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IT09 L24: MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS- Module 1
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IT09 L24: MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS- Module 1

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Information systems - functions of management - levels of management - framework for information …

Information systems - functions of management - levels of management - framework for information
systems - systems approach - systems concepts - systems and their environment - effects of system approach
in information systems design - using systems approach in problem solving - strategic uses of information
technology

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  • 1. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Levels of management IT09 L24: MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS Viju P Poonthottam Asst. Professor Dept. of Information Technology MES CE Kuttippuram February 12, 2014
  • 2. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Table of contents Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Levels of management Levels of management
  • 3. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Levels of management Course Overview • Information systems • An overview of computer hardware and software components • Application of information systems to functional , Tactical,Strategic area of Management. • Information systems planning
  • 4. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Levels of management MIS • Any system that helps the manager to achieve his goals or create bussiness advantage.
  • 5. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt functions of management • POLC Levels of management
  • 6. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt functions of management- POLC • Planning • Organizing • Leading • Controlling Levels of management
  • 7. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Levels of management Planning • Deciding what to do • Evaluating the organisations resources and environment and establishing a set of organisational goals.
  • 8. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Organizing • Art of how to achieve goals • Organisational structures • Acquiring and training personnel. • Establishing communication network. Levels of management
  • 9. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Leading • Directing and motivating employees to achieve the organisational goals. Levels of management
  • 10. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Levels of management Controlling • Enables the managers to determine ,if the organisations performance is on target.
  • 11. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Levels of management Resposibility • Resposible for adopting to changes in the internal and external environment New competitor Key manager suddenly quits.
  • 12. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Managerial Functions Levels of management
  • 13. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Managerial Roles • IID Levels of management
  • 14. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Managerial Roles • Interpersonal • Informational • Decisional Levels of management
  • 15. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Interpersonal • Figurehead Roles - Ceremonial duties • Leader Role - Hiring , Training , Motivatiing • Liaison Role - Contact outside the vertical chain. Levels of management
  • 16. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Levels of management Informational • Managers have formal acees to information from vertically every internal staff as well as extensive external information.
  • 17. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Levels of management Decisional Role • Entrepreneurial Role - Constantly looking for a new idea. • Distrurbance Handler - When internal and external disputes effect the operations manager should act. • Resource allocator - Manager determine who will get what.(Money,Time ,Manpower) • Negotiator Rule - Represents the organisation in bargain with otheres
  • 18. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Levels of management Managerial Performance • Ability to distinguish between efficiency and effectiveness
  • 19. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Managerial Roles Levels of management
  • 20. Table of contents Course Overview • Top • Middle • First-Line Management f()s of mngmnt Levels of management
  • 21. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Levels of management Top management –Duties • Organisation’s Senior Executives • Establishing the goals of the orga. • Intract with representitives of the external environment like Financial Instituton.
  • 22. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Levels of management Middle Management –Duties • Resposible for allocating resources so that the objectives of the top management are accomplished.
  • 23. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Levels of management First line supervisors –Duties • First line supervisors are responsible for supervising day to day operations . • They typically supervise functions such as order,stock checking , manitenance.
  • 24. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt The Activities of the organisation • Operational • Tactical • Strategic Planning Levels of management
  • 25. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Activities of an Organisation Levels of management
  • 26. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Levels of management Operational • Operations are day to day activities of the firm that involve acquirng and consuming resources , First line supervisors must identify, collect and register all transactions that result in acquiring expending these resources.
  • 27. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Levels of management Tactical • They review the operational activities to make sure that the organisation is meeting its goals and not wasting its resources. • Managers responsible for control, have to decide how to allocate resources to achieve bussiness objectives • Data that can be used to predict future trends help managers make these resource allocation decisions.
