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Data Sensing and secured Data forwarding in WSN

Data Sensing and secured Data forwarding in WSN
using MICAz motes

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    Majorppt Majorppt Presentation Transcript

    • Data Sensing & Secured Data Forwarding in multi-hop Wireless Sensor Network using MICAz based motes
      Presented by
      JayantPathak (2006ECS22)
      Kumar Vikramjeet (2006ECS50)
       
      Under the Supervision of
      Mrs. Sonika Gupta
    • Introduction to WSN
      A wireless sensor network (WSN) is a wireless network consisting of spatially distributed autonomous devices using sensors to cooperatively monitor physical or environmental conditions, such as temperature, sound, vibration, pressure, motion or pollutants at different locations.
      Characteristics of WSN
      Very Limited Resources
      Unreliable Communication
      Unattended Operation
    • Wireless Sensor Networks
      Sensor nodes sense the data & send it upward in the network hierarchy
      Base Station logs the collective data.
      Sensor nodes/motes may act as router & perform data aggregation
    • APPLICATIONS Of WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS
    • Benefits of Multi-hop network
      Access Point based Network
      Multi-hop network
      AP-based topology with maximum coverage and throughput environment is challenging.
      Range & data transfer is affected by
      - node location
      - type of house
      Multi-hop topology - design of future home wireless networks and requirements for future wifi-enabled consumer electronic devices
      Advantages
      - wide coverage attained by nodes location
      - implementation of mesh
    • Security threats in Sensor Networks
      Adversaries can easily sniff on, intercept, inject and alter transmitted data.
      Adversaries can Interact with networks from a distance by inexpensive radio transceivers and powerful workstations.
      Resource consumption attacks - Adversaries can repeatedly send packets to drain nodes battery and waste network bandwidth, can steal nodes.
    • Example of Intruder
      Attacks
      Type 1
      Type 2
      Battery consumed
      Bandwidth loss
      Data packet
      Data packet
      A
      B
      Attacked(packet spoofed)
      IN
      False packet
      False packet
      False packet
    • Solutions of threat
      A specific frequency channel is allocated to WSN at a time which is designated by RF_Channel
      Group_id should be altered manually
      RF_Channel altered manually after regular interval
      Each pair of motes share different symmetric keys.
      All communication are encrypted symmetric keys between motes.
    • Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange Algorithm
      • each side of the communication generates a private key(letter A).
      • Each side then generates a public key (letter B), which is a derivative of the private key.
      • The two systems then exchange their public keys. Each side of the communication now has their own private key and the other systems public key (letter C).
      • The Diffie-Hellman protocol generates “shared secrets” – identical cryptographic key shared by each side of the communication.
    • Cont..
      Prime Numbers P=3 Q=353 f:PkmodQ
      97
      233
      A
      B
      397mod 353=40
      3233mod 353=248
      40
      248
      24897mod 353=160
      40233mod 353=160
      160
    • Sensor node Architecture
      • performs tasks,
      • processes data and controls the functionality of other components in the sensor node.
      • The functionality of both transmitter and receiver are combined into a single device know as transceivers
      • Sensors sense or measure physical data of the area to be monitored.
      • The continual analog signal sensed by the sensors is digitized by an Analog-to-digital converter and sent to controllers for further processing.
      • Power consumption in the sensor node is for the Sensing, Communication and Data Processing.
      • kinds of memory are on-chip memory of a microcontroller and Flash memory
      • Micro-controller:ATMEGA 128
      • Transceiver: TI CC2420 802.15.4/ZigBee compliant radio 2.4-2.48 GHz (250 kbps data rate)
      • External Memory: 128K Flash
      • Program + Data Memory: 4K RAM
      • Programming : nesC
      • Platforms: TinyOS, SOS, MantisOS and Nano-RK Support
      • 2.6-3.3 V power supply
      In Context of MICAz motes
    • Appropriate encryption for WSN
      Encryption security depends on Key size & No. of rounds
      Key length is limited by the limited processing power of motes
