2449734578662 SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 2011RAJKOT-JAMNAGAR-VADINAR ROAD PROJECT GUJARATLarsen & Toubro Ltd. ECCD- Infrastructure IC May 2011 – June 2011<br /> Submitted by :<br />Vikalp Awasthi<br /> P.S. Number: 444160<br />Entry Number: 2010CEC3853<br />M.Tech, Construction Technology & Management<br />Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi<br />ACKNOWLEDGMENT<br />First to Almighty for his permanent presence at all times<br />Appreciation is extended towards Mr. Mohan Ramesh, Chief Project Officer, and Rajkot Jamnagar Vadinar Road Project (RJVRP) Site for his invaluable support during the course of my summer training.<br />I am deeply grateful to Mr. Tasleem Attar, Central Planning In charge , Mr. A Thangavel, Head Accounts & Admin ,Mr. PG Arvind Ghosh Head Plant & Machinery , Mr. Debasish Biswas, Stores & Procurement In charge for all their support, guidance and words of wisdom which provided me with the motivation to carry out my summer training in full earnest and who all provided me valuable insights into the various aspects of the construction site and elucidating<br />I extend my warm thanks to the Quality Manager Mr. N Venu Babu , Mr.Krunal Shah and Mr. Chetan Anatwar in letting me know the various quality aspects at the site. <br />I am thankful to the Mr.S.K Tripathy, Mr Yogesh Kantak., Mr. Mangesh Kale and Mr. Pawan Jangid who took time of their busy schedule to share with me their valuable experiences in the construction industry and always lend an ear to my queries and thoughts.<br />I express my thanks to all Sections Head & the staff members of RJVRP Site for their kind help and support extended throughout this training and for having made this training a memorable one.<br />This section cannot be completed without special mention of to Shailendra , Abhijeet , Uday, Riyaz and Amit. their kind cooperation and care they extend towards me . <br />-458622191808<br />CERTIFICATE<br />This is to certify that Mr. Vikalp Awasthi (Entry No 2010CEC3853) Pursuing M.Tech Construction Management and Technology (BIS XIII bath) in IIT Delhi, has successfully undergone Summer Training in Rajkot Jamnagar Vadinar Road project site, Gujarat, India, for a period of 6 weeks during May-June 2011. During his training at Gujarat, he has been given exposure to different working systems of L&T – ECC Division and other Training Objectives.<br />Chief Project Officer<br />ABBREVIATIONS:<br />L&T :Larsen & Toubro Limited<br />ECC :Engineering Construction & Contracts<br />LOI :Letter of Intent<br />RJVRP :Rajkot Jamnagar Vadinar Road Project<br />BU :Business Unit<br />CV :Contract Value<br />EIP :Enterprise Information Portal<br />EHS :Environment Health and Safety<br />MPCS : Management Planning & Control System<br />MRM : Management Review Meeting<br />OH :OverHeads<br />PHE :Public Health Engineering<br />PPE :Personal Protective Equipment<br />PQP :Project Quality Plan<br />PQR :Product Quality Report<br />P&M :Plant and Machinery<br />QMS : Quality Management System<br />UOM :Units of Measurement<br />TC :Test Certificate<br />BC :Bituminous Concrete<br />DBM :Dense Bituminous Macadam<br />BM :Bituminous Macadam<br />WMM :Wet Mix Macadam<br />GSB :Granular Sub Base<br />PO :Purchase Order<br />MR : Material Requisition<br />LIFO :Last In First Out<br />FIFO :First In First Out <br />INDEX<br /> <br />Chapter 1 Project Details<br />1.1 Project Overview<br />1.2 Project Location<br />1.2.1 General<br />1.2.2 Project Logistic Plan<br />1.2.3 Quarry and Crushers<br />1.3 Contract Highlights<br />1.3.1 Details of section with chainages<br />1.4 Scope of Work<br />1.4.1 Road works<br />1.4.2 Bridges and Structures<br />Chapter 2 Contract Document Review<br />2.1 Grant of Concession <br />2.1.1 Performance Security <br />2.1.2 User Fee <br />2.2 Obligations and Undertakings<br />2.2.1 Disclaimer <br />2.3 Project Developments and Operations <br />2.3.1 Liquidated Damages <br />2.3.2 Tests <br />2.3.3 Change of Scope <br />2.3.4 Operation and Maintenance <br />2.3.5 Monitoring and Supervision<br />2.3.6 Independent Engineer <br />2.3.7 Traffic Sampling <br />2.4 Financing Arrangements <br />2.4.1 Financial Close <br />2.4.2 Escrow Arrangement <br />2.4.3 Insurance <br />2.5 Force Majeure <br />2.5.1 Material Breach on Suspension <br />2.5.2 Termination <br />2.6 Defects Liability <br />2.7 Dispute Resolution <br />2.8 Miscellaneous <br />2.9 Part-1: Schedules <br />2.10 Part-1: Sections <br />Chapter 3 project Planning<br />
3.2 Management Planning and Control System (MPCS)<br />3.2.1 Tendering<br />3.2.2 Scheduling System<br />3.3 Enterprise Information Portal (EIP)<br />3.4 Billing<br />3.4.1 Sub Contractor Billing<br />3.4.2 Sequence of Bill Generation<br />Chapter 4 Management Information System<br />4.1 Accepted Cost Estimate (ACE)<br />4.2 Job Cost Report (JCR)<br />4.3 Monthly Progress Report<br />4.4 Performance Report<br />4.5 System Compliance Report<br />4.6 Financial Parameters<br />Chapter 5 Construction Wok methods<br />5.1 Introduction<br />5.2 Activity Sequence<br />5.2.1 Survey and Design<br />5.2.2 Clearing and Grubbing<br />5.2.3 Excavation and Embankment construction<br />5.2.4 Sub-Grade<br />5.2.5 Granular Sub-base<br />5.2.6 Wet Mix Macadam<br />5.2.7 Kerb laying<br />5.2.8 Prime coat and Tack coat<br />5.2.9 DBM<br />5.2.10 BC<br />Chapter 6 Quality Management System & Project Quality Plan<br />6.1 Quality Management System<br />6.2 Process Flowchart for Site Operations<br />6.3 Quality Policy<br />6.4 Project Quality Plan<br />6.5 Preparation of Project Quality Plan<br />6.6 Quality Control<br />6.7 Roles and Responsibilities of Site QA/QC In Charge<br />Chapter 7 Environment, Health and Safety<br />7.1 Assessment of EHS Plan<br />7.2 Clauses of the EHS Plan<br />7.2.1 Objectives of the EHS plan <br />7.3 Environment <br />7.4 Safety Management<br />7.5 Safety Indices<br />Chapter 8 Productivity of Staff, Labour and P&M<br />8.1 Productivity of Staff<br />8.2 Productivity of Workmen<br />8.3 Productivity of Plant & Machinery<br />8.4 Plant and Machinery as a Business Unit<br />Chapter 9 Material Management<br />9.1 Material Management<br />9.1.1 Procurement <br />9.1.2 Stores<br />9.1.3 Inventory<br />9.1.4 Dispatch and Disposal<br />9.1.5 Material Classification and codification<br />126.96.36.199 Material Code<br />Chapter 10 Accounts Administration and Industrial Relations<br />10.1 Introduction<br />10.1.1 General Accountability<br />10.1.2 Statutory Compliance<br />10.1.3 Bill settlement and scrutiny<br />10.1.4 Time Office<br />Conclusion<br />CHAPTER 1<br />PROJECT DETAILS<br />
The state of Gujarat is one of the highly developed states in India and the Government of the State. Its road transportation has formulated a policy in December 1996, called the “Road Policy” whereby enabling private participation in the development, construction, repair, up gradation, management, operation and maintenance of the roads within the state.<br />The scope of our work is to construct 4 lane road on the existing 2 lane SH (25) from Rajkot to Vadinar Port connectivity junction-via Jamnagar bye pass CH 3+00 to CH 125+400 including Rajkot Bye pass (spur road) of length 5.30 KM. This road is running in the Saurashtra region of western Gujarat and connects Rajkot and Dwarka (Pilgrim centre) and Okha (Western Tip of India) through Jamnagar and Khambaliya. The traffic intensity of this road is very good, especially towards Rajkot, due to heavy traffic from Reliance & Essar refineries / Liquid Gas from Western Ports. There will be a future growth on the traffic population due to oncoming SEZs at Rajkot & Jamnagar (Reliance) and new ports on the western coast near Okha/ Dwarka. <br /> <br />
1.2.1 GENERAL<br />56769060325<br /> <br />1.2.2PROJECT LOGISTIC PLAN<br />-11188701520190<br />1.3 CONTRACT HIGHLIGHTS<br />Project NameRajkot Jamnagar Vadinar Road ProjectType of ContractBuild Operate and Transfer basisLocation/CountryGujarat, IndiaContract DescriptionConstruction of additional two lane for the Rajkot-Jamnagar-Vadinar Road Project (RJVRP) under Viability Gap Funding Scheme of GOI on BOT BasisJob Code No.LE080311Contract scope131.65 KmOwnerGujarat State Road Development CorporationConcessionaireL&T Rajkot - Vadinar Tollway Private Limited Independent EngineerLASA / Stanley ConsultantProject Manager ConsultantFeedback Ventures Private LimitedEPC ContractorLarsen & Toubro – ECC Division, Infra OCEPC Design ConsultantSheladia Associates U.S.A IncSafety ConsultantMott MacDonald Private Ltd. MumbaiOriginal Contract Value`867.5 CroresRevised Contract Value`867.5 CroresSigning date of Concession Agreement12 Sept 2009Original Date for Financial ClosureSigning date of Financial ClosureProject Duration820 daysConcession Period20 Years from financial closure including construction period of 820 daysExpected Date of Project completion(Construction)09 Nov 2011Contract HighlightsThe contract is obtained by IDPL on Lump sum + Fixed Margin basis from GSRDC; it operates under the SPV named L&T Rajkot–Vadinar Tollway private limited. ECC executes the construction work on EPC Turnkey basis.<br />1.3.1 DETAILS OF SECTION WITH CHAINAGES <br />Staring ChainageEnd ChainageLength (Km)Section35047Rajkot-Dhrol506313Dhrol-Falla6378.615.6Falla-Jamnagar Bypass78.697.819.2Jamnagar Bypass94125.5531.55Jamnagar-Vadinar Junction (Including Vasai Bye Pass at Km 104, Length 750 m 05.35.3Additional Spur Road of Rajkot-Morbi BypassTotal131.65<br />1.4 SCOPE OF WORK<br />1.4.1 Road works<br />Sl. NoItem of WorkUOMPKG1PKG2PKG3Total Scope RJVRP1Site ClearanceHa83691112632Earthwork excavationCum92936983971347873261203Earthwork in Embankment & SubgradeCum95942590640697378128396124GSBCum1427611390471658144476225WMMCum1935581619551104874660006KERBRm9165778000838212534787Bituminous WorksCum113111968601254443354158ConcreteCum400784286945626128573<br />1.4.2 Bridges and Structures<br />Type of Structure UOMPackage 1Package 2Package 3Total Scope RJVRPBox /Slab CulvertNos.41221982Hume Pipe CulvertNos.326163156Minor BridgeNos.26211360Major BridgeNos.25714UnderpassNos.43310ROBNos.2024Cattle CrossingNos.<br />CONTRACT VALUE DISTRIBUTION S.NoDescriptionAmount (in Lacs)Percentage Remarks1Site Clearance 244971410.30% 2Earthwork 6714721527.77% 3Granular Sub base2210457892.60% 4Wet mix Macadam 6446767027.40% 5Bituminous work217536632925.10% 6Rigid Pavement531233970.60% 7Culverts & Minor Bridges7055409588.10% 8Major Bridges & ROB7226268408.30% 9Reinforced Earth Wall2460548522.80% 10Drainage and Protective work5850608156.80% 11Arboricultre316662620.40% 12Road Furniture1000919501.20% 13Toll Plaza 807450630.90% 14Electrical 635000000.70% 15Misc470721820.50% 16Overhead6648605567.77% 17VAT1340368411.50% 18Design Fee818297900.90% 19Risk & Contigencies3718443824.30% 20Profit Margin103978800012.00% TOTAL8664900001100.0% <br />1.5 CONTRACT COST BREAKUP<br />CHAPTER 2<br />CONTRACT DOCUMENT REVIEW<br />2.1 GRANT OF CONCESSION<br />GSRDC has granted the concession to L&T RAJKOT VADINAR TOLLWAY PRIVATE LIMITED, (concessionaire) to construct, operate and maintain the Project for a period of 20 years commencing from the appointed date. The concessionaire has accepted the concession and agreed to implement the project in accordance with the terms and conditions set.<br />The concession granted has entitled the concessionaire to:<br />