  • 28. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Levels of management strategic planning. • Top Managers carries out strategic planning. • Through managers responsible operational & Tactical decision making , they need to set the organisation’s long range goals. • Eg:-Whether to introduce a new product ,Built new physical plant
  • 29. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Levels of management A FRAMEWORK FOR INFORMATION SYSTEMS • OPERATIONAL SYSTEMS • Tactical systems • Strategic Planning Systems
  • 30. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt OPERATIONAL SYSTEMS characteristics. • Repetitiveness. • Predictability. • Emphasis on the past • Detailed nature. • Internal origin • Structured form • Great accuracy Levels of management
  • 31. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Levels of management Tactical systems • tactical system provide middle level managers with the information they need to monitor and control operations and to allocate their resources effectivly • summary reports • exception report • ad hoc reports - need quickly,that may never be needed again
  • 32. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Tactical systems - charactristics. • Periodic nature • Unexpected findings • Comparative nature • Summary form • Both internal and external sources Levels of management
  • 33. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Strategic Planning Systems • Ad hoc basis • Unexpected information • Predictive nature • Summary form • External data • Unstructured format • Subjectivity. Levels of management
  • 34. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Levels of management SYSTEM CONCEPTS • A system is an integrated set of components,or entities,that interact to achieve a particular function or goal • System have characteristics such as boundaries,outputs and inputs,methds of converting inputs to outputs ,and system interfaces
  • 35. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt • System Boundaries: • System and Subsystem • Outputs and Inputs • Subsystem Interface and Inetrface Problems: Levels of management
  • 36. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Levels of management SYSTEMS AND THEIR ENVRONMENT • Open System • Closed System •
  • 37. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Levels of management Open System • Open systems operate in an external environment and exchange informatons and material with that environment
  • 38. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Closed System • Self contained • Does not exchange information with its environment • No feedback Levels of management
  • 39. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Levels of management System Feedback • Feedback is an indicator of current performance rates when compared to a set of standards. • Positive Feedback • Negative Feedback
  • 40. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt System Feedback Figure: Activities of an organisation Levels of management
  • 41. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Levels of management System Entropy • System entropy corresponds to a state that occures without maintenance
  • 42. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Levels of management System Stress and Change • Systems may change over time , Changes may create Stress. • Eg. • Increase Sales • Reduce Cost • Unmonitered Input.
  • 43. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Deal with Stress • Training • Change Subsystem activities Levels of management
  • 44. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt HOW A SYSTEM WORKS • Divide into Subsystems. • Ensure subsystems to achieve objectives. Levels of management
  • 45. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Levels of management An Information System as a System • major purpose of an information system is to convert data into information • In a business context, an information system is a subsystem of the business system
  • 46. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Levels of management An Information System as a System • oparational information system of an organization provide information on the day-to-day activities of a business • eg:- processing sales orders or checking credit • tactical systems -that lets management allocate resources effectively to archive business objectives • strategic planning systems - information systems that support the strategic plans of the business
  • 47. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Information System - Elements • hardware • software • personnel databases • procedures to accomplish its objectives Levels of management
  • 48. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Information System - SubSystems • Operational systems Levels of management
  • 49. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Levels of management Information System - Outputs and Inputs • An information system, like any other system, receives inputs of data and instructions, process the data according to the instructions, and produces outputs
  • 50. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Levels of management Information System -Hierarchy of Subsystems • The subsystems within an information system can be organized into a hierarchy to represent their functions within the overall system • Each subsystem performs a specialized function • one subsystem may record sales transactions as input, another subsystem may check customer credit and another may check inventory availability
  • 51. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Levels of management Information System -System Feedback • An information system provides system feedback to a manager about day-to-day activities and about deviations from planned activity • The information systems providing feedback that can be used to allocate resources effectively, such as inventory and personnel, are called tactical systems
  • 52. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Levels of management Information System -Subsystem Interfaces • the outputs of one subsystem become the inputs into the next
  • 53. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Levels of management Information System -Internal Controls • Good information system also have internal standards to make sure that data are processed accurately. • Input controls,for example,ensure that input data are valid before they are processed • password
