The age of pope


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The age of pope

  1. 1. The Age of Pope 1700 - 1745
  2. 2. The Eighteenth Century• The Glorious Revolution of 1688 firmly established a Protestant monarchy together with effective rule by Parliament• The new science of the time, Newtonian physics, reinforced the belief that everything, including human conduct, is guided by a rational order• Moderation and common sense became intellectual values as well as standards of behavior.• The 18th cent. was the age of town life with its coffeehouses and clubs• One of the most famous of the latter was the Scriblerus Club, whose members included Pope, Swift, and John Gay• Its purpose was to defend and uphold high literary standards against the rising tide of middle-class values and tastes
  3. 3. Eighteenth-Century English Lit...• The Revolution of 1688, which banished the Stuarts, had settled the king question by making Parliament supreme in England, but not all Englishmen were content with the settlement.• People - divided into hostile parties: the liberal Whigs• Whig - a member of a British political party in the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries, which supported political and social change• Tory (Conservative)- belonging to or supporting the British political party which opposes sudden social change, high taxation and government involvement in industry• Zealot - a person who has very strong opinions about something, and tries to make other people have them too
  4. 4. • Addison, Steele, Defoe, Swift,--most of the great writers of the age were, on occasion, the willing servants of the Whigs or Tories. So the new politician replaced the old nobleman as a patron of letters• the War of the Spanish Succession (1711) prevented the union of the French and Spanish monarchies, and preserved the smaller states of Holland and Germany• eighteenth-century writings in three main divisions: the reign of so-called classicism, the revival of romantic poetry, and the beginnings of the modern novel• The word “classic” came to have a different meaning, a meaning now expressed by the word “formal.”• The Eighteenth Century in England is called the Classical Age or the Augustan Age in literature. It is also called the Age of Good Sense or the Age of Reason.• Dryden is also included in the Classical or Augustan Age
  5. 5. • Other great literary figures - this age successively were Pope and Dr. Johnson Classical Age is divided into three distinct periods—the Ages of Dryden, Pope and Dr. Johnson.• The Age of Dryden dealt as - “The Restoration Period.”• In the first place , the term ‘classic’, refers in general, applies to writers of the highest rank in any nation• first applied to the works of the great Greek and Roman writers, like Homer and Virgil• This age writers followed - the simple and noble methods of the great ancient writers• In the second place, in every national literature there is a period when a large number of writers produce works of great merit• the reign of Augustus is called the Classical Age of Rome; and the Age of Dante is called the Classical Age of Italian literature.• an abundance of literary productions
  6. 6. • In the third place, during this period the English writers rebelled against the exaggerated and fantastic style of writing prevalent during the Elizabethan and Puritan ages, and they demanded that poetry, drama and prose should follow exact rules.• the writers followed the ‘classicism’• their external performance, and lacked their sublimity and grandeur• pseudo(a system of thought or a theory which is not formed in a scientific way )-classicism• Pope, Addison, Swift, Johnson and Burke the modern parallels to Horace, Virgil, Cicero, and other brilliant writers who made Roman literature famous during the reign of Emperor Augustus
  7. 7. • John Locke, the great philosopher, declared in An Essay Concerning Humane Understanding (1690), “Faith is nothing but a firm assent of the mind; which if it be regulated as is our duty, cannot be afforded to anything but upon good reason; and so cannot be opposite to it.”• When Pope said of wit that it is “Nature to advantage dress’d, what oft was thought but n’er so well express’d,”• Dr. Johnson remarked about Gray’s Elegy that “it abounds with images which find a mirror in every mind, and with sentiments to which every bosom returns an echo”
  8. 8. Charecterisitcs of the classical school of poetry• Classical Poetry - Product of the intelligence playing upon the surface of life• Emotion & imagination is markedly deficient• Didactic & satiric – commonly• A poetry of argument & criticism of political & personalities• Exclusively – town poetry• Made out – interest of society & the humbler aspects of life are neglected• The critical taste of the time was distinctly unsympathetic towards predecessors• Romanticism & enthusiasm alike cut across all its accepted notions of reasonableness & good sense• Extreme devotion to form & a love of superficial polish led to the establishment of a highly artificial & conventional style