Right of Way, access and license to site
Construct the project Highway
Manage, operate and maintain the project highway and regulate the use thereof by third parties
Bear and pay all cost, expense and charges in connection with the agreement.
2.1.1CONDITIONS PRECEDENT<br />There are certain conditions precedents which are required to be fulfilled by both the concessionaire and GSRDC. GSRDC shall provide the Right of Way, Environment and forest clearance, NOC for state pollution control board. With reference to the concessionaire the performance security has to be provided, the concessionaire must have procured all the necessary permits and executed and procured execution of Escrow agreement, substitution agreement and financial agreement and finally they are to be submitted to the GSRDC<br />2.1.2PERFORMANCE SECURITY<br />For construction period<br />A performance security of 5% is to be submitted along with the tender documents. Once the contract is awarded, the performance security has to be given within 180 days from the date of signing the agreement; upon submission of the performance security, the bid security will be released.<br />For operation period<br />A maintenance security of 1% of the TPC has to be submitted to GSRDC 15 days before the Commercial Operation Date (COD). Within 30 days of submission of the maintenance security, the performance security will be replenished.<br />2.1.3 USER FEE<br />The total length of the road is divided into 3 stretches and the distance between each toll plaza has been described. The concessionaire can appoint a tolling contractor to collect the fee for and on behalf of the concessionaire.<br /> The frequent travellers will be given the concession; a sum total of 160% of the total payable fee is collected for the two ways round trip.<br />Additional fee will be collected in case of evasion or overloading of the vehicles.<br />2.1.4 CONCESSION FEE, OTHER FEES AND EXCESS REVENUE SHARING<br />Concession fee equal to ` 1 p.a shall be paid to GSRDC<br /> Additional Concession fee equal to 12.95% of the total realisable fee for the respective year is to be paid commencing from zero days from COD<br />Development fee equal to 2% shall also be paid by concessionaire to GSRDC within 15 days from the appointed date<br />Lease fee of `1 per year will be paid in consideration to the grant of project land on lease<br />2.2 OBLIGATIONS AND UNDERTAKINGS<br />A disclaimer is given stating that all the details are given for the best interest of the concessionaire and GSRDC is not liable for the surety of the data. It also says that, the concessionaire has to visit the site, collect data themselves for any of their reliable usage. <br />2.3 PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND OPERATIONS<br />2.3.1 Liquidated damages <br />The liquidated damage imposed is 0.01% of the TPC per day. An upper ceiling on the amount is not mentioned <br />If the project does not complete and begin operation even after of the COD as per the contract GSRDC has the right to terminate the contract <br /> 2.3.2 Tests <br />A 30 day notice has to be given to the IE before the final completion for the IE to inspect and provide the provisional certificate <br />If there are any small corrections to be made, the items are noted in the punch list and the concessionaire is required to complete it within 90 days of COD. If it not done in the stipulated time, a LD of 0.01% of TPC will be imposed on the concessionaire <br /> 2.3.3Change of scope <br />If the concessionaire has any change in the scope for any reasons, it should be notified to GSRDC 30 days in advance <br />If the change in scope is 0.25% of TPC, it has to be borne by the concessionaire; if it is any greater amount, it will be compensated by GSRDC <br />The concessionaire can nullify any change in scope if the cumulative costs for all change in scope exceeds 5% of TPC in any continuous 3 years or 20% of the TPC in the entire project duration <br />2.3.4 Operation and Maintenance: <br />The concessionaire is required – <br />i) to maintain all structures in good condition till the end of the agreement period <br />ii) Submit maintenance manual 180 days prior to completion and update every 3 years <br />iii) to provide maintenance programme to be carried out 45 days prior to beginning of each accounting year <br />Independent engineer to confirm the same in 15 days of receipt of maintenance programme <br />2.3.5 Monitoring and supervision: <br />The concessionaire is required to– <br />i) to furnish a monthly report within seven days to GSRDC during construction and maintenance <br />ii) to take necessary actions on the „inspection report‟ submitted by independent engineer <br />iii) to provide maintenance programme to be carried out 45 days prior to beginning of each accounting year <br />In case the project is foreseen to delay, GSRDC will notify concessionaire about this and they are expected to reply in 15 days, the steps taken to achieve COD <br />2.3.6 Independent engineer: <br />To be allotted by the GSRDC within 90 days of the signing of the concession agreement <br />Full remuneration to be borne by the concessionaire on all expenses of the IE <br />GSRDC can terminate the IE at any time but only on appointment of another IE <br /> 2.3.7 Traffic sampling: <br />Concessionaire to <br />i) Install, operate and maintain electronic counters at all toll plazas <br />ii) Provide summary of traffic data when required by GSRDC <br />2.4 Financing arrangements <br />2.4.1 Financial close <br /> Concessionaire to <br />i) Achieve financial close within 240 days from the date of concession agreement and a further period not less than 120 days can be allowed <br />ii) For all days extending beyond that, a sum of 0.1% of performance security is liable for each day of delay <br />2.4.2 Escrow account: <br />Concessionaire to <br />i) Open as Escrow account prior to appointed date <br />ii) Deposit amount in the same order as that given during concession period or upon termination <br />All transactions to or by GSRDC to be done through this account <br />2.4.3 Insurance: <br />Concessionaire to <br />i) Provide details of insurance cover it proposes to effect to GSRDC within 45 days of signing of the concession agreement <br />ii) Waive any and all rights of subrogation or recovery of the insurers against GSRDC <br />2.5 Force majeure: <br />Applicable in case of direct or indirect or non-political events, <br />Affected party to notify the other within 14 days of occurrence of a force majeure in order to be entitled for any relief <br />The project completion date, concession period and financial close to be extended by a period equal to the duration of force majeure <br />Reimbursement:<br />i) Non-political event – parties to bear their respective costs <br />ii) Indirect political event – half of any amount exceeding insurance cover will be reimbursed by GSRDC <br />iii) Political event – all costs to be reimbursed by GSRDC <br />If force majeure occurs for 180 days in a period of 365 days, either party can terminate the contract giving a prior termination notice of 30 days to the other <br />Payment on termination:<br /> <br />i) Non-political event – GSRDC will reimburse 90% of debt due less insurance claim <br />ii) Indirect political event – GSRDC will pay debt due less claim and 110% of adjusted equity <br />2.5.1 Material breach and suspension: <br />Concessionaire shall lose all or any rights under this agreement including the right to collect fees and revenues from the highway project <br />GSRDC to use the fees and revenues during the suspension period and provide a reasonable amount of time if the concessionaire wishes to remedy such action <br />The suspension of rights can be revoked once the concessionaire has remedied the material breach during suspension in a satisfying manner <br />Concessionaire to pay a compensation including all direct and indirect costs to GSRDC within 30 days of receiving the notice or in 3 semi annual payments with interest @ SBI PLR plus 2% <br />In case of GSRDC causing the breach, it is required to reimburse all costs to the concessionaire or extend the concession period, as determined by the IE <br />2.5.2 Termination: <br />In case the defaults specified below occurs and concessionaire fails to remedy the defect in the mentioned cure period or 60 days otherwise, GSRDC can stand to terminate the contract <br />1. Failure to achieve: <br />i) Financial closure <br />ii) Project milestone <br />iii) Material breach <br />2. Creation of encumbrance, charges or liens in favour of any person share holders voluntarily wind up the concessionaire <br />3. Concessionaire to be declared bankrupt or insolvent <br />4. Recalling of loans by senior lenders <br />5. Abandonment of project for continuous 15 days other than force majeure reasons by the concessionaire <br />6. Delaying any payment beyond 90 days by the concessionaire <br /> In case of termination by GSRDC, it shall reimburse total debts plus 120% of total subordinated debts and 150% of adjusted equity <br />2.6 Defects liability: <br />The first inspection is to be held within 30 to 45 after the beginning of the project and the second inspection is to be carried out between 6 to 9 months prior to the expiry of the concession period <br />The IE has to give a notice to corrects within 45 days of inspection and the concessionaire has the same period to agree or not to<br />If no agreement is reached even after 15 days after the 45 day period, the issue has to be settled with