There are over 160 different ethnic groups and indigenous
peoples in Russia.
The most notable are :
• Ethnic Russians with their Slavic Orthodox traditions
• Tatars and Bashkir with their Turkic Muslim culture
• Buddhist nomadic Buryats and Kalmyks
• Shamanistic peoples of the Extreme North and Siberia
• Highlanders of the Northern Caucasus
• Finno-Ugric peoples of the Russian North West and Volga
Russian cuisine widely uses –
Crops of rye, wheat, barley, and millet provide the
ingredients for various breads, pancakes and cereals, beer
and vodka drinks.
• Since the Christianization of
Kievan Rus' for several ages
Russian architecture was
by the Byzantine
architecture. Apart from
fortifications , the main
stone buildings of ancient
Rus' were Orthodox
churches with their
many domes, often gilded
or brightly painted.
• Early Russian painting is
represented in icons and
vibrant frescos, the two
from Byzantium. As Moscow
power, Theophanes the
Dionisius and Andrei
Rublev became vital
names associated with a
distinctly Russian art.
Music and Dance
• Music is prevalent in Russia
post the 19th century.
• During the early 20th
century, Russian ballet
Pavlova and Vaslav
Nijinsky rose to fame, and
Diaghilev and his Ballets
Russes' travels abroad
profoundly influenced the
development of dance
Literature and Philosophy
• In the 18th century, during
the era of Russian
development of Russian
literature was boosted by
the works of Mikhail
Lomonosov and Denis
Fonvizin. By the early 19th
century a modern native
tradition had emerged,
producing some of the
greatest writers in Russian
history like L.N.Tolstoy.
National Holidays and Symbols
There are 7 public
holidays in Russia :
• Orthodox Christmas (7 January)
• Defender of the Fatherland
Day (23 February)
• International Women's Day (8
• Spring and Labor Day (1 May)
• Victory Day (9 May)
• Russia Day (12 June)
• Unity Day (4 November)
• Tourism in Russia has seen
rapid growth since the late
Soviet times, first domestic
tourism and then international
tourism, fueled by the rich
cultural heritage and great
natural variety of the country.
Major tourist routes in Russia
include a journey around
the Golden Ring of ancient
cities, cruises on the big rivers
like the Volga, and long
journeys on the famous Trans-
According to the Constitution of Russia, the country is a
federation and semi-presidential republic, wherein the
President is the ead of state and the Prime Minister is
the head of government.
The federal government composed of three branches:
• Russia has a multifaceted foreign policy. As of 2009, it
maintains diplomatic relations with 191 countries and
has 144 embassies.
• Russia maintains strong and positive relations with
other BRIC countries. In recent years, the country has sought
to strengthen ties especially with the People's Republic of
China by signing the Treaty of Friendship as well as building
the Trans-Siberian oil pipeline geared toward growing
Chinese energy needs.
Leaders of the BRIC nations in 2008: (L-R) Manmohan Singh of India, Dmitry
Medvedev of Russia, Hu Jintao of China and Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva of Brazil.
• The Russian military is
divided into the Ground
Forces, Navy, and Air
• In 2006, the military had
1.037 million personnel
on active duty. It is
mandatory for all male
citizens aged 18–27 to
be drafted for a year of
service in Armed Forces.
• The economy of Russia is the 8th largest
economy in the world by nominal value and
the 6th largest by Purchasing Power Parity
• Russian economy is today considered by IMF
(International Monetary Fund) and World
Bank a developing one.
• Russia's economy grew 3.4% in 2012.
The Present Economy Depends On:
• Macro Economy
• Natural Resources
• GDP: $ 3.380 Trillion (2013 )
• GDP Growth: 1.8% (Jan-Apr. 2013)
• Monetary Policy: Russian economic institutes have started
the "flexible" ruble policy. As a result of the activity of
Russian Central Bank - the lowest inflation level was
achieved in 2011-2012 - 6.6%.
• Fiscal Policy: Fiscal Policy in Russia has been very
disciplined since the 1998 debt crisis. Funding for the four
"national projects", undertakings in Agriculture,
Education, Housing and Healthcare, will increase by
85 billion Rubles (RU) over the 2006 figure to 230 billion
• Public Debt: Before 2008 government domestic debt
issuance was a relatively small figure at 170 – 250 billion
Rubles (RU) annually. The government expects the budget
to be in the red (to a surplus of 600 billion RU) from 2012
till at least 2014.
• Natural resources, especially Oil and Gas, dominate
• The Petroleum Industry in Russia is one of the largest
in the world.
• Russia has the largest reserves, and is the largest
exporter, of Natural Gas.
• It has the second largest Coal reserves.
• It has the eighth largest Oil reserves, and is the largest
exporter of oil in the world.
• Russia is also a leading producer and exporter of
Minerals and Gold.