowarot Scientific name : Passiflora spp.
  47. 47. 44○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Miscellaneous Fruits ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ∑—∫∑‘¡ Common name : Pomegranate Thai name : Thapthim Scientific name : Punica granatum L. √–°” Common name : Rakam Thai name : Rakam Scientific name : Salacca sp. °√–∑âÕπ Common name : Santol Thai name : Kra-thon Scientific name : Sandoricum koetjape Merr. syn. S. indicum Cav. ≈–¡ÿ¥ Common name : Sapodilla Thai name : La-mut Scientific name : Manilkara zapota (L.) van Royen syn. Achras sapota L.
  48. 48. 45○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ¡–¬¡ Common name : Star gooseberry, jimbling Thai name : Ma-yom Scientific name : Phyllanthus acidus Skeels syn. P. distichus (L.)Mull. Arg.  µ√Õ‡∫Õ√’ Common name : Strawberry Thai name : Strawberry Scientific name : Fragaria spp.  â¡µ√“/ â¡‡™âß Common name : Acidless orange Thai name : Som Tra/Som Cheng Scientific name : Citrus sinensis Osb. ·µß‚¡ Common name : Water melon Thai name : Taengmo Scientific name : Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai
  49. 49. 46Thai Fruit Composition Tables (per 100 g edible portion) Carbohydrate Dietary fiber Protein Energy Water Ash Fat Fruit g kcal g g g g g Banana (Kluai Namwa) 69 122 0.8 0.2 29 24 0.9 Banana (Kluai Hom) 77.2 92 1.8 0.7 19.6 - 0.7 Banana (Kluai Khai) 67.7 126 1.4 0.2 29.7 2.2 1 Dragon fruit 84.1 66 1.4 1.2 12.4 2.6 0.9 Durian (Chani) 65.6 158 2.7 5.1 25.4 4.1 1.3 Durian (Mon Thong) 62.9 163 2.2 3.7 30.1 3.1 1.1 Grape (green variety) 85.4 57 0.5 0.1 13.5 1.1 0.5 Grape (red variety) 85.1 58 0.5 0.1 13.8 1.1 0.5 Guava 86.5 52 0.7 0.1 12.1 3.7 0.6 Jackfruit 76.9 91 1 0.3 21 2.3 0.8 Java apple, Wax apple 92 31 0.5 0.1 7.3 1.1 0.2 Jujube 87 50 1 0.1 11.3 2.2 0.6 Langsat 82.9 67 0.9 0.1 15.6 - 0.5 Longan 80.5 76 1.2 0.1 17.5 0.9 0.7 Lychee, Litchi 83.3 65 1 0.2 14.9 - 0.7 Mango (Nam Dokmai; ripe) 79.6 80 0.9 0.2 18.8 1.2 0.6 Mango (Kaew; ripe) 76.7 93 0.6 0.1 22.4 1.6 0.2 Mango (Khiao Sawoei; mature green) 78.6 85 0.8 0.2 19.9 2.7 0.5 Mangosteen 80.9 76 0.5 0.1 18.4 1.7 0.2 Marian plum, Gandaria 86.6 53 0.4 0 12.8 1.5 0.2 Papaya 89.2 41 0.5 0.1 9.5 1.3 0.6 Pineapple 84.4 61 0.4 0.1 14.7 1.2 0.5 Pomegranate 83.9 65 0.6 0.1 15.4 - - Pummelo, Pomelo 88.5 46 0.7 0.4 9.9 0.7 0.6 Rakam 84.5 60 0.5 0.1 14.3 - 0.6 Rambutan 80.9 76 1 0.2 17.6 2 0.4 Sapodilla 77.1 92 0.6 0.5 21.2 8.1 0.6 Sugar apple 72.4 109 1.3 0.2 25.5 2.7 0.6 Sweet orange 84 63 1.2 0.1 14.2 2.4 0.5 Sweet tamarind 12.4 333 2.9 0 80.4 - 4.3 Tangerine 88.4 45 1 0.2 9.9 1.5 0.5 Water melon 93.8 25 0.6 0 5.4 0.3 0.1Source : Institute of Nutrition, 1999, Thai Food composition Tables, Mahidol University, Thailand.
  50. 50. 47 Minerals Vitamins Total vitamin A B2 (Riboflavin) B1 (Thiamine) Beta-carotine Phosphorus Potassium Calcium Sodium Copper Niacin Zinc Iron Cmg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg 10 30 0.6 5 248 0.05 0.1 132 22 0.05 0.03 11 12 14 21 - - - 0.12 0.2 - - - - - 11 6 22 0.6 10 328 0.04 0.1 345 58 0.03 0.11 1.1 1.2 9 32 - - - - - - - - - - 7 7 35 0.9 29 422 0.13 0.2 - - 0.34 0.22 1.5 30 29 34 1.1 6 436 0.11 0.2 - - 0.28 0.19 2.1 36 8 23 0.6 12 151 0.42 0.1 - - 0.03 0.04 0.2 7 9 20 0.5 11 138 0.07 0.1 - - 0.03 0.03 0.2 1 10 17 0.5 15 164 0.03 0.4 - - 0.04 0.08 1.3 145 12 14 - 30 215 0.22 0.2 - - 0.02 0.08 0.7 47 5 15 0.7 66 107 - - - - 0.01 0.21 1.1 32 14 6 0.4 - - - - - - 0.01 0.21 1.1 32 5 35 0.7 - - 0.09 0.2 - - 0.08 0.04 1.7 24 6 36 0.3 7 224 0.13 0.2 - - 0.02 0.06 0.9 24 6 31 0.7 - 180 0.07 0.2 - - 0.02 0.1 0.9 29 6 16 0.3 3 144 0.1 0.1 897 149 0.11 0.06 1.8 5 34 10 0.3 - - - - 1,120 187 - - - - 6 15 0.2 3 142 0.06 0.1 192 32 0.07 0.02 0.5 29 9 14 0.5 - - 0.11 0.1 - - 0.09 0.06 0.1 2 9 4 0.3 - - - - - - 0.11 0.05 0.5 100 15 15 1.1 24 230 0.02 0.1 1,043 174 0.04 0.05 0.4 49 11 9 0.2 5 119 0.04 0.1 11 2 0.09 0.04 0.3 7 28 - - - - - - - - - - - - 15 20 0.6 - - - - 0 0 0.04 0.02 0.4 52 8 18 0.4 - - - - - - - 0.2 - 6 20 19 0.4 3 131 0.07 0.1 - - 0.01 0.01 1 37 15 10 0.2 22 157 0.03 0.1 - - 0.03 0.02 0.4 19 25 35 0.6 7 224 - - - - 0.1 0.13 12 - 26 23 0.3 5 145 0.03 0 - - 0.08 0.03 0.5 34141 165 0.9 - - - - - - 0.46 0.01 1.3 75 29 21 0.4 33 162 0.07 0.1 72 12 0.05 0.03 0.4 15 10 19 0.2 6 78 0.03 0.1 - - 0.03 0.03 0.2 6
  51. 51. 48
  52. 52. 49
  53. 53. 50
  54. 54. 51

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