the Dispute Review Board (DRB) <br />2.7 Dispute resolution <br />Conciliation is setup first and any dispute is taken up. IE is appointed to mediate the conciliation <br />If the issue cannot be settled by IE, then it is taken up with the secretary, Roads and Building Department, Government of Gujarat (GOG) <br />Any issue has to brought up within 15 days of occurrence and has to be settled in 30 days after it has been brought up <br />If it is beyond the time frame, it has to be taken up by arbitration consisting of 3 arbitrators <br />2.8 Miscellaneous <br />GSRDC and the concessionaire indemnify each other against any damages caused by the other party <br />The property tax need not to be paid by the concessionaire <br />The concessionaire is required to allow free access to some nominated officials from the GOG for their site visits and inspection <br />The concessionaire is required to disclose all the documents for the public usage including the note at toll plazas that the documents are available for public; the safety documents have to be maintained and circulated to all the associated people <br />Public Relations Officer (PRO) should be available at all toll plazas to get the complaints from public. A complaint register should also be maintained at all toll plazas <br />The concessionaire should not themselves or allow others for any commercial advertisements on the project highway <br />The law of GOG will be binding on the entire project agreement<br />2.9 Volume -2: part-1: schedules <br />The following items were given in detail under the schedules. As they were technical details, the topics alone are listed below: <br />A – Site of the project <br />B – Development of the project highway <br />C – Project facilities <br />D – Specification and standards <br />E – Applicable permits <br />F – Performance security <br />G – Fee notification <br />H – Project completion schedule <br />I - drawings <br />J - Tests <br />K – Completion certificate <br />L – Maintenance requirements <br />M – Monthly fee statement <br />N – Selection of IE <br />O – Traffic sampling <br />P – Escrow arrangement <br />Q – State support agreement <br />R – Safety requirements <br />S – Panel of charted accountants <br />T – Substitution agreement <br />U – Vesting certificate <br />V – PCU factors <br />W – Excess revenue sharing 13 <br />2.10 Volume -2: part-1: sections <br />1 - General <br />2 – Geometric design <br />3 – Design and general features <br />4 – Intersection and grade separations <br />5 - Embankment <br />6 – Pavement design <br />7 – Highway drainage <br />8 – Design of structures <br />9 – Material and specification for structures <br />10 – Traffic control devices and road safety works <br />11 – Toll plazas <br />12 – Road side furniture <br />13 – Landscaping and tree plantation <br />14 – Project facilities <br />15 - Specific requirement for hill road<br />CHAPTER 3<br />PROJECT Planning<br />3.1 INTRODUCTION<br />Planning is the most important part in a project since the optimized time frame for the project is obtained through the forward or backward iterations. Therefore, setting out milestones for the frozen time frame becomes possible. During planning, distribution of various resources like men, material, machinery and money (inflow and outflow of cash) is done. Planning is a mere application of common sense that is prone to be influenced by the external and internal factors such as seasonal changes, availability of resources etc. Planning framework of ECC division constitutes of<br />Management Planning & Control System (MPCS)<br /> Enterprise Information Portal (EIP)<br />Microsoft Project (MSP) tool is used for creating baseline schedule (S0) and other schedules are prepared based on it are created using Microsoft Excel. Initial Man power requirement is calculated based on the prior experience with same type of work and validated at the execution stage so that the required or surplus manpower is identified during the work progress and corrective action will be taken accordingly. The execution is carried based on the drawings released by the EDRC of L&T ECC division. Revisions and change orders are issued as and when there is a change and distributed to all the units. <br />The planning system is updated in the first week of every month. Two progress schedules are maintained – original schedule prepared in the starting of the project, planned schedule which is modified according to the requirements and conditions. Actual progress is compared with the planned schedule and any delay in progress is compensated in the next months according to the ratio of their planned work amounts. The scheduling system is described in detail in the MPCS.<br />3.2 Management Planning and Control System (MPCS)<br />MPCS provides a strong foundation for meticulous planning as it acts as a tool for stringent monitoring, to reveal the status or progress of the project, to take corrective measures for the alarming areas and drive towards achieving right resources at the right place at the right time. Control system helps to monitor the deployment and effective utilization of various resources, and control or accelerate the progress of work against planned pace and to predict the result at in-between stages by taking proper corrective action. The success of the project is depends upon proper planning even though a very good execution team available. It can be achieved by proper sub systems, namely<br />Tendering system<br />Scheduling system<br />Monitoring System<br />Management Information System (MIS)<br />3.2.1 TENDERING <br />188.8.131.52 TENDERING PROCESS<br />Preparation and submission of a tender to the client is called tendering process.<br />Unit costs of various works are computed approximately by previous experience of work in that area (Ex. availability of resource, labor, water, power, environmental and soil condition, etc in that area) and the project cost is estimated for quoting the price at the time of tender.<br />Forms a framework for scheduling <br />The market price in that area is available with respective regional project manager (RPM) who will update it frequently. <br />184.108.40.206 TENDERING SYSTEM<br />A planning exercise as part of the preparation of tender is called as tendering system. In this tentative construction, schedule and construction methods are decided and the accuracy of unit cost assumed is analyzed based on the resource requirements, costs involved etc. These schedules (T0, T1 … T10), similar to that of scheduling, provide a framework for the next stage ‘scheduling’. The tender schedules provide first hand information to project the Project profitability and liquidity. This system is not used for direct monitoring of the resources, as the Execution-In-Charge is not involved and due to lack of sufficient details.<br />SCHEDULING SYSTEM<br />Construction planning at site ensures that the good practices are followed uniformly in all respects and that our procedures and modalities of work are transparent and become known to all concerned within the organization.<br />A detailed initial schedule is made to complete the project in stipulated time and to estimate and enable timely mobilization of resources – man, materials and machinery. The Budgeted cost of work scheduled (BCWS) is calculated and the monthly targets of billing, costs and contribution are projected from it. Monthly physical work targets and milestones, timely sub-contractors employment are assessed. Eleven schedule formats (S0, S1 … S10) are made in this system. They are,<br />S0 –Schedule of Construction Program (Baseline schedule)<br />S1–Schedule of Invoicing<br />S2–Schedule of Milestone Events<br />S3–Schedule of Plant & Machinery requirement<br />S4–Schedule of Staff requirement<br />S5–Schedule of Labor requirement<br />S6–Schedule of Material requirement<br />S7–Schedule of Specialist Agencies<br />S8– Schedule of Direct Costs <br />S9–Schedule of Overheads<br />S10–Schedule of Liquidity forecast<br />Schedule of Construction Program (S0)<br />It is the most important schedule in a project through which scope of the project is studied in detail. It runs through the entire execution of the project and forms a basis of micro planning at the site. It helps in forming a major input for other schedules viz. S1 to S10. It is updated every month to reflect the progress of the execution of works and thereby helps to take corrective action. The pre requisites for drafting this schedule includes the Construction Methods, Resource Deployment Decision, Seasonal Influences, Productivity Data, Duration, External Factors Influencing Work, Long Lead Items, Restricting Working Hours, and Logistics.<br />-503555284480<br />220.127.116.11 Schedule of Invoicing (S1)<br />This schedule will form the basis for the monitoring progress of invoicing. Here the quantities of work to be done each month for major items of work are considered.<br />18.104.22.168 Schedule of Milestone Events (S2)<br />This schedule is the summary of the most important events/ intermediate milestones, particularly those included in the contract and others which involve external agency interfaces. This schedule will help in understanding and monitoring the project progress at a glance.<br />22.214.171.124 Schedule of Plant & Machinery requirement (S3)<br />This schedule helps that the right plant and machinery is mobilized at the right time. These schedules are compiled region wise at the Head Quarters thereby to help the management in deciding inter region mobilization, external hiring and new procurement. In addition, this forms the basis of the demobilization plan. It is to be updated fortnightly for mobilization or demobilization and to be updated monthly wise thereafter.<br />126.96.36.199 Schedule of Staff requirement (S4)<br />This schedule helps in timely mobilization of the required staff. Usually the S4 Schedules of different projects are compiled at the Regional Office or Head Quarters which helps the management in deciding inter- region transfers, short term recruitment and permanent recruitment. S4 Schedule forms the basis for demobilization plan. It is updated during mobilization and de-mobilization.<br />188.8.131.52 Schedule of Workforce requirement (S5)<br />This schedule helps in stage wise mobilization of the workmen, particularly skilled workmen like carpenters, masons, welders, fitters etc. It ensures that there are no peaks or troughs in the workmen requirement through leveling of these resources. Therefore housing and temporary infrastructure requirements like labour colonies can be planned. For larger projects category wise histograms are prepared. It is updated monthly.