  9. 9. The literary characteristics of this age• prose occupies the front position.• the prominent writers took an active part, and a large number of pamphlets, journals and magazines were brought out in order to cater to the growing need of the masses• poetry was considered inadequate for such a task,• a rapid development of prose• prose writers of this age excel the poets in every respect• The graceful and elegant prose of Addison’s essays• the terse style of Swift’s satires• the artistic perfection of Fielding’s novels• the sonorous eloquence of Gibbon’s history• the oratorical style of Burke
  10. 10. • poetry also had become prosaic• Poetry became polished, witty and artificial, but it lacked fire, fine feelings, enthusiasm• Another important feature of this age was the origin and development of the novel• the Age of Pope, that the classical rules and ideals reigned supreme• the Age of Johnson—cracks began to appear in the edifice of classicism, in the form of revolts against its ideals, and a revival of the Romantic tendency
  11. 11. Literature, The 18th Century The desire for improvement of the general human condition through tolerance, freedom, and equality was expressed by French writers and thinkers who came to be known as les philosophes (the philosophers). 35-volume Encyclopedie (1751-1772, with supplements in 1776 and 1777, and an index in 1780; The Encyclopedia), a project headed by Denis Diderot and Jean dAlembert In the last years of the reign of Louis XIV, who died in 1715, up until Louis XV took the throne in 1723, France went through a period of crisis conflict between the French king and the pope Charles de Montesquieu, Jean Jacques Rousseau, Voltaire, and Diderot—all wrote fiction as well as nonfiction essays on a variety of topics
  12. 12. ALEXANDER POPE• born in London to Alexander Pope (senior, a linen merchant) and Edith Pope (née Turner), who were both Catholics.• education was affected by the penal law• taught to read by his aunt, then went to Twyford School in about 1698–9.• He then went to two Catholic schools in London• the age of 12, he suffered numerous health problems, such as Potts disease (a form of tuberculosis that affects the bone) which deformed his body and stunted his growth, leaving him with a severe hunchback. His tuberculosis infection caused other health problems including respiratory difficulties, high fevers, inflamed eyes, and abdominal pain. He never grew beyond 1.37 metres (4 feet, 6 inches) tall.• His life has classified into 3 Periods
  13. 13. 1st period – 1715• Four Pastorals – a short poems on Spring, Autumn & Winter – Closely fashioned on vergil• Windsor Forest inspired by Denham’s Cooper’s Hill – real beauties of nature• The essays on criticism published at the age of 21 – inspired by Horace’s Ars Poetica & Boileau’s L’Art Poetique• Pope’s landscape is copied out of the Greek & Latin poets rather than painted from first-hand knowledge of what he professes to describe• The Rape of The Lock – Masterpiece• Lord Petre cut a lock of hair from the head of a young beauty named Arabella Fermor (The Belinda of the poem). This joke led to a quarrel between the two families and poppe appealed to by a common friend John Caryl to throw oil on troubled waters by turning the whole thing into jest.
  14. 14. • Heroic-comical better to call as a Mock – Epic• Discrepancy between theme & treatment is of the essence of the particular kind of parody.
  15. 15. 2nd – period 3rd Period• The Translation of the Iliad & • Satires & Epistles of Horace the Odyssey Imitated• The real Discrepancy lay in it is • The Prologue – The epistle to Neither Pope Nor his age Dr.Arbuthnat could understand the spirit of • The Dunciad – a long & Homer or the Homeric world elobrate satire on the ‘Dunces”• Pope has written for his – the bad Poets, Pedants & readers – very striking & Pretentious critics of the day brilliant piece • The Essay on man – a poem in four Epistles • Defence of the moral government of the universe & an explanation of the physical & moral evil
  16. 16. 3rd Period• Pope’s Deistic friend – Lord Bolingbroke induced him• His merits & defects are those of the classical School• He had neither the imaginative power nor the depth of feeling without which great poetry is impossible• A marvellously clever & adroit literary craftsman & the neat, Compact, Antithetic & Epigrammatic style of writing – The Classical ideal – Perfection in his hands
  17. 17. • He is the third-most frequently quoted writer in The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations, after Shakespeare and Tennyson• Popes use of the heroic couplet is famous.• In May, 1709, Popes Pastorals was published in the sixth part of Tonsons Poetical Miscellanies• Quotation• “A Lilttle learning is a dangerous thing”• “The proper study of mankind is man”• “An Honest man’s the noblest work of God”• “To err is human, to forgive divine”• “And fools rush in where angels fear to tread”
  18. 18. Other works of Pope• To Lord Bathurst• On the use of the riches• Of the knowledge & character of men• Of the characters of women• The Messiah
  19. 19. Other Poets of the Period• Matthew Prior (1664 – • John Gay (1685 – 1732) 1721) • Intimated friend to Swift &• Solomon on the vanity of Pope the world - a long & very • Fables – Anthologies serious poem • The Shepherd’s week – a• Imitation of Hudibras called series of Six pastorals • Trivia – humorous description - Alma: or the progress of of the London streets the mind • The Beggars Opera – Popular• write a parody of Dryden’s Italian Opera • The Rural sports The Hind and the Panther - • The streets of London The Town & Country Mouse – Entitled