      Keysize Processing energy Battery life
      Skipjack is probable candidate
      Block size = 64 bits
      Key length = 80 bits No. of Rounds = 32
      More No. of Rounds
      More time needed to crack the key
    • TinySec: a link layer encryption mechanism
      four main aims – Access Control, Integrity, Confidentiality, Easy of use.
      Implements Skipjack in CBC mode.
      Link layer
      Encryption
      A
      B
    • SKIPJACK Encryption
      SKIPJACK is a 64-bit codebook utilizing an 80-bit cryptovariable (Key)
      SKIPJACK encrypt/decrypt 4-word (64-bit) data blocks by alternating between the two stepping rules (A and B)
      The algorithm requires 32 steps (rounds)
    • Data sensing and Data forwarding
      Temperature
      Temperature
      Temperature
    • Software and Hardware
      • Software :
      1: Moteworks - end-to-end enabling platform
      2: Moteview - WSN viewer
      3 : TinyOS-1.x – WSN development environment
      4: Tossim For simulation
      • Hardware:
      • 1: micaz Motes
      • 2: MTS 400/420 Sensor Board
      • 3: MIB 520 gateway
      • 4: PC
    • What is TinyOS?
      Operating system developed by UC Berkeley
      Open Source development environment
      System, library and applications written in nesC
      nesC (network embedded system C) a component-based C
      Event-driven architecture
      High concurrency, interrupt driven
      never poll, never block
      Single shared stack
      NO kernel, process/memory management
      Sleep as often as possible to save power
    • Components
      A component is a black box specified by interface(s)
      Interfaces define a set of logically related I/O functions calledcommands and events
      Components use and provide interfaces
      Components are statically wired together based on their interfaces
      StdControl.nc
      interface StdControl {
      command result_t init();
      command result_t start();
      command result_t stop();
      }
      Clock.nc
      interface Clock {
      command result_tsetRate( char
      interval, char scale);
      event result_t fire();
      }
    • Commands and Events
      commands
      deposit request parameters into the frame
      are non-blocking
      need to return status
      postpone time consuming work by posting a task
      can call lower level commands
      events
      can call commands, signal events, post tasks
      can Not be signaled by commands
      preempt tasks, not vice-versa
      interrupt trigger the lowest level events
      deposit the information into the frame
      {
      ...
      status =callCmdName(args)
      ...
      }
      commandCmdName(args) {
      ...
      return status;
      }
      event EvtName(args) {
      ...
      return status;
      }
      {
      ...
      status =signalEvtName(args)
      ...
      }
    • Events and Tasks
      Tasks:
      Time flexible
      Longer background processing jobs …
      Hardware event handlers
      Time critical
      Shorter duration (hand off to task if need be)
      Interrupts task and other hardware handler.
      Last-in first-out semantics (no priority among events)
      executed in response to a hardware interrupt
    • Data Memory Model
      • STATIC memory allocation!
      – No heap (malloc)
      – No function pointers
      • Global variables
      – Available on a per-frame basis
      • Local variables
      – Saved on the stack
      – Declared within a method
    • Inter-Node Communication General Idea
      -Sender
    • Header (5)
      Payload (29)
      CRC (2)
      Sync
      TOS Active Messages
      typedefstructTOS_Msg{
      // the following are transmitted
      uint16_t addr;
      uint8_t type;
      uint8_t group;
      uint8_t length;
      int8_t data[TOSH_DATA_LENGTH];
      uint16_t crc;
      // the following are not transmitted
      uint16_t strength;
      uint8_t ack;
      uint16_t time;
      uint8_t sendSecurityMode;
      uint8_t receiveSecurityMode;
      } TOS_Msg;
      Message is “active” because it contains the destination address, group ID, and type.
      ‘group’: group IDs create a virtual network
      The address is a 16-bit value specified by “make”
      “length” specifies the size of the message .
      “crc” is the check sum
    • Working
      StdControl.init()
      StdControl.start()
      Timer.start(REPEAT, 100)
      Timer.fired()
      Post Task Filldata()
      Timer.Stop()
    • MIB520 USB INTERFACE BOARD
      The MIB520 provides USB connectivity to the IRIS and MICA family of Motes for communication and in-system programming. It supplies power to the devices through USB bus.
    • Hardware Setup