<br />184.108.40.206 Schedule of Material requirement (S6)<br />A basic monthly requirement of all types of material (such as aggregates, bricks, structural/ reinforcement steel, formwork materials, timber, roofing sheets, pipes, beams etc.) is found out based on S0. It helps to achieve best possible rates from the right source. Factors like monsoon, union budget and other local factors are also considered in this schedule. It is updated at the end of every month.<br />220.127.116.11 Schedule of Specialist Agencies (S7)<br />This schedule list out items of work which are to be carried out by specialist agencies i.e., items of work not normally done by ECC Group as a matter of routine but through these agencies (e.g. water proofing, insulation, plumbing false ceiling, termite treatment etc.) and also the dates by which these items of work should be commenced as per S0.<br />18.104.22.168 Schedule of Direct Costs (S8)<br />This schedule help in computing the total cost of project at the scheduling stage along with S9 in which the direct cost includes the cost for specialized agency, labour wages, plant and material and the indirect cost includes overheads, VAT, contingency, Labour cess, design fees and service tax. This schedule forms the basis of original estimate in JOB COST REPORT. <br />22.214.171.124 Schedule of Overheads (S9)<br />This schedule helps in calculating the indirect cost of the project.<br />126.96.36.199 Schedule of Liquidity forecast (S10)<br />This schedule will give the cash flow requirements of the job and differences between outflow and inflow. (Cost – Sales)<br />As the projection of monthly resources requirement is difficult beyond a period of six months, most of the schedules will be prepared on a monthly basis initially for the following six months and on a quarterly basis thereafter. <br />The cost of project after approval by the Regional office will be the “Accepted Cost Estimate” (ACE). <br />
The Monitoring system helps in continuously keeping track of the project
performance. The main objectives of monitoring system are :
To monitor project by measuring physical progress, costs and contribution against targets fixed at the time of scheduling.
To help in taking corrective actions as and when required.
To provide data for MIS reports
3.3 ENTERPRISE INFORMATION PORTAL (EIP)<br />
The Enterprise Information Portal (EIP) of ECC is a web-enabled Project Management system. This EIP solution covers all phases of construction cycle - Design Development, tendering/bidding, budgets, planning, procurement and even construction scheduling. EIP integrates all stakeholders like - architects, designers, vendors, sub-contractors, clients and L&T on a single platform to deliver the Business Value to the organization. It is an Enterprise Model which is having linkage between its modules and also with Project monitoring tool, so called MSP Template. This enables the effective connectivity between Site – Region – HQ and also with Vendors and customers.
The various modules of the EIP system are:
1. FIN (Financials)
This module is mainly used for all Accounts activities at sites. The system takes care of booking of Cash & Bank Transactions, Suppliers and Subcontractors bills and the payment made to them for a particular period. The system keeps track of the payments made to all the staff at sites. In addition to it, the system prepares all the necessary report required at site level on a Fortnight / Monthly / any given period<br />
2. CRM (Customer Relations Management)
This module is used to raise the invoice against the work done, based on the measurement taken, by the Site Engineer. The invoice has to be certified by the client. The certified invoice as well as the billed invoice data is used in the system. <br />
3. SCM (Supply Chain Management)
Mainly used for Material Request Creation & authorization, indent, DC creation, MRN creation and generates reports such as Stock statement & MIB. S6 i.e. the schedule for material gives the projected value of material required on the site, on this basis a material requisition is made the hard copy of which has to be approved by the project manager. The request for material is loaded into this module in EIP; the materials is then purchased by the Regional Office and send to the specific site, where material verification is done and then a material receipt note (MRN) is made. This material is kept in stock. It is issued if against an intent signed by an authorized person.
4. AMS (Asset Management System)
The Site Asset Management System (AMS) enables the P&M personnel to record the daily log sheets, major repairs carried-out & working details for ECC owned equipment and externally hired equipment at site. With this information, the system generates Monthly plant performance report (MPR) and Plant cost statement (CP), repair history so on
5. WOM (Work Order Management)
All transactions of the sub contractor are done on this module. A work order is prepared for the contractor on the basis of work to be done, the work order specifies the quantity of work to be done as well as the rate and it also gives other details related to the work to be done. If the sub contractor has to be supplied with materials whether on chargeable or free basis, a WO Material provision is made. The SMS will issue materials to the sub contractor on the work order material tag reference.
Apart from these site level modules, EIP also has some other modules relevant to management level<br />
Getting rid from Masters and transactions upload and download
No scope for backend correction.
High Secured data component
Real time processing
Transparency of data
Aiming towards paperless office
One point of focus
Real status about the Project performance at any time
3.4.1 SUB CONTRACTOR BILLING<br />Payment to sub contractor labour for various works such as formwork ,concreting, block work, reinforcement tying, bar bending, structural steel erection and other works are made generally on monthly basis and managed using the Work Order Management system in EIP.<br />Initially the subcontractor registers with L&T and is given a unique vendor code. A work order is then prepared in the EIP which contains the scope of work to be performed by the subcontractor labour as well as the rate per unit quantity. Major Activities are given a group code which is further divided into numerous item codes. For e.g. Formwork is given a group code and different formwork activities such as moving formwork, placing formwork, de shuttering are given different item codes.<br />3.4.2 SEQUENCE OF BILL GENERATION<br />20383582550<br />CHAPTER 4<br />MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM<br />MIS is the tool used in organization for systematic data collection and reporting. This data is used to analyze, review and monitor cluster/sites at different levels and collated by management committees. Action plans are developed and communicated to concerned persons for implementation and improvement.<br />MIS report is used to highlight the commitments made by Regional Offices/Business Unit managers. Since the Regions/Business Units are responsible for meeting the targeted contribution to the corporate office and the Corporate Management in turn, responsible to the board for meeting the targeted ECC Groups profits, the MIS focuses on these aspects and on indicators of performance relevant to their operations. <br />The objectives of the MIS are to:<br />Provide information relating to actual performance against budgets for the various profit centers, at the Regional / Business unit level and the Corporate level<br />Highlight areas of shortfall in achievement so that the required remedial actions may be taken<br />
Monitoring System Reports (Reviewed / updated every month):
Job Cost Report / Accepted Cost Estimate<br />Monthly Progress Report<br />Monthly Performance Report<br />4.1 ACCEPTED COST ESTIMATE (ACE)<br />At the commencement of the project, a detailed cost estimate called Accepted Cost Estimate is prepared based on MPCS schedules. This literally means the commitment given by the site management to the company that the work will be carried out as per the cost estimate. The commitment is established by the gross margin calculated from the difference between the total invoice amount and the ACE amount. The rate analysis of each of the items is made diligently and the cost is arrived upon in the ACE. It should be prepared within one month of commencement of project. The various costs are split into labour, material, plant and overheads. The gross margin is generally depicted as a % of sales. <br />4.2 JOB COST REPORT (JCR)<br />The Job Cost Report shortly known as JCR is one of the essential tool meant for the review of Site Progress status in terms of cost by the Top Management. Basically it is prepared every month based on the actual cost statements from various departments incurred on different activities during the same period. The cost statement provides the cost incurred for each of the items cost code/ recon code wise for the month. Then the actual unit cost of the activity is worked upon from the actual cost incurred as given by the cost code and the respective quantity of work completed. From the planned cost and actual cost, the projected cost is calculated as Estimated to Complete (ETC). This assists in calculating the gross margin at the end of the project, thereby helping in initiating the corrective action in case of cost over-run. The current Gross Margin (GM) is calculated from the difference between the total invoicing amount and the estimate to complete (ETC) amount. Site is in the process of preparing first JCR.<br />The items in JCR should correspond to items in S8 and S9 as far as possible. The cost statement will contain the split-up cost for each item of work (under corresponding code) i.e. amount spent on labor (departmental and subcontract), materials (basic materials + consumables and spares) and overheads. Plant costs will be taken from plant cost statements (hiring charges + operating costs) and included into work items as far as possible. Corresponding quantities of work done will be taken from the monthly bill to be included in JCR.<br />JCR contains the following details <br />
