What is literature? What is the nature ofliterature?What is the value ofliterature?Why do we studyliterature?How do we studyliterature?
Part I Course Description Definition of English Literature Literature mainly produced in English by the people living in the UK (American citizens.. Methodology Historical approach Thematic approach Analytical approach Requirements Reading before class Note-taking, participation and presentation in class
Course book: History and anthology of English Literaturegood and authoritative one;Easy to understand; prepare a notebook and copy the outline I provideespecially important to your graduate entrance examinationSuggestions:刘炳善《英国文学简史》河南人民出版社（条理较好，简单易懂， 很多学校考研的指定书目）；张定铨《新编简明英国文学史》（以各时代兴盛的文学形式为主 导）；侯维瑞《英国文学通史》（中文写成，内容庞大）
History of English Literature Old English Literature Medieval English Literature Renaissance English Literature 17th century English Literature 18th century English Literature Romantic English Literature 19th century English Literature 20th century English Literature
Old English Literature 449A.D.---1066 Formation of England Formation of Old English Poetic tradition The Song of Beowulf---the national epic Anglo-Saxon period: from tribal society to feudalism
Medieval English Literature About five centuries Feudal system, Roman Catholic church Literary forms: romance, popular ballad Representatives:Geoffrey Chaucer, William Langland
Renaissance English Literature Late 15th century---early 17th century The rise of bourgeois class Renaissance: the rebirth of letters the key: humanism Thomas More: the greatest humanist Representatives: --William Shakespeare: drama --Edmund Spencer: poetry --Francis Bacon: essay
17th century English Literature English Revolution, Restoration, the “Glorious Revolution”--constitutional monarchy Literature of the Revolution: --Poetry: John Milton Metaphysical poetry --Prose: John Bunyan Literature of the Restoration: --comedies (comedy of manners) --John Dryden
18th century English Literature The industrial revolution, the rise of bourgeois middle class The Enlightenment—the struggle of bourgeoisie against feudalism Neoclassicism: Alexander Pope, Joseph Addison, Richard Steele Realistic novel: Daniel Defoe, Jonathan Swift, Henry Fielding Sentimentalism: Laurence Stern, Thomas Gray Pre-Romanticism: William Blake, Robert
Romantic English Literature The French Revolution & the industrial revolution Poetry William Wordsworth, S. T. Coleridge Robert Southey; Byron, Shelley, Keats Prose: Charles Lamb Novel: Walter Scott, Jane Austen
19th century English Literature The Victorian period The struggle between the working class and the capitalists Critical realism: novel (the 40s and early 50s) Charles Dickens, W. M. Thackeray, Bronte sisters, George Eliot etc. Prose & poetry: the mid and late 19th century
Literary trends at the end of the 19th century --Naturalism: George Gissing --Neo-romanticism: Robert Louis Stevenson --Aestheticism: Oscar Wilde, Walter Pater
20th century English Literature The two world wars New ideas and new theories Realistic writing: early 20th century --poetry: Thomas Hardy, war poets --novel: John Galsworthy, H. G. Wells, Arnold Bennett --drama: George Bernard Shaw Modernism: the 20s and 30s --a movement of experiments in techniques
-- poetry: W.B. Yeats and T.S. Eliot. -- novel: D.H. Lawrence, E.M. Foster, James Joyce and Virginia Woolf --drama: J.M. Synge English literature since 1945 --postmodernism --drama: Samuel Becket, John Osborne,Harold Pinter --novel: William Golding, John Fowles, Kingsley Amis (the Angry Yong man), Martin Amis etc. --poetry: Dylan Thomas, Philip Larkin, Ted Hughes and Seamus Heaney
Part One The Anglo-Saxon PeriodThe HistoryThe Literature: The Song of Beowulf: consists of 3182 lines and to be divided into two parts. The Subject Matter: The whole song is pagan in spirit and matter.Appreciation
Part Two The Anglo-Norman PeriodThe HistoryThe Literature: Sir Gawain and the Green Knight: master the general idea; appreciate the first part
Part Three Geoffrey ChaucerIntroduction of life and work of Chaucer: the “father of English poetry” and one of thegreatest narrative poets of England.Translation work: Romance of the RoseMasterpiece: The Canterbury Tales One of the most famous works in all literature. The Prologue is a splendid masterpiece ofrealistic portrayal, the first of its kind in thehistory of English literature.