  • 54. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Levels of management Effect of the Systems Approach on Information System Design • The Structure of an Enterprise
  • 55. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Levels of management USING THE SYSTEM APPROACH IN PROBLEM SOLVING • Define the problem. • Gather data describing the problem. • Identify alternative solutions. • Evaluate these alternatives. • Select and implement the best alternative. • Follow up to determine whether the solution is working
  • 56. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Levels of management Define the Problem • .The first step in the systems approach to problem solving is to define the problem • if the wrong problem is identified, the entire effort to change the system will be off track • problems that are identified may be symptoms of the real problem
  • 57. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Levels of management Gather Data Describing the Problem • The owner may study the environment, current standards, management, input resources, and internal procedures to gain an understanding of the problem
  • 58. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Levels of management Identify alternative solutions owner needs to identify some alternatives responses • Alternative 1 : Investigate alternative manufacturers • Alternative 2 : Decrease the cost of sales by introducing online sales etc • Alternative 3 : Differentiate the dealerships product by offering support services •
  • 59. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Levels of management Evaluates the alternatives • The owner evaluates the extent to which each alternatives enables the organization to achieve its objectives
  • 60. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Levels of management Select and Implement the Best Alternative • Select and Implement the Best Alternative
  • 61. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Levels of management Follow Up to Determine Whether the Solution is Working • Follow Up to Determine Whether the Solution is Working
  • 62. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Levels of management HOW INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SUPPORTS BUSINESS ACTIVITIES • One of the first challenges managers face is understanding how they can use information technology to support business activities • Porter and Millars concept of the value chain helps explain which business activities can be analyzed and transformed through the use of information technology • The value chain divide a companys activities into value activities, the distinct activities it must perform to do business
  • 63. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Value activities consist • primary activities • support activities Levels of management
  • 64. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Levels of management Primary activities - LOOMS include • Inbound logistics - delivery and handling of incoming materials • operations - manufacturing related functions • outbound logistics - order processing and shipping goods and services to customers • marketing - advertising,promotion,and sales force management • service - support repair and maintenance of its goods and services
  • 65. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Levels of management Support activities - POTH • include the resources that support the primary activities of the business
  • 66. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Levels of management Support activities - POTH • Purchasing - Online links to suppliers • Organisation - Office Automation • Technology - Computer aided design and manufacturing • Human resources - Skill database
  • 67. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Support activities Figure: Support activities Levels of management
  • 68. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Levels of management interorganisational systems( IOSs) • Information systems that link suppliers and buyers, manufactures and distributors, and distributors and buyers
  • 69. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Levels of management USING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY FOR COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE • New developments in information technology,such as telecommunications,computer aided design,and office automation,have created unprecedented opportunities. • •
  • 70. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Levels of management Industry level effect • Products and services : Information technology can change the nature of products and services by altering the product development cycle or by increasing the speed of distribution • eg :- If a textbook publisher uses word processing and computer based typesetting to generate publications • Production economics : Can modify the production aspects • Markets: Consumers have become increasingly computer literate ATM etc
  • 71. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Levels of management Firm level effect • At the firm level, the competitive forces facing the firm determine the effect of information technology. • Five competitive forces influence the probability of an industry
  • 72. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Five competitive forces- Firm level • buyers • suppliers • substitute products • new entrants • rivals Levels of management
  • 73. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Levels of management Strategy Level • Low cost leadership - Low cost leadership refers to the ability to reduce costs or to improve productivity without incurring additional costs Eg:- If a commercial bank can process thousands of demand deposit transactions per day at 2 Rs per transaction • Product differentiation - It is achieved by adding value or unique features to a product to improve its quality & services. A good example of product differentiation is giving customer electronic access to an online service network • Market Specialization The third competitive strategy porter describe is market specialization, which is achieved by concentrating on a particular product niche. Eg: Electronic Library
  • 74. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Levels of management Reference • Management Information System - The Managers view Robert Schultheis Mary Sumner
  • 75. Table of contents Course Overview f()s of mngmnt Contact • vijupoonthottam@yahoo.co.in Levels of management

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