Original Estimates for revised quantities
Job Status to date
Revised estimate to complete
4.3 MONTHLY PROGRESS REPORT<br />It is a detailed report which indicates the physical as well as financial progress of the site for various activities being undertaken. Basically it is meant for review by the Top Management at HQ Level. It consists of amount invoiced for various activities completed, outstanding amount to be cleared by the client, if any. Some contractual or any other matters which are obstructing the progress of the Site are highlighted. Safety and Quality Plans undertaken during the month are also mentioned with current status of all schedules S0 to S10.<br />4.4 PERFORMANCE REPORT<br />Performance report indicates the monthly financial progress of the project. Return on Capital Employed (ROCE) and Economic Value Addition (EVA) are calculated in the performance report which indicates the true financial status of the project. It gives the status of invoicing, collections, contribution, outstanding and other relevant operational performance details. Actual invoicing up to previous month is based on clients certified bills and for the current month on actual quantities of work executed and billed. Progress of work at site will be indicated against milestone events listed in schedule S2. This report will form the basis for region wise MIS reports.<br />4.5 SYSTEM COMPLIANCE REPORT<br />The Systems Compliance Report consists of the following reports<br />
Job Cost Report
Monthly Performance Report
Reconciliation statement - Client's invoice vs. certification (Value)
Reconciliation statement - Client's invoice vs. certification (Qty)
Reconciliation Statement - Contract Vs Actual Quantity
Reconciliation Statement - Materials (Own)
Reconciliation Statement - Qty paid to S/c vs. by client
Reconciliation Statement - Materials/ Consumables issued to S/c (Free)
Reconciliation Statement - Materials/ Consumables issued to S/c (Chargeable)
Reconciliation Statement - P&M issued to S/c (Free)
Reconciliation Statement - P&M issued to S/c (Chargeable)
Statement - Consumables consumed - for minor items not covered by reconciliation statements
Statement - Quantity paid to S/c (each S/c wise)
Statement - Status of Work Orders approval
Statement - List of Specialized S/C (with materials)
Statement - Cost of P&M (CP)
Statement - Hired P&M Charges
Statement - List of items locally purchased
Statement - Cash & Bank balance
Statement – Stock:
Statement - Performance / Utilization of P&M
4.6 FINANCIAL PARAMETERS which are required for Project Performance are as follows:
Invoice – It is the total amount of Bill generated as per the achieved progress at Site either in terms of milestones achievement or activity completion that may be partial or full as per the conditions for a particular period / month. Invoice is submitted to the Client generally on Monthly basis as per the Contract.<br />Sales – The payment made by the owner as per the invoice raised is called sales.<br />Cost – It is the total amount including all direct and indirect costs incurred for the progress achieved so far including inventory cost.<br />GM – It is Gross Margin or Profit in general sense.<br />GM = Sales – Cost.<br />When sales crosses 50% of the Contract value, then the GM is calculated based on Realizable Sales Value (RSV). <br />RSV = GM + Cost (when sales is greater than 50%)<br />GM = RSV - Cost<br />Regional Office and Head Quarters Over Heads are generally considered as % of Sales, which is normally 3 %.<br />PBIT – It stands for Profit before Income Tax. <br />PBIT = GM – Overheads.<br />Corporate Tax generally applicable in the range of 34 to 38%, as decided.<br />Net Earnings = 62 to 66% of PBIT, depending on corporate tax factor.<br />NFA – It stands for Net Fixed Assets that belongs to Plant & Machinery (P&M) Department. <br />ANFA – It stands for Average Net Fixed Assets.<br />ANFA = NFA / ∑ No. of months<br />WC is Working Capital = Total Assets – Total Liabilities-Vendor balance.<br />Where Current Assets = Stock + Cash & Bank balances + Deposits (telephone, electrical etc.) + Outstanding + Bank guarantee + Prepaid expenses (Insurance premium)<br />Stock = Bulk materials + Consumables + Tools + Spares + Doka + temporary structures<br />Current Liabilities = Outstanding expenses + Unadjusted mobilization advance + unadjusted material advance + Unadjusted plant advance<br />Vendor balance = Credit - Debit <br />AWC is Average Working Capital. <br />AWC = ∑ WC / ∑ no. of months<br />
NFE – It stands for Net Funds Employed = AWC + ANFA
ANFE – It stands for Average Net Funds Employed.<br />ANFE = NFE / ∑ no. of months <br />Capital Charges is the cost of capital deployed. Capital is the working capital and the net fixed assets. It is generally taken as 1.25% of ANFE.<br />EVA is Economic Value Added. It is the residual income after charging the company for the cost of capital provided by the lenders and shareholders. It represents the value added to the shareholders by generating profits in excess of cost of capital employed in the business.<br />It is a function of NOPAT (Net Operating PROFIT After Tax) and COCE (Cost of Capital employed). NOPAT is Profit after depreciation and taxes but before interest costs. COCE is Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) multiplied by average capital employed.<br />EVA = Net Earnings (or NOPAT) – Capital Charges (or COCE)<br />ROCE is Return on Capital Employed. It’s a direct measure of Profitability. It is the ratio of Profits to Funds employed. Funds employed are total of fixed assets and working capital<br />ROCE = NE / AN<br />CHAPTER 5<br />CONSTRUCTION WORK METHODS<br />5.1 Introduction<br />The work method statement depicts the way in which an activity is to be performed. The work method statements are formulated at the initial stage of the project by the Quality department. The work methods are formed in such a way that the activity is carried out keeping all the norms and quality specification along with all the safety requirements needed. <br />5.2 Activity Sequence<br /> A typical road construction follows the following sequence of activities <br />5.2.1 Survey and design: <br />The survey and design part is done by the consultants, Sheladia associates. The road is of two parts - Existing carriage way and new carriage way. The details of the thickness are given below.<br />Pavement composition of RJVRPChainage LeftRight RemarksBCDBMWMMGSBBCDBMWMMGSBSpur Road40125(+5)2502004075250200NewCh 3- Ch 50407525020040125(+5)250200New407525020040125(+5)250200OverlayCh 50- Ch 83407525020040115250200New4075 40115 OverlayCh 83- Ch 85409525020040140(+15)250200New4065 4070 OverlayCh 85- Ch 98409525020040140(+15)250200New4050 4050(-5) OverlayCh 98- Ch 109409525020040140(+15)250200New4050(-25) 4095(+5) OverlayCh 109- Ch 114409525020040140(+15)250200New4075(-5) 4090(+10) OverlayCh 114- Ch 119409525020040140(+15)250200New4050(-15) 4085(+10) 200OverlayCh 119- Ch 122409525020040140(+15)250200New4075(-5) 4090 OverlayCh 122- Ch 129409525020040140(+15)250200New4065(-5) 4090(+10) Overlay<br />5.2.2 Clearing and Grubbing: <br />The clear area details are given to the sub- contractor for a lump sum amount. The S/c does all the clearing and grubbing work. The S/c is chosen for each package separately. The time of completion is also specified. <br />5.2.3 Excavation and Embankment: <br />The excavation is done using excavators, both own and hired equipments. The embankment is also constructed to the required height. The camber and super elevation are all incorporated in this stage itself. <br />5.2.4 Subgrade: <br />The subgrade is to be compacted to the desired strength. The CBR of the subgrade is measured. This is an important parameter based on which the entire design is made. Hence, from the compacted area, the subgrade strength is measured by soil replacement method. The soil from the borrow pit is brought to get the necessary strength. Komatsu Grader Galeo GD555-3A was used for this purpose.<br />5.2.5 Granular sub-base: <br />Granular materials are laid on the subgrade and levelled. This layer acts as a drainage layer to drain off all the water coming from the pavement without allowing water stagnation on the top layers. The same grader is used for this purpose. <br />5.2.6 WMM: <br />This is coarse aggregates in required proportion along with the fines. They are mixed with water in a WMM pug mill of 160tph capacity and brought to the site in trucks. It is laid in two layers. For the first layer, the material is spread sing the grader. The second layer is laid with the help of hydrostatic paver (Vogele super 1800-2) with sensor. Rolling is done with the help of vibro rollers of 10T to 18T to achieve desired compaction. <br />5.2.7 Kerb: <br />Kerb is cast on the median site to delineate the median. Separate equipment, slip form kerber, arrow make, is available for the purpose. Concrete is supplied into this equipment the kerb in the desired shape is laid. This is done once the WMM layer is finished. <br />5.2.8 Tack coat and prime coat: <br />The prime coat is laid over the WMM layer to make it semi dense preventing the entry of water from the bottom layers. The tack coat is applied for a better bonding of the granular layer with the bituminous layer. Asphalt distributor is used for this purpose. The prime coat is done with RS emulsion and the tack coat is done with SS emulsion. <br />5.2.9 DBM: <br />The DBM is laid with the help of asphalt paver. The mix is batched in the Marini mobile HMP of 120 tph capacity and it is brought to the site using trucks. It is laid using pavers for the desired thickness. This is also laid in two layers. The rollers compact it before the temperature cools down. L&T case rollers are used for this purpose and the breakdown rolling is done with Pneumatic Tire Rollers if 38 T.<br />5.2.10 Traffic Diversion: <br />The traffic on the existing carriage way (ECW) is shifted to the new carriage way (NCW) and the work is carried out in the ECW. Once this is over, the traffic is routed back to the NCW and the ECW is cleaned. Over the previously laid DBM, BC is laid after applying a tack coat over the ECW. <br />5.2.10 BC: <br />Over the DBM layer, the final BC is put. It gives the road a good riding quality surface. The road markings are done on the BC layer. This is also done with the paver.