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1   instructional design basics

1 instructional design basics






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  • Ex – I want them to appreciate theater. I want to become informed voters. I want them to become reflective practitioners Alignment (integration) occurs when the all of the elements are in alignment and bring students to achieve each successive higher level. To ENSURE THE TIME AND ENERGY ARE WELL INVESTED! Design with the end in mind… Work backwards from the highest level. The curriculum goals – in a course on chemistry, don’t teach sociology or women’s issues The instructor’s goals – you’re the professor, you don’t take a course, you take a professor… Pause, Think of the people who have influenced you most in your life. It’s likely one of those people was teacher or professor. What passion do you have for your subject? What is the single most important thing you want students to get out of your course? Team Building I want them to think like team building consultants Ilene V. I want them to think like group dynamics consultants D. Cox I want them to develop cogent points of view on health issues Rachel Burks I want them to become informed voters on scientific issues Richard Gist I want them to become informed consumers of advertising Tom C. I want them to appreciate theater
  • What happens of the pieces are not in alignment? Well, remember the purpose of SP&DNT to justify the effort involved. If the web components SP or DNT they enhance T & L enough to justify the effort. What if you create an online discussion that lasts one week or longer – or create a series of OD’s – that have no relevance to the course objectives? You’ve just created an assignment that involves a lot of work for you and your students that has little payoff. The aim here is to ensure the time and effort are well invested. The purpose of TETL isn’t to add more assignments and online components to your course. The purpose is to find alternate ways to accomplish your objectives that enable you to SP & DNT. = a different way to teach the course and when it works it should be a way that you find more effective.
  • 1. Design for active and effective learning. Principle: Distance learning designs consider: specific context needs, learning goals, and other characteristics of the learners nature of the content appropriate instructional strategies and technologies desired learning outcomes local learning environment
  • Basic Assumptions The principles that lend themselves to quality face-to-face learning environments are often similar to those found in web-based learning environments. With all forms of media converging to a digital platform, advanced educational technology may include a variety of learning environments and information appliances. While rapidly emerging technologies offer unlimited potential for virtual learning environments for both face-to-face as well as distance learners, practical application of existing technologies may often prove highly effective for various audiences and objectives.
  • Web-based learning designs must consider the nature of content, specific context, desired learning outcomes and characteristics of the learner. Learner-centered strategies include modular, stand-alone units that are compatible with short bursts of learning. Learning modules may also be open, flexible and self-directing.
  • Active, hands-on, concrete experiences are highly effective. Learning by doing, analogy and assimilation are increasingly important pedagogical forms. Where possible, learning outcomes should relate to real-life experiences through simulation and application.
  • Various learning styles are best engaged by using a variety of media to achieve learning outcomes. Selection of media may also depend on nature of content, learning goals, access to technology, and the local learning environment. Local learning environment can be home, office, library, dorm, classroom
  • Problem-based learning involves higher order thinking skills such as analysis, synthesis, and evaluation while knowledge-based learning involves recall, comprehension and application.
  • Learning is social and sensitive to context. Learning experiences based on interaction and collaboration support learning communities while building a support network to enhance learning outcomes. Multiple interactions, group collaboration and cooperative learning may provide increased levels of interaction and simulation.
  • Changing mental models and constructing new knowledge empowers learners and encourages critical thinking. "Knowledge becomes a function of how the individual creates meaning from his or her experiences; it is not a function of what someone else says is true." (Jonassen, 1995)
  • Changing mental models and constructing new knowledge empowers learners and encourages critical thinking. "Knowledge becomes a function of how the individual creates meaning from his or her experiences; it is not a function of what someone else says is true." (Jonassen, 1995)

1   instructional design basics 1 instructional design basics Presentation Transcript