  20. 20. • Edward Young (1683 – • William Somerville (1675 1765) – 1742)• One who write in various • The Chase – A descriptive style, including satires in poem pope’s manner & tragedies• Night Thoughts – a gloomy & unwholesome poem• Full • Sir Samuel Garth (1661 – of copybook 1719) moralisings couched in florid & pompous verse • The Dispensary – a satire of Apothecaries – The mock- Heroic• Robert Blair (1699 – 1746)• A Scotch poet• The Grave – Sombre production of the same Churchyard• Written in Blank verse
  21. 21. Daniel Defoe (1661 – 1731) Born: September 13, 1660, London Died: April 24, 1731, London Spouse: Mary Tuffley (m. 1684–1731) Movies: Moll Flanders, Robinson Crusoe on Mars , More Parents: James Foe, Annie Defoe Son of a Wll-to-do Butcher, business in heart of the city of London He was avowedly a moral & Social reformer & aimed to correct & teach his age Owes is importance in Literature To drop the frame work of history to develop the special form of prose fiction
  22. 22. • Critics “From writing Biographies with real names attached to them it was but a short step to writing biographies with fictious names”• His first foray into the publishing world was his series of essays on business and banking collected in An Essay Upon Projects (1697).• The Life and Adventures of Robinson Crusoe (1720)• Defoe opened new vein after that work utmost industry• The Memories of a Cavalier (1720)• Captain Singleton (1720)• Moll Flanders (1722)• Colonel Jack (1722)• Roxana• Dickory Cronke (1719)• The Fortunate Mistress(1724)• The Complete English Tradesman (1726)
  23. 23. • Military Memoirs of Capt. George Carleton (1728)• History of the Plague in London (1722) - Journal of the Plauge Year – Professedly the genuine record of an eye- witness & long accepted• Made-up stories as true stories & took infinite pains to convince his readers• We may describe his works as the phrase “Fictitious biographies” or in Sir Leslie Stephen’s words as “History minus the facts”• His works are in biographical form, no attempt was made towards the organisation of the materials into a systematic plot; stories of actual life, matter of fact• Minute realism is recognished as an outstanding feature of his fiction• Importance in the history of the English novel is universally admitted• Novel developed after his death
  24. 24. Jonathan Swift (1667 – 1745) Born: November 30, 1667, Dublin Died: October 19, 1745, Ireland Spouse: Esther Johnson (m. 1716) Education: Hertford College, Oxford (1694), University of Dublin,University of Oxford, Trinity College, Dublin Parents: Jonathan Swift, Abigail Erick he suffered from Menieres Disease, a condition of the inner ear that leaves the afflicted nauseous and hard of hearing Glorious Revolution of 1688 spurred Swift to move to England and start anew His mother found a secretary position for him under the revered English statesman, Sir William Temple
  25. 25. • 10 years, Swift worked in Londons Moor Park and acted as an assistant to Temple, helping him with political errands, and also in the researching and publishing of his own essays and memories• first short essays and then a manuscript for a later book.• His first political pamphlet was titled A Discourse on the Contests and Dissentions in Athens and Rome.• The greatest of English Prose writer• Master of Simple, Direct, Colloquial Style – as far as possible removed from the ornate & the rhetorical• Few rivals & no Superior• His field was satire & favourite instrument is irony – art of saying one thing in order to convey another• He makes a scathing attack both upon the free-thinkers & upon the insincere professors of the current religion
  26. 26.  The Battle of the Books (1704) Grew out of a controversy in which sir william tample had taken prominent part The respective merits of ancient & Modern Lit The mock-heroic description of the great battle in the King’s Library between the rivals hosts A Tale of a Tub (1704) It contains the essence of his thought & style Designed to champion the protestant church against the pretensions of the church of Rome & the extravagances of the dissenting sects, & to exhibit the corruptions of modern christianity An allegorical story Principal figure – 3 brothers – Peter (The Roman church) , Martin (The English Church), Jack (The Calvinists or dissenters)
  27. 27.  The rest being composed of apologies, Introductions, dedications & degressions Swift –“The aim of the book was to reconcile divinity with wit; but the wit is so pungent & the satire so teriffic that the general impression left is that of utter irreverence in the handling of sacred things” Gulliver’s Travels – (1728) Most delightful of children’s books Turns out on closer inspection to be one of die bitterest satires on mankind ever penned The deepening of the satire as we pass from each one of the book
  28. 28. The book has three themesA satirical view of the state of European government, and of petty differences between religionsAn inquiry into whether men are inherently corrupt or whether they become corruptedA restatement of the older "ancients versus moderns" controversy previously addressed by Swift in The Battle of the BooksThe Book has contained 4 parts
