Design Thinking

Yuechi Li
Graphic Design Seminar: Methodologies
GRDS-701-OL1
Project A, Part 2
What is Design?
”Design as an innovation technique is always a
problem solving activity."

Professor Brigitte Borja de Mozota
Universite R...
Types of Problem
Simple
Problems

Questions

Clear problem

Solutions

Clear solution and end point
Difficult
Complex
Problems

Questions

Other
Questions

Well understood

Solutions
Difficult
Complex
Problems

Questions

Solutions

Wicked
Problems

But not well understood

More
Questions

More
Questions...
Wicked Problems looks like this
Usually People are involved in the
problem which why it is wicked
Wicked Problems’ Characteristics
•
•
•
•
•

No stopping rule
No right or wrong
Unique and novel
Solution is one-shot opera...
Smart people + technology

Solutions
Design Thinking
“

Thinking of design as an experience
rather than as isolated objects
Help us deal with a much more
complex world.
Tim Br...
“Design thinking is a humancentered approach to innovation
that draws from the designer's
toolkit to integrate the needs o...
Design Thinking Process
Empathize

Define

Testing

Prototyping

Ideation
Empathize

A human-centered design process
Qualitative methods

Uncover Needs

Identify right users

Guide Innovation

Dis...
Define

Reframe problems from designers’ point of
view
Focus on specific users

Provides focus and
frames the problem
Capt...
Ideation
Brainstorming and coming up with creative solutions
“Step beyond general
solution and make
innovation”

“Uncover ...
Prototyping

Building a representation of ideas to show to
others

Build to think- exploration

Testing- refine solution w...
Returning to original user group and
testing ideas for feedbacks.

Testing

Refine prototypes and solutions

Test and refi...
Applications

MRI Scan for children a problem
Problems:
• Children get scared
about the machine
• need to be sedated
• Dif...
Pirate Ship

• The number of patients were
reduced.
• More patient can get scanned
every day.
• Patient satisfaction was
i...
Culture required for supporting Design Thinking

Cultural Diversity

Physical Environment

Multi-disciplinary Collaboratio...
Arguments
‘Design Thinking is a failed experiment. The success rate for Design Thinking
processes was very low.’
Bruce Nus...
Arguments

Counter

Brainstorming is not a best template
for group