  • Instructional Design Basics Centre for Information Technology YASHADA, Pune
  • Session Objectives - 1
    • To apply instructional design principles to the development of courses
    • To develop a comprehensive syllabus
    • To write learner-centered, measurable objectives
    • To find and develop resources to enhance course content
  • Session Objectives - 2
    • To determine appropriate activities and assignments that enhance student learning and achieve objectives
    • To develop assessment strategies that measure learner performance and mastery of learning objectives
    • To develop evaluation strategies that assist in course revision
  • What is Instructional Design? -1
    • Instructional design is the systematic development of instructional specifications using learning and instructional theory to ensure the quality of instruction.
    • It is the process by which instruction is improved through the analysis of learning needs and systematic development of learning materials.
    • Instructional designers often use technology and multimedia as tools to enhance instruction.
  • What is Instructional Design? -2
    • Instructional design is the entire process of analysis of learning needs and goals and the development of a delivery system to meet those needs.
  • What is Instructional Design? -3
    • Instructional design includes the development of learner-centered instructional materials and activities, piloting and evaluation of all instruction and learner activities.
  • Instructional Design Process
    • Analyze instructions and learning needs
    • Design structure
    • Develop content, activities, assessment
    • Implement course(s)
    • Evaluation
    • Revise, revise, revise…..
  • Aligned Curriculum Goals Instructor Goals Objectives - Assessments & Teaching Strategies Assignments A1 A7 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2
  • Out of Alignment Curriculum Goals Instructor Goals Objectives - Assessments & Teaching Strategies Assignments A1 A7 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2
  • Course Design Strategies
    • Identify and reinforce course goals and objectives throughout the course
    • Align activities, assignments and assessments with learning objectives
    • Carefully determine the sequence and pace of each module within the course
    • Avoid student disorientation
      • Select a “look and feel” appropriate to the content
      • Be consistent in organization of information
  • Design for Active & Effective Learning
    • Consider specific context
    • Understand needs, learning goals, and other characteristics of the learners
    • Clearly state desired learning outcomes
    • Consider nature of the content
    • Choose appropriate instructional strategies and technologies
    • Consider local learning environment
  • Qualities of Favorite Teachers
    • Creative
    • Challenging
    • Relevant
    • Engaging
    • Passionate
    • Flexible
    • Other qualities?
  • Powers of the Internet for Learning
    • “ The need for a new design in learning is there. … Schooling changed to take on elements of the industrial revolution (factory-line classes, assembly-line curriculum, and teacher-foremen) that worked for the needs of the industrial age. New designs are needed to create the "knowledge workers" who will define the information age.”
  • One of the Definitions of Learning
    • “ Learning exhibits itself as a change in behavior and the inference of learning is made by comparing what behavior was possible before…and what behavior can be exhibited after participation in the learning process.”
  • The Learning Experience
    • “ The core element of any teaching and learning experience is the existence of a problem to be solved or a task to be performed by the learner.”
  • Three Key Questions!
    • What do I want students to be able to do?
    • How will I know if they can do it?
    • How can I determine if they have learned what I intended?
  • Guiding Principles for Distance Teaching & Learning
    • Basic Assumptions
      • Similarity between f2f and online learning environments
      • Multi-media converging to digital platforms enabling rich teaching & learning methods
      • Application of existing technologies are effective for various audiences & objectives
      • Online learning environments are appropriate for distance and f2f learners
  • Guiding Principle 1 The learning experience must have a clear purpose with clearly focused and measurable outcomes and objectives.
  • Clear Purpose & Focused Objectives
    • Nature of content
    • Specific context
    • Measurable learning outcomes
    • Characteristics of the learner
    • Learner-centered strategies
    • Flexible and self-directing learning modules
  • Guiding Principle 2 The learner must be actively engaged.
  • Learning Experiences
    • Active
    • Hands-on
    • Concrete
    • Real life experiences
    • Learn by doing
    • Simulation and application
    • Peer-to-peer discussion
  • Guiding Principle 3 The learning environment makes appropriate use of a variety of media.
  • Rich Learning Environment
    • Engage multiple learning styles
    • Selection of variety of media
      • Nature of content
      • Learning goals
      • Access to technology
      • Local learning environment
  • Guiding Principle 4 Learning environments must include problem-based as well as knowledge-based learning.
  • Types of Learning
    • Problem-based
      • Analysis
      • Synthesis
      • Evaluation
    • Knowledge-based
      • Recall
      • Comprehension
      • Application
  • Guiding Principle 5 Learning experiences should support interaction and the development of communities of interest.
  • Communities of Interest
    • Multiple interactions
    • Group collaboration
    • Cooperative learning
    • Learning communities
    • Enhanced learning outcomes
  • Guiding Principle 6 The practice of distance learning contributes to the larger social mission of education and training in a democratic society.
  • Social Mission of Education
    • Knowledge construction
    • Empower learners
    • Encourage critical thinking
    • Change mental models
  • End of Session 1