  29. 29. Gullivers Travels - Plot Lemuel Gulliver is the protagonist and narrator of Gullivers Travels During his first voyage, Gulliver is washed ashore after a shipwreck and finds himself a prisoner of a race of tiny people, less than 6 inches tall, who are inhabitants of the island country of Lilliput After giving assurances of his good behaviour he is given a residence in Lilliput and becomes a favorite of the court From here, the book follows Gulliver assists the Lilliputians to subdue their neighbours, the Blefuscudians, by stealing their fleet displeasing the King and the court charged with treason for, among other "crimes", "making water" in the capital assistance of a kind friend, he escapes to Blefuscu spots and retrieves an abandoned boat and sails out to be rescued by a passing ship
  30. 30. The Book has 3 parts• A Voyage to Lilliput (4 May 1699 – 13 April 1702 )– concerned with the English politics of the Time• A Voyage to Brobdingnag (20 June 1702 – 3 June 1706) – The contempt of the writer becomes more marked• A Voyage to Laputa, Balnibarbi, Luggnagg, Glubbdubdrib, and Japan(5 August 1706 – 16 April 1709) – attacks Philosophers, Projectors & Inventors & all who waste their energies in the pursuit of visionary & fantastic things• A Voyage to the country of the Houyhnhnms & Yahoos(7 September 1710 – 2 July 1715) – tears away all the accessories & artifices of civilisation & puts “that animal called man”• The travels reveal swift as essential a man of his time in his want of spiritual quality• His age was an age of flippant & shallow optimism
  31. 31. Joseph Addison (1672 – 1719) & Sir Richard Steele (1672 – 1729)• Collaboration in the periodical essay• They met as boys at the charterhouse• Afterwards as young at Oxford• Addison – reputation for classical scholarship, made the grand tour of Europe as a preparation for diplomacy, entered the House of commons, Chief of Secretary for Ireland & for a year Secretary of State & died 10yrs before his friend• Steele – Army , ardour in politics, Died in wales
  32. 32. Characters were curiously contrastedAddison – urbane, polished gentleman, exquisite refinement of taste & lofty ideas of rectitude & piety but shy, Self-conscious, a little remote & austereSteele – Bohemian, easygoing, Thriftless, careless but full of generosity & sympathy & an honest love of what is pure & goodOutside field – both men did a good deal of miscellaneous work
  33. 33.  Till december 6, 1712 except Sunday The Spectator was published continuous 18 months later it was revived by Addison alone & issued 3times a week from 18 June to 20 December 1714 Total 635 essay as a collection – Addison wrote 274; Steele 240; remaining 121 various friends In it addison 1st published 8essays on Paradise Lost – for better appreciation of Milton & his work Men & Manners in the ordinary social world of their time Take Characters of the Greek Theophrastus as model Moralist to break down 2 opposed influences The profligate Restoration tradition of loose thinking on the one hand Puritan fanaticism & Bigotry
  34. 34.  They wrote good – humouredly, met all classes of readers on their own ground & made ample allowance for the ordinary failing of humanity Fundamental questions of social & domestic conduct of their time – for this reason they occupy a high place in history of first half of the 18th century Write – Educational, Purely moral aim, object to extend & popularise general culture Discussed – Art, Philosophy, The Drama, Poetry & interest the general reader in such subjects but also to guide & develop his taste
  35. 35. Addison’s Steele’s• Tragedy – Cato • Comedy – The Funeral• The Spectator • The Tatleer (1 March 1711) was • The Gaurdian published daily • The Lying Lover• The Campaign • The Tender Husband• Public Credit • The Conscious Lover• The Vision of Miza• Rosamond• The Drummer In many of the spectator papers in which scenes from the Life of Sir Roger are discribed
  36. 36. Other Writers John Arbuthnot (1667 – 1735) Henry St. John, Lord Bolincbroke (1678 – 1751)• a physician, satirist and pol • Pope’s friend ymath inLondon.• Pope’s friend • Wrote on politics & Philosophy in an agreeable• The History of John Bull - & showy style a satire Francis Atterbury (1662 – Colley Cibber (1671 – 1757) 1732)• Entertaining Apology or • Pope’s intimate associate Autobiography • He figured through his literary relatives Anthony, third Lord • His sermons & Shaftesbury (1671 – 1713) miscellaneous works were• The grandson of Dryden’s forgoten Achitophel •
  37. 37. George Berkeley (1685 – 1753) & Joseph Butler (1692 – 1752)• Belong to the Special Literature of Philosophy & Theology• Principle of Human Knowledge – Berkeley• Analogy of Religion – Butler Mrs.Centlivre (1667 – 1723) George Lillo (1693 – 1739)• London Merchant or History of George Barnwell• Fatal Curiosity – domestic drama or form of tragedy – Incidents were taken from common life instead of from history or romance
  38. 38. Thank You By Cholan.JR Asst.Prof of English,Annai Group of Institution Kumbakonam Contact - 9629113351
  39. 39. Next ChapterAge of Johnson