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A liquid-propellant rocket or a liquid rocket is a rocket engine that uses propellants in liquid form. Liquids are desirable because their reasonably high density ...

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  1. 1. Vikalp dongre Vikalp Dongare 1MJ13MAE13
  2. 2. Rocket technology first became known to Europeans following their use by the Mongols Genghis Khan and Ögedei Khan, when they conquered parts of Russia, Eastern, and Central Europe --12th gunpowder (75% of saltpeter, 15% of carbon and 10% of sulphur). The name Rocket comes from the Italian Rocchetta (i.e. little fuse), a name of a small firecracker created by the Italian artificer Muratori in 1379. After that Korea  15th Between 1529 and 1556 Conrad Haas wrote a book that described the concept of multi-stage rockets india The first iron cased and metal-cylinder rocket artillery made from iron tubes, were developed by the weapon suppliers of Tipu Sultan an Indian ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore Vikalp dongre
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  6. 6.  For long distance  Variable thrust- the amount of fuel and rate of burn can be changed in flight  Liquid-fuel boosters are more easily re-usable  Liquid-fueled rockets have higher specific impulse than solid rockets  The primary performance advantage of liquid propellants is due to the oxidizer. Several practical liquid oxidizers (liquid oxygen , nitrogen tetroxide, and hydrogen peroxide) are available which have better specific impulse than the ammonium perchlorate used in most solid rockets  liquid propellants are cheaper than solid propellants Vikalp dongre
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  8. 8. liquid oxygen (LOX, O2) T-Stoff (80% hydrogen peroxid) nitric acid(HNO3) inhibited red fuming nitric acid (IRFNA, HNO3 + N2O4) nitric acid 73% with dinitrogen tetroxide 27% (=AK27) Vikalp dongre
  9. 9. liquid hydrogen(LH2, H2)  kerosene or RP-1 alcohol (ethanol, C2H5OH) hydrazine(N2H4) Aerozine 50 monomethylhydrazine(MMH, (CH3)HN2H2) Vikalp dongre
  10. 10.  LOX and liquid hydrogen, used in the Space Shuttle orbiter  LOX and kerosene (RP-1). Used for the first stages of the Saturn V, Atlas V and Falcon, the Russian Soyuz, Ukrainian Zenit  Nitrogen tetroxide(N2O4) and hydrazine(N2H4), MMH, or UDMH. Used in military, orbital, and deep space rockets because both liquids are storable for long periods at reasonable temperatures and pressure  PSLV  hydrogen peroxide and kerosene  hydrazine(N2H4) and red fuming nitric acid – Nike Ajax Antiaircraft Rocket  monomethylhydrazine (MMH, (CH3)HN2H2) and dinitrogen tetroxide – Space Shuttle orbiter's Orbital maneuvering system (OMS) engines and Reaction control system (RCS) thrusters Vikalp dongre
  11. 11. A liquid Rocket combustion chamber to designed to accommodate And allow to sufficient time for following jobs  Injection ,atomization ,vaporization and even mixing liquid fuel and oxidizer  Thermal decomposition of oxidizer to enable chemical reaction with fuel  Ignition and flame stabilization and combustion of fuel, oxidizer mixture Vikalp dongre
  12. 12.  Even dispersion of combustion products towards the nozzle  The volume ,length and shape of combustion chamber needs to selected To all the steps.  Various fuel and oxidizer combustion provides for characteristic length L* for rocket  L* =CC volume/throat aera The value of L* found experimently Vikalp dongre
  13. 13. Desirable properties of liquid propellant  Low freezing point  High specific gravity  Good chemical stability during storage  High specific heat and high thermal coundtivity , High thermal decomposition  Pumping property – flowablity (under cryogenic condition) Temperature stability of physical property (viscosity ,vapor pressure etc.)Under cryogenic condition. Vikalp dongre
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  18. 18. Currently, six governments have successfully developed and deployed cryogenic rocket engines United States European Space Agency Russia China India CE-7.5 CE-20 Japan Vikalp dongre
  19. 19. GSLV-D5 MK II, launched on January 5, 2014 Vikalp dongre
  20. 20. CE-7.5 The CE-7.5 is a cryogenic rocket engine developed by India to power the upper stage of its GSLV Mk-2 launch vehicle CE-7.5 is a regeneratively cooled, variable thrust, staged combustion cycle engine. Specifications The specifications of the engine: Operating Cycle - Staged combustion Propellant Combination - LOX / LH2 Thrust Nominal (Vacuum) - 75 kN Operating Thrust Range - 73.55 kN to 93.1 kN (To be set at any fix values) Chamber Pressure (Nom) - 58 bar Engine Mixture ratio (Oxidizer/Fuel by weight) - 5.05 Engine Specific Impulse - 454 ± 3 seconds (4.452 ± 0.029 km/s) Engine Burn Duration (Nom) - 720 seconds Propellant Mass - 12800 kg Vikalp dongre
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