In this work, Chaucer created a strikinglybrilliant and picturesque panorama of his timeand his country.In this poem, Chaucer’s realism, trenchant ironyand freedom of views reached such a high level ofpower that it had no equal in all the Englishliterature up to the 16th century.Appreciation: The Canterbury TalesPopular Ballads: Destination: Ballads are anonymous narrative
that have been preserved by oral transmission.Appreciation: Robin Hood; Allin-a-Dale; Get up and Bar the Door; Sir Patrick Spens
Part Four The RenaissanceThe History: the 16th century in Englandwas a period of the breaking up of feudalrelations and establishing of the foundationsof capitalism.The works:At the beginning of the 16th century: Utopiaby Thomas More In the first half of the 16th century: lyricalpoems(appeared) by Thomas Wyatt In the second half of the 16th century:
lyrical poetry became widespread inEngland: Outstanding poets : Philip Sidney.Thomas Campion. Edmund Spenser( TheFairy Queen)At the end of the century: Francis Baconwrote his famous philosophical and literaryworks.William Shakespeare: Life: Works: During the twenty-two years of his literary work he produced 37 plays,
literary work he produced 37 plays, two narrative poems and 154 sonnets.Appreciation: Hamlet ;The Merchant of Venice and Sonnet 18,29,106.Francis Bacon: Life: Works: may be divided into three classes: the philosophical, the literary, and the professional works. Appreciation: Of Truth, Of Studies.
Part Five The 17th Century The Period of Revolution and RestorationHistorical Background: Literary Characteristics: John Donne: A more thoroughly characteristic figure of the early seventeenth century. Works: Songs and Sonnets; The Relic Appreciation: Song, A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning and SonnetJohn Milton: English poet
Life:Works: L’Allegro;IlPenseroso;Comus;Areopagitica, Eikonoklastes; Defense for the English People. The famous is: Paradise Lost; Paradise Regained. Appreciation: Paradise Lost; sonnetJohn Bunyan: Life: Works: The Pilgrim’s Progress
Part Six The 18th Century The Age of Enlightenment in EnglandDaniel Defoe: Life: Masterpiece: Robinson Crusoe Appreciation : Robinson Crusoe Jonathan Swift: the supreme master in the first part of the century. Works: Tale of a Tub; Gulliver’s Travels; The Battle of the Books
Appreciation: Gulliver’s TravelsHenry Fielding: the greatest novelist of theeighteenth century. Works: Joseph Andrews; Jonathan Wild; The History of Tom Jones; AmeliaWilliam Blake: the most independent and the most original of all the romantic poets of the 18th century. Works: Poetical Sketches; Song of Innocence; The Book of Thel; Tiriel;The Marriage
of Heaven and Hell, The French Revolution, TheVisions of the Daughters of Albion, The Songs ofExperience Appreciation: London; The Tiger; The Chimney SweeperRobert Burns: the greatest of Scottish poets Works: Kilmarnock Burns( Poems Chiefly in Scottish Dialect; To a Mouse; To a Mountain Daisy; Man was Made to Mourn; The Two Dogs; Address to the Devil.
Appreciation: My Heart’s in the Highlands ;John Anderson, My Jo; A Red, Red Rose; To a Mouse; Auld Lang Syne. ( Try to get the main content of these works.)
Part Seven The Romantic Period Romanticism in EnglandBackground:William Wordsworth: Works: the Lyrical Ballads; the principal poems: Lines Composed a Few Miles Above Tintern Abbey; The Prelude; The Excursion. Appreciation: Lines; sonnetShelley:
Life:Works: Queen Mab; Alastor or The Spirit of Solitude; Lane and Cythna;Prometheus Unbound; The Cenci; Ode to the West Wind; To a Sky-LarkAppreciation: Ozymandias; A Song: Men of England; Ode to the West Wind; To a Sky-LarkJane Austen: Works: Pride and Prejudice; Northanger Abbey;
Sense and Sensibility; Emma; Walter Scott;Persuasion; Mansfield ParkAppreciation: Pride and Prejudice (Try to get the main content)
Part eight The Victorian Age Critical Realism in EnglandHistorical Background:Charles Dickens: Life: Works: Pickwick Papers; Oliver Twist (first true novel);Nicholas Nickleby; Master Humphrey’s Clock; The Old CuriosityShop; Barnaby Rudge; Martin Chuzzlewit;A
Household Words; Bleak House; Little Dorrit; ATale of Two Cities; Great Expectation; OurMutual Friend; Edwin Drood. Appreciation: Oliver TwistCharlotte Bronte And Emily Bronte: Life Story: Works: The Professor; Jane Eyre; Wuthering Heights; Shirley; Villette Appreciation: Jane Eyre; Wuthering HeightsRobert Browning:
Life story:Style: individualWorks: Pauline; “history of a soul”; Sordello; Pippa Passes; In a Balcony; Colombe’s Birthday; A Blot in the Scutcheon; The Return of the DrusesAppreciation: My Last Duchess; Home-Thoughts, from Abroad
Part nine:Twentieth Century Literature The Transition From 19TH to 20th Century in English literatureGeorge Bernard Shaw: works: Widowes’ Houses; The Philanderer; Mrs. Warren’s Profession; Arms and the Man; Candida; The Man of Destiny; a mock heroic skit on Napoleon; You Never Can Tell; Caesar and Cleopatra; Man and Superman; Getting Married.
Appreciation: Mrs. Warren’s ProfessionD.H.Lawrence: Life: Works: Sons and Lovers; The White Peacock; The Rainbow; Appreciation: Sons and LoversJames Joyce: Works: A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man; The Day of the Rabblement Appreciation: Araby