<br />CHAPTER 6<br />QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM & PROJECT QUALITY PLAN<br />6.1 QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM<br />L&T ECC division, Roads & Runways OC has a well established and documented QMS and is taking appropriate steps to improve its effectiveness in accordance with the requirements of ISO 9001:2008. Relevant procedures established clearly specify the criteria and methods for effective operation, control and necessary resources and information to support the operation and monitoring of these processes. L&T ECC division, Roads & Runways OC has established procedure for monitoring, measuring and analyzing of these processes and to take necessary actions to achieve planned results and continual improvement of these processes. It has also maintained relevant procedures to identify and exercise required control over outsourced processes.<br />422275141605<br />L&T Vision Statement<br />6.2 PROCESS FLOWCHART FOR SITE OPERATIONS<br />The process flowchart site operations clearly identify the processes covered under the QMS, their sequence and interaction with various processes for effective maintenance of system.<br />Sub- processInput / ActivityOutputProcess OwnerProcessControllerPlanning & SchedulingTender, Contract, Proposal Engineering, Tendering Schedules, Customers’ requirements, BudgetProject plan/ Work Plan, Schedules, Accepted Cost EstimatePI / PECPMPQP PreparationModel PQP, Contract, Drawings, Contract Specifications, BOQ, Kick-off meetingPQP with all the required Work Methods, ITPs, Formats and Product Quality Rating procedures.QA/QC (Site)CQMObjective SettingCluster Quality Objectives, Budget, Customer requirements, Value driversQuality Objectives for the ProjectPICPMMobilizationS3 & S4 schedules, Project PlanResource mobilization (Staff and P&M), Sub-contractor mobilization, Labour and Material Mobilization.PECPMExecutionWork Methods, ITP, BOQ, Drawings, Subcontractor TrainingRecording in the formats, Approval from customer.Section Engineers PIManagement Information System (MIS)Actual Progress reported by Site Engineers, Stock, Cost, Client Invoice, Subcontractor Billing, MilestonesJCR, MPR, System Compliance Report, Updating the data in EIP, Monthly updated PlanPEPIMonitoring & ReviewJCR. MPR, SCR, MQR, Quality ObjectivesPlan vs. Actual for all financial parameters, Customer Satisfaction reports, Achievement of Quality Objectives, Review of Audit results, Productivity, Reconciliation, Action plan for improvements, Inputs to structured review at Cluster.PEPI<br />EXECUTION / COMMISSIONINGREVIEW & CORRECTIVE ACTIONINTERNAL AUDITMANGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMTRAININGCORPORATE VISIONQUALITY POLICYQUALITY OBJECTIVEORDER FINALIZATIONCUSTOMER REQUIREMENTSPROJECT QUALITY PLANCUSTOMER STASIFICATION / CUSTOMER FEEDBACKMOBILIZATIONLEARNINGSTATUTORY & REGULATORY REQUIREMENTSPREVENTIVE MEASURES<br />The responsibilities and authorities for each function are defined in Section 5 (Management Responsibilities). These include planning, operations, control, review and monitoring and corrective/ preventive action as appropriate for respective functions, Effectiveness of the QMS is evaluated through review meetings at various levels and course correction are made accordingly, The monthly meetings have predefined agenda. The information flow is affected through these meetings to ensure that both operation and control of these processes are effective and transparent. There are established and implemented documented procedures for resource management, minute. Minute planning is done for each project site for the Human resource and P&M and other requirements. Well-established systems exist for acquisition, monitor and control of effective utilization of the resources against annual targets set.<br />MIS is the tool used in organization for systematic data collection and reporting. This data is used to analyze, review and monitor cluster/sites at different levels and collated by management committees. Action plans are developed and communicated to concerned persons for implementation and improvement. <br />Persons responsible for implementation do so as per plan results are measured against targets set. Performance measurement aims at continual improvement; inability to do so calls for review of processes to improve effectiveness.<br />Wherever the processes are outsourced for some specific products, these are controlled in accordance with the documented QMS. The management of L&T ECCD B&F OC has established and is implementing a QMS with a view to continually improve its effectiveness, by<br />
Communicating throughout the organization the importance of meeting customer as well as statutory and regulatory requirements
Establishing a quality policy
Ensuring that quality objectives are established, monitored and reviewed
Conducting management review
Ensuring availability of resources
Quality objectives are established for all processes of the organization in line with quality policy. Management meetings are conducted periodically at various levels, as per the established procedure and timetable, to ensure the effectiveness and adequacy of QMS. <br />Learning out of corrective and preventive actions provides opportunity for improvement. A well defined organization with qualified professionals is positioned and required resources are mobilized that has the understanding and competence of meeting the requirements<br />6.3 QUALITY POLICY<br />The quality policy of INFRA OC talks about how actions are to be driven with an eye to serve customers, how work has to be managed as a process with focus on results, improving efficiency, delivering value; performing PDCA checks at every stage of work; developing leaders; training, encouraging and motivating people throughout the organization to establish and meet commitments and about partnership to build long term relationship with customers.<br />2679700<br />6.4 PROJECT QUALITY PLAN<br />For project sites in L&T ECC division INFRA OC, the quality manual, work procedures, work instructions and formats are all part of a manual called as Project Quality Plan. The project quality plan is prepared and formulates as a management summary of quality related activities required to meet the terms of contract. This quality plan sets out the management practices and describes the quality management system. The following documents are used as a source of reference for preparation of project quality plan<br />
Contract documents & drawings prepared/issued by the customer/ customer’s consultant
Codes of practises as listen in drawing, specification above
L&T ECCD INFRA OC Model project quality plan
ISO 9000 : 2005 – Quality Management Systems – Fundamentals and vocabulary
ISO 9001: 2008 – Quality management Systems – Requirements
It focuses on Quality of Product + Safety + Timely Delivery of a Product keeping Quality Policy in mind which is to be achieved with well defined strategies. They are converted to initiatives for the Site Team and Quality Objectives for each position of the Project, reviewed periodically as planned; with well written documented needs / requirements of the Customer, Organization, statutory bodies in PQP; and standard procedures for records generation and maintenance. It is followed by evaluation of process and product performance through regular internal as well as external auditors to assess if system is really inactive and performing based on measurable parameters like cycle time, productivity of activities, zero-accident, and 100% system compliance. Various reports as per MIS are generated and after evaluation of the process, the process improvements are done following Management Review Meetings (MRM) and system integrity is maintained during changes in PQP for improvement.
Various training sessions are also organized from time to time to ensure the continuous understanding and implementation of maintaining Quality at various hierarchies on / off the site for staff, sub-contractors, vendors, sub-contractor / departmental supervisors / workmen etc. Various Check lists for different activities with detailed methodology statements for these activities are documented and recorded accordingly. Similarly, ITP (Inspection and Test plans) for various Materials are prepared and maintained on regular basis.<br />6.5 PREPARATION OF PROJECT QUALITY PLAN<br />The PQP based on ISO series is broken down into the following major sections<br />
Quality Management System (QMS)
Control of documents
Control of records
Customer focus & Quality policy
Quality planning & Quality objectives
Responsibility, authority & communication
Provision of resources
Competence, awareness and training
Planning of product realization
Customer related process
Design and development
Product and service provision
Control of monitoring and measuring device
Measurement, Analysis and improvement
General, Customer satisfaction, Internal audit
Monitoring and measurement of processes
Monitoring and measurement of product
Control of non conforming product
Analysis of data
The Project Quality Plan for this project covers the following: <br />
Documented quality policy, Scope of Quality Management System including justification for any exclusion.
Reference to the documented procedures in line with requirements of QMS standard & functions of organization.
Description of various processes, sequences and interaction of these processes identified for Quality Management System. Explained as work instructions, work methods, inspections test plans.
Respective Formats & Checklists
6.6 QUALITY CONTROL<br />As per ISO, each Construction site should have specific Quality Plan. It should contain clauses, process, roles and responsibility, method statements. Good quality products and customer satisfaction are well followed. Well-structured quality management systems ensure good quality, safety, reliability and controlled cost at every stage of construction with a view to enhancing customer satisfaction and continual improvement.<br />6.7 ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF SITE QA/QC IN CHARGE<br />
Preparation of Project Quality Planning.
Communicating about Quality requirements as per Quality Management System with all the staff at site.
Develop the work methods, procedures for executing the work.
Conduct QA/QC tests on all the materials.
Monitor the Calibration of all testing & measuring equipment.
Organizing and conducting the Quality Audits with coordination of all concerned
Management Review meeting at regular intervals at site.
