Linked data and Semantic Web Applications for Libraries


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Linked data and Semantic Web Applications for Libraries

  1. 1. Linked Data and Semantic Applications for Libraries
  2. 2. SECTIONS SPEAKERS Introduction and Overview Vikas Bhushan Base Technologies Sayon Roy Linked Data Principles Debashis Naskar Currents Trends and Implementations Sumanta Bag Conclusion Kaustav Saha 14-Aug-13 2
  3. 3. “As long as you are Green, you are Growing, As soon as you Ripe, you start to Rot”. -Ray Kroc McDonald's Corporation founder 14-Aug-13 3 Image Source :
  4. 4. 14-Aug-13 4 Present Scenario raises 3 key questions : •How efficiently provide access to data to enhance usability? •How to improve visibility of data? •How to enhance application’s findability of data from invisible web? The 3 key Q’s
  5. 5. How we search for information ... about this person? ... about these monuments? ... about these concepts? 14-Aug-13 5 Source: Source: Source: Source:
  6. 6. The Transition Formerly Now 14-Aug-13 6
  7. 7. The Web into Walled Gardens 14-Aug-13 7 Source: The Emerging Web of Linked Data, Chris Bizer, Freie Universität Berlin, SRI International, Artificial Intelligence Center Menlo Park, USA, 24 July 2009
  8. 8. Web of Documents( Hypertextual Web) 14-Aug-13 8
  9. 9. From a Web of Documents to a Web of Data DATABASE Documents DATA 14-Aug-13 9
  10. 10. Web of Data( Semantic Web) 14-Aug-13 10
  11. 11. Vision is becoming Truth 14-Aug-13 11
  12. 12. Linking Open Data Cloud Diagram 14-Aug-13 12 Source : Source:
  13. 13. Base Technologies for Linked Data - Sayon Roy 14-Aug-13 13 Linked Data: An Aid to Semantic Information The Visual and Syntactic Web Semantic Web The Semantic Network Levels of Semantics The Semantic Web Layer Cake
  14. 14. Linked Data: An Aid to Semantic Information Processing • Information processing on semantic web is largely dependent on processing structured data in the form of triples and graphs, which is Linked Data. • Linked Data sources use the Resource Discovery Format for encoding structured data and simplify the linking of units of information by using URI’s for identification and reference. 14-Aug-13 14Source:
  15. 15. The Visual and Syntactic Web • In the visual Web, machines cannot understand the meaning of information present in HTML pages, since they are mainly made up of ASCII codes and images. • The visual Web prevents computers from automating information processing, integration and interoperability. • The Syntactic Web is the collection of documents in the World Wide Web that contain data not just meant to be rendered by Web Browsers, but also to be used for data integration and interoperability purposes. • To “understand” data, a computer needs metadata which is provided by some kind of markup language. 14-Aug-13 15
  16. 16. Semantic Web • The Semantic Web is not a separate web but an extension of the current one, in which information is given well-defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation. (Berners-Lee, Hendler, et al.) 14-Aug-13 16 Source:
  17. 17. The Semantic Network 14-Aug-13 17Source:
  18. 18. Levels of Semantics 14-Aug-13 18 Source:
  19. 19. The Semantic Web Layer Cake 14-Aug-13 19 Source:
  20. 20. Universal Resource Identifier(URI) • A URI is a string or sequence of characters which is used to represent and provide identification to a web resource. • Such unique identification ensures access and interaction with representations of a web resource over a network, typically the World Wide Web. 14-Aug-13 20
  21. 21. • The URL identifies the location from where a Web page can be retrieved. • The URN urn:isbn:3-549-35469-6 identifies a book using its ISBN • The ISBN system for uniquely identifying books provides a typical example of the use of URNs. • URNs and URLs have complementary purposes. 14-Aug-13 21 Source:
  22. 22. Unicode Unicode provides a unique number for every character, no matter what the platform, no matter what the program, no matter what the language. 14-Aug-13 22Source: Source:
  23. 23. XML • A globally accepted standard for data interchange on Web. • Does not communicate the meaning of the data, but is highly helpful for syntactic interoperability and integration. • Through XML the semantics of a particular domain cannot be recognized as XML primarily aims at structured and syntactic representation of data. 14-Aug-13 23
  24. 24. 14-Aug-13 24 Source:
  25. 25. • RDF is a metadata representation language that allows resources to be described through relationships to other resources and literals. • RDF uses XML and is at the base of the semantic web. • The main modelling block in RDF is the statement – a triple <Subject, Predicate, Object>, where: Subject is the resource, which is being described. Predicate is a resource, which determines the type of the relationship. Object is a resource or a literal, which represents the value of the attribute. 14-Aug-13 25
  26. 26. Graphical Representation of a RDF statement (subject, predicate, object) Creator Resource Property Type Property Value Resource 14-Aug-13 26 irShivaramPhotography Sudhir Shivaram
  27. 27. RDF Schema • RDF schema provides a way of building a object model from which the actual data is referenced and which tells us what things really mean. • RDFS allows users to define resources with classes, properties and values. • This allows resources to be defined as instances of classes, and subclasses of classes. 14-Aug-13 27Source:
  28. 28. ‘A formal, explicit specification of a shared conceptualization’ must be machine understandable types of concepts and constraints must be clearly defined not private to some individual, but accepted by a group an abstract model of some phenomenon in the world formed by identifying the relevant concepts of that phenomenon -----By Thomas Robert (Tom) Gruber (1994)
  29. 29. The three major uses of Ontologies are: • To assist in communication between humans and computer. • To achieve interoperability and communication among software systems. • To improve the design and quality design and the quality of software system.