Monthly Audits and Monthly Management Review meeting is conducted where the assessment is done and based on that any improvement is planned. Project Quality plan includes the methods of execution and Inspection. All the equipments used in QA/QC are calibrated and certified.<br />CHAPTER 7<br />ENVIRONMENT HEALTH AND SAFETY<br />The Health, Safety & Environment Department facilitates implementation of the OC’s EHS policy and closely monitors with the respective units as required. This is affected through the Cluster EHS Managers, who report to the Head of EHS at HQ, Chennai. CEHSM monitor the activities of the EHSO posted in the projects of their cluster.<br />In keeping with the L&T’s vision, philosophy and the INFRA OC’s EHS policy, EHSD has formalised Health, Safety & Environment Management Systems in tune with the International Standards: ISO 9001:2008, ISO 14001:2004 and OHSAS 18001:2007<br />In accordance to the requirements of the manual a project EHS plan is prepared by CEHSM/EHSO in co-ordination with CPM, Project Manager and Section In-charges<br />7.1 ASSESSMENT OF EHS PLAN<br />The company has an EHS policy which is Integrated Management Systems (IMS) certified (IMS comprises of ISO 9001:2008, OHSAS 18001:2007, ISO 14001:2004). The main objectives of the EHS Plan deriving its motivation from the IMS are enlisted below: <br />The objectives of the Project EHS plan are as follows: <br />To determine broad parameters of EHS management at site.<br />Establish & define line of command for resolution of all hazard prevention issues.<br />Define individual responsibilities hazard prevention & safety promotion responsibility at each level of the construction team.<br />Identify highly hazardous operations within the scope of work and specify integrated preventive measures to mitigate the same.<br />To ensure compliance with relevant applicable legislation.<br />Continual EHS performance improvement by directing focus on the key areas for improvement in a consistent manner.<br />7.2 CLAUSES OF THE EHS PLAN<br />Clause 3: Leadership and Commitment <br />This clause emphasises on management leadership and commitment by the Senior Management through active participation and involvement in the EHS activities. <br />3.1: Visibility<br />The management will provide strong demonstrable visible leadership and commitments towards EHS by personal example and action. The Management will participate in EHS meetings, conduct site Inspections and EHS Audits, to encourage a positive attitude towards EHS. <br />3.2: Proactive in Target setting<br />The Site management demonstrates pro-activeness in target setting by: <br />Putting EHS as the “First agenda” of all review meetings at Head quarters, clusters & project sites. <br />Employees are empowered to stop work when the situation warrants immediate action in view of imminent danger to life / property / environment. Project Managers must appreciate and reward those employees whose prompt action helps avoid potential incident. <br />3.3: Company Culture<br />The management seeks to create and sustain a Company culture in which employees share a commitment to EHS. <br /> 3.4: Involvement of Senior Management<br />Senior management demonstrates its involvement in EHS issues through: <br />Bi-annual review of Project EHS Performance and EHS plan implementation in consultation with Project Manager & EHSO. <br />Ensure adequate professional EHS support is available for effectively implementing the EHS plan, fulfilling EHS targets and attaining EHS objectives. <br />Ensure sufficient support and resources are available to meet EHS targets (e.g. Infrastructure, vehicle, safety steward, communication, PC, etc). <br />Imparting necessary EHS training for the Staff & workmen of the project. <br />Clause 4: EHS Objectives and Targets<br />Project specific EHS Objectives and targets are to be set, which are quarterly reviewed. <br />Clause 5: EHS Policy<br />All staff and employees shall be made aware of the existence of this policy by discussing in EHS meetings, displaying at site offices, notice boards, workmen camp, canteen and conspicuous locations. <br />11430024765<br />Clause 6: Integrated Management Systems<br />EHS Management System to be established meeting the international requirements of OHSAS 18001:2007, ISO 14001:2004 & ISO 9001:2008. <br />Clause 7: Resource Management and Organization chart<br />A EHS Project In-charge shall be identified under whose guidelines the EHS Team functions. One steward for every 300 workforce shall be deployed, could be increased, if need be. EHS department should have their own Organization Chart. <br />Clause 8: Responsibilities<br />EHS management is in line responsibility for having active participation of all levels of management and supervision. <br />Individual EHS roles and responsibilities, along with task and target shall be distributed to the individuals for action under the sub-clauses. <br />Clause 9.1: Project Manager. <br />Clause 8.2: Cluster EHS Manager. <br />Clause 8.3: EHSO. <br />Clause 8.4: Section/Area In-charges. <br />Clause 8.5: All Employees. <br />Clause 8.6: Site Engineers. <br />Clause 8.7: Project EHS Committee members. <br />Clause 8.8: Sub-Contractors. <br />Clause 9: Project EHS Committee:<br />A Project EHS Committee is to be formed as per the procedure IM–10. <br />Clause 10: EHS Risk Assessment: <br />EHS Risk assessment of all the activities pertaining to site is to be undertaken proactively. <br />Clause 11: List of Applicable and other requirements<br />This section shall detail the list of applicable legal & other requirements pertaining to Health, Safety & Environment. <br />Clause 12: General EHS Rules and Regulations<br />This section shall detail the general EHS Rules & Regulations to be adopted in the site for the following areas: <br />Clause 12.1: Basic EHS Guidelines <br />Clause 12.2: Use of Personal Protective Equipment and Safety devices relevant to Site activities. <br />Clause 12.3: General Housekeeping & Stacking of Materials. <br />Clause 12.4: Roads safety inside the project. <br />Clause 12.5: Access, Egress and Workstation Safety <br />Clause 12.6: Safe use of construction power supply and upkeep / maintenance of installations. <br />Clause 12.7: Use, maintenance & inspection of Plant & Machinery. <br />Clause 12.8: Scaffold and Formwork norms. <br />Clause 12.9: Use of Safe material & personnel handling devices as per requirement. <br />Clause 12.10: Fire prevention, protection & preparedness. <br />Clause 12.11: Others. <br />Clause 13: Work Permit Systems<br />The purpose of the work permit system is to ensure that works having potential hazard can be carried out with due regard to safety, health and welfare of the workers; to prevent any incompatible work from being carried out at the same time in the project. The permit serves as official written records of “conditions and requirements” agreed upon by the issuer and receiver. <br />Clause 13: Check Lists and Reports<br />List of applicable checklists are given below and the corresponding reports as per IMS is followed<br />S. No. SubjectIM Ref. Remark1 General EHS Inspection Checklist 2 Electrical Safety Inspection Checklist 3 Crane Inspection Checklist 4 Tower Crane Inspection Checklist 5 Vehicle and Earth moving equipment Inspection Checklist 6 DG Inspection Checklist 7 Plant Inspection Checklist 8 Incident Investigation Checklist 9 Environment Inspection Checklist <br />Clause 15: Statistics and Records<br />Sl. No. Subject IM Ref. Remark1 General EHS Inspection Checklist 2 Electrical Safety Inspection Checklist 3 Crane Inspection Checklist 4 Tower Crane Inspection Checklist <br />Clause: 16: Emergency Response Plan<br />The Emergency Response Plan is prepared as per the guideline provided in the EHS Manual. It also includes the Emergency Contact Nos. <br />Clause 17: List of Job specific PPE’s to be used<br />Job specific PPE‟s to be used have to be clearly spelled out. <br />Clause 18: Training<br />Specific group have to be trained persistently. <br />Clause 19: Communication and Reporting<br />Clause 19.1: Cascading Information <br />Cascading any EHS messages down the line is vital for the success of any EHS Management System and to ensure that all personnel are aware of EHS issues. <br />Clause 20: Any other Information Relevant to Project Site<br />Any other Information Relevant and specific to Project Site can be customised under this clause. <br />7.2.1 OBJECTIVES OF THE EHS PLAN: <br />
To identify all the critical activities, assess the risk associated therein and suggest precautionary measures to avoid accidents.
To integrate Safety and work practices.
To create safety awareness amongst every individual associated with the project.
To provide the necessary Safety inputs.
To formulate and effectively maintain the accident prevention program of the project.
To achieve the prime objective of 'ZERO ACCIDENT'
7.3 ENVIRONMENT<br />
The air and water quality levels are monitored every three months. Some of the parameters tested are SPM, RPM, NOX, SOX etc. They are tested by a third party and the approval of the government is necessary.
The places commonly tested are site office, quarry, batching plants, site office etc. In quarry some dust control measures are implemented like covering the conveyor belt with sheets as shown.
Water tests are also carried out. The parameters tested are PH, TS, TDS, SS, Hardness etc. The bore wells and drinking water source and storage are tested.
The noise levels inside the site are also checked. The potential areas are DG, office space and plants. A stack monitoring is done for the DG‟s.
A soil analysis is done in the plant area to check for contamination of soil due to oil or diesel spillage.
The waste disposal is done by the Central provisional Control Board (CPCB). Disposal at site is not permitted. Recycling is not permitted to be done at site. If any is to be done, it has to be done through CPCB.
7.4 SAFETY MANAGEMENT<br />The most basic approach for a hazard free work environment is to first identify the hazards/risk, put precautionary measures in place and bring the risk to acceptable limit.<br />Generally speaking there are three causes of accidents<br />Unsafe Act (accounting for 88% of accidents)<br />Unsafe Conditions (10%)<br />Natural Calamities (2%)<br />The various measures implemented in the EHS system can be classified into<br />Proactive Measures : like screening, training, orientation, usage of PPE<br />Monitoring Measures : EHS inspection<br />Corrective & Preventive Measures : Accident Reporting Systems, Analysis of first aid cases<br />Performance Measurement and review System : Quality Audits, MRM, Evaluation of sub contractors, Accident Statistics<br />EHS Reward & Reprimand<br />7.5 SAFETY INDICES<br />These safety indices indicate the level of safety in the site. Analysis will be done and corrective actions will be taken to increase the safety level.<br />CHAPTER 8<br />PRODUCTIVITY OF STAFF, LABOUR AND P&M<br />8.1 PRODUCTIVITY OF STAFF<br />The productivity of staff is assessed by the value of Invoice incurred from the project per staff member employed for the execution of it.<br />Staff productivity = (Value of Invoice from the project) / (No. of staff members)<br />8.2 PRODUCTIVITY OF WORKMEN<br />The daily progress report (DPR) prepared by section head includes the details of amount of work done and number of workmen deployed for that work. Average productivity for each category of workers was assumed based on past experience and ACE was prepared. <br />8.3 PRODUCTIVITY OF PLANT & MACHINERY<br />The log sheet contains the details of work done and the number of hours, the equipment was deployed for work. Further, there are some indices calculated which is explained below. <br />The equipments procured for the construction process are provided by the L&T and also hired sometimes. Control and maintenance of all the P&M equipments on the site, except those hired, are being performed by the L&T. Prevention of delay due to their breakdown is the main priority so as to complete the project as scheduled at any cost. Corrective and preventive maintenance are being done regularly to reduce the breakdown hours. <br />There are two indices defined upon which the productivity of P&M depends<br />(1) Availability<br />(2) Utility<br />Availability index indicates the percentage of time, in the total working period the particular equipment was available at the site in working condition. The equipment may be working, idle or even performing Overtime.<br />Utility Index indicates the percentage of time the equipment was available and was under usage. Here the equipment that is working in normal hours or overtime is considered. Equipment that is idle is not considered, as it is available at the site but is not under usage.<br />Working Hours (WH) – The time when equipment is in working condition and is working<br />Idle Hours (IH) – The time when the equipment is in working condition but is idle<br />Break Down Hours (BH) – The time when the equipment is under breakdown<br />Over Time Hours (OH) – The time when the equipment is doing work in over time<br />Availability: It is defined as the percentage of time for which the equipment was available at the site. The formula is given as <br /> Availability = (WH + IH + OH) / (WH+ IH +BH+ OH)<br />Utility: It is defined as the ratio of number of cumulative working hours of the equipment and the 12 hrs working period. During the working hours, the equipment might be broke down for a certain period in the middle and then start working for few hours and may continue to work or again breakdown. In all the cases, the total cumulative working hours of the equipment is considered. These ratios are calculated every month and are presented in the Monthly Performance Report<br /> Utility = (WH + OH) / (WH+IH+OH)<br /> <br />Net working hours are defined as NH = Working hours + Idle hours + Breakdown hours<br /> = WH + IH + BH<br />To eliminate the concept of Overtime <br />The Working hours are set as 24hrs and the Availability is calculated on 24hrs basis<br />Utility is calculated on 12 hrs basis (cumulative)<br />Availability = (WH + IH) / 24<br />Utility = WH/12<br />8.4 PLANT AND MACHINERY AS A BUSINESS UNIT<br />The Plant and Machinery ( P&M) is a separate BU functioning in the ECC division . The function of this BU is to offer plant and machinery to all the sites where construction work is carried out. The main functions of P&M include the maintenance of the equipments in good working condition throughout the construction period<br />Productivity Measurement: <br />-1314451622425The P&M division calculates the productivity of all the equipments at site to see if they fall within the requirement. In this site the measurement is done mainly for all the plants like batching plant, hot mix plant, WMM plant etc. The number of working hours are recorded along with the fuel consumption, labour charges, spares cost, fuel and lubrication cost.<br />CHAPTER 9<br />MATERIAL MANAGEMENT STORES AND PROCUREMENT<br />9.1 Material Management<br />The main objective of material management is to provide : “The Right Item of Right Quality in the Right quantity at the Right price at a Right place at the Right time” for ensuring uninterrupted execution of work .and to Monitor Issue (Usage and consumption) and stock to ensure that material cost is well within the cost provision.<br />The Material Management mainly consists of managing:<br />
Purchase or Procurement
Disposal and Dispatch
9.1.1 Procurement <br />
As per the schedule of requirement of materials procurement involves the purchase of various items at site level or at regional level on the basis of requisition being made at different points of time. The store keeper plays an important role . The whole process involves the raising of MR , vendor selection , issue of PO , material receipt ,inspection and issue . The whole process can be summarized through a flow chart as shown below.
9842513335<br />9.1.2 Stores Management<br />-971551383030Store is a place where materials can be stored safely and scientifically. It consists of receiving, inspecting, tagging, stacking, indenting, issuing, dispatching, physical verification, housekeeping, reporting and disposal of items.<br />9.1.3 Inventory Management<br />Inventory consists of goods and materials held available in stock, which has economic value. Inventory Management is basically managing Inventories with the primary objectives of:<br />•Identifying inventory requirements<br />•Providing replenishment techniques<br />•Monitoring materials movements & reconciling the Inventory balances<br />• Reporting actual and projected Inventory status<br />9.1.4 Disposal and Dispatch <br />Dispatch implies that either inventory or asset is taken to another place from stores. It can occur by either sending surplus item to another site/depot or movement to another stores or sending any item to vendor or agency.<br />Delivery Challan (DC) is a basic document for recording a dispatch. In case of an asset it is called Electronic Delivery Receipt (EDR) which is generated through EIP.<br />Disposal involves either transferring the ownership of goods, or physical destruction of any tangible item. Disposal may involve dispatch. Scrap and obsolete items are sold and dispatched to the buyers.<br />9.1.5 Material Categorisation and Codification<br />99695960755Materials are classified broadly into three categories viz. Capital Items, Non capital Items and Revenue Items while considering purchase. These items can be explained from the below mentioned figure.<br /> <br />188.8.131.52Material Code<br />Material Code is an efficient tool in order to categorize various items. It consists of a 9 digit number which classifies the material in all its specification. Every item has a unique material code. A material is stored, purchased and issued on the basis of that. <br />CODIFICATION <br />First DigitClassification 0Capital Items1Heavy Tools & Tackles2Small Tools3Consumables4Reserved5Electrical main Items6Construction Material7Special/One-time Item8Reserved9Spares<br /> <br />MATERIAL CODE LOGIC <br />CHAPTER 10<br />ACCOUNTS ADMINISTRATION AND INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS<br />10.1 Introduction<br />The Accounts and administration department plays a major role in providing all the necessary assistance to the execution team in terms of implementing the statutory rules and regulations set by the company. The department also assists in maintaining cordial relationships with the outer agencies. The department also looks after the overheads and administration cost which is generally in the range of 7-8 % of the total project cost.<br />10.1.1 General Accountability <br />In terms of general accountability, the main function of Accounts department is to:<br />
Ensure timely disbursement of monthly overhead expenses to staff and other outside agencies
Make day to day entry for cash transaction on EIP
Process site costing system and monthly revenue ledger reconciliation
Generate monthly bank reconciliation statement
Forward weekly cash and balance to RO every Sunday
Ensure the submission and validity of BG from vendor/Sub contractor
Register new suppliers and vendors in EIP
Ensure the updated status of liability statement for timely payment to vendor
Forward joining reports of newly reported staff and staff updation
Review staff attendance and updating applied leave
10.1.2 Statutory Compliance<br />
Application for labour license in FORM IV after obtaining FORM V from the principal employer
Conversion of agricultural land into non agricultural land for setting up the plant
Obtaining approval from pollution control board towards establishing the crusher plant, HMP, WMM and batching plant
NOC from office of the collector and license from the controller of explosive for putting of diesel bunk at desired locations
Application to the central excise department for precast items
Keeping track of the validity of the applicable license and agreements
Ensuring the timely payment of vehicle tax and updating of papers (Insurance, fitness certificate etc) of own assets
Forwarding of data/ statement to R.O as scheduled on 25th of every month for IT and PF recovery
Furnishing the monthly details of work contract tax to ABRO scheduled on 7th. The planning department has to provide the details of invoice every month
10.1.3 Bill Settlement<br />
Submission of sub-contractor bill by the planning department at the end of every month
Stores department to submit all MRN‟s by the afternoon of 28th every month
The Time Office (T.O) to furnish details of service provider’s bill by 2nd of every month for the previous month
Time Office to submit all conveyance bills, watch and ward bills etc by the end of every month
P&M to submit all hired equipments bills by 25th of every month to pay them the hire charges for the month
The payment to all the sub-contractors and others service providers will be made between 7th and 10th of the month.<br />10.1.4 Time Office<br />
Checking and recording the in and out time of all workmen and vehicles
Collection and verification of daily labour report from the site with spot checking of workmen deputed
Maintaining a cordial relation with local authorities and government officials for smooth running of the work
Recruitment of temporary workmen and screening of workmen
Strict review of the over time certified for the workmen by the respective department heads
Maintaining PF recovery details from wages of workmen
Checking and ensuring payment to labour under sub-contractor on release of the payment cheque
Supervision of the timely preparation of the wages sheet and disbursement of wages to the service providers
Arrangement and allocation of conveyance vehicles to staff and workmen in time with effective utilization of available resources
Arrangement of accommodation for staff and workmen as per the eligibility and assuring the availability of basic facilities
CONCLUSION<br />The summer training at Rajkot-Jamnagar-Vadinar Road Project, Gujarat, has immensely helped in giving me exposure towards the various working systems of L&T ECC. Since my inception in IIT Delhi in 2010, I have learnt a lot through various courses regarding Construction Management and Technical subjects, and this training proved an application of all of them. I have been fortunate enough to interact with the working professionals who made me aware of the practical aspects involved at various stages of the construction project.<br />The training covered aspects of Construction Management such as<br />
Project > planning
Construction management – execution, measurement, reporting, etc
MPCS and reporting systems
MIS & calculation of financial parameters i.e. Sales, GM, PBIT, > ROCE, EVA, etc
Development/ Study of productivity indices for Staff, > Workmen, P&M etc.
Orientation on EIP/EIP Plan
Orientation on Safety Systems and safety indices
Orientation on Quality Management System and Project Quality Plan
Material Management (Procurement, Stores and Dispatch)
Apart from all aspects, there was certain important documentation to which I have been exposed, primarily including:<br />
Contract Document – Concession Agreement
Ministry Of Road Transport & Highways (MORT&H)
Project PQP Plan
Integrated Management System Manual
FIDIC – Conditions of contract for EPC Turnkey basis