  30. 30. Logic, Proof, and Trust • The purpose of these layers is to state any logical principle and allow the computer to reason by inference using these principles. • Inference engines, also called reasoners, are software applications that derive new facts or associations from existing information. • Proof traces or explains the steps involved in logical reasoning • Trust is the top layer of the semantic web architecture which provides authentication of identity and evidence of trustworthiness of data and services. 14-Aug-13 30
  31. 31. Linked Data Working Principles - Debashis Naskar 3114-Aug-13 The 4 Principles How Linked Data Works? BBC Nature Site Linked Data Working – Pictorial Representation
  32. 32. The 4 Principles • Any conceptual thing can now have a name (URI) on the web. • Those URIs return important information back in a standard format. • This information includes explicit relationships to other things with URIs. • Use HTTP URIs, so that people can look up those names. 3214-Aug-13
  33. 33. URI 33 URL URN 14-Aug-13
  34. 34. How Linked Data Works ? 34 Piranha Pygocentrus Omnivorous relationship is in the genus Eating behavior 14-Aug-13
  35. 35. BBC Nature Site 14-Aug-13 35 Continue...
  36. 36. 14-Aug-13 36 Continue...
  37. 37. 14-Aug-13 37 Continue...
  38. 38. Linked Data Working – Pictorial Representation 38 Piranha Pygocentrus (fishes) Else where on BBC is in the genus arefeaturedin 14-Aug-13
  39. 39. Currents Trends & Implementations - Sumanta Bag 14-Aug-13 39 Some Implementations Implementation in OCLC WorldCat Google Knowledge Graph
  40. 40. Some Implementations • • DBtune • Geonames Ontology • Project Gutenberg • Library Linked Data Project • RDF Book Mashup • BBC News, Nature • OCLC WorldCat • Google Search Engine and many more… 14-Aug-13 40 Source: Source: Source: Source: Source: /
  41. 41. Implementation in OCLC WorldCat Source: 41
  42. 42. OCLC WorldCat 14-Aug-13 42
  43. 43. Linked Data Representation Feature Films 14-Aug-13 43
  44. 44. Google Knowledge Graph 14-Aug-13 44
  45. 45. Conclusion - Kaustav Saha 14-Aug-13 45 Why it is needed? Why is linked data important for libraries? Conclusion
  46. 46. Why it is needed? • It can assemble information from many authority resources at one place. • A world with connections between concepts not just with hyperlinks but by descriptive explicit data relationships.
  47. 47. Why is linked data important for libraries? • People can more easily find library resources on the web. • More creative applications based on library metadata. • Opportunities for cataloging efficiency and innovation.
  48. 48. Conclusion • The library catalogues led to better document discovery, it acts as a link between the user that can be called as a subject and the book as an object in the linked data perspective. • Coding metadata on web can be called as RDF. • In library we describe a product by its metadata likewise in web we do it by URI. • Our catalogues increases the findability, visibility of a document in a library. • Metadata of our library catalogues help in collocation. Linked data has the similar role in semantic web environment by using URIs. • Our LIS has relationships like BT/NT, Genus/Species, class/inclusion. But, in linked data there have been codified explicitly and provided with URIs. 14-Aug-13 48
  49. 49. Reference • Surjith, Krishnamurthy et al ."Publishing Legacy Data as Linked Data: A State of the Art Survey" Library High- Tech ,2013 • C. Bizer, T. Heath, and T. Berners-Lee, “Linked Data—The Story So Far, ”Int’l. J. Semantic Web & Information Systems, to appear, 2009. • Heath, T and Bizer, C(2011). Linked Data: Evolving the web into a Global Data Space. Morgan & Claypool. • Guerrini. M, Possemato. T(2013).Linked data: a new alphabet for the semantic web. Italian Journal of Library and Information Science, 4(1). • Cardoso, J. (ED.). (2007). Semantic Web Services: Theory, Tools, and Applications. New York :Information Science Reference. • Vaidya, P. Harinarayana, N. S. (2013) . Linked Data as an Element to support Resource Discovery : Need for Harmonization of Metadata Standards. 9th International Caliber. • Howarth, Lynne . c. (2012). FRBR and Linked Data : Connecting FRBR and Linked Data. Cataloging & Classification Quarterly, 50 : 763-776. • Tim Berners-Lee, Linked Data- Design Issues. 2006; last changed 2009. (retrieved March 01,2013) . . • Piranha. Retrieved June 10,2013 from • Linked Data for Libraries . Retrieved June 7,2013 from . • Piranha. Retrieved June 10,2013 from • Red-bellied Piranha. Retrieved June 10,2013 from • Knowledge Graph Retrieved June 11,2013 from • Gutenberg Retrieved June 16,2013 from • Dbpedia Retrieved June 20,2013 from • DBtune Retrieved June 20,2013 from : • Geonames Ontology Retrieved June 20,2013 from • Project Gutenberg .Retrieved June 20,2013 from • Library Linked Data Project. Retrieved June 20,2013 from • RDF Book Mashup. Retrieved June 21,2013 from 14-Aug-13 49
  50. 50. Any Question? Source:
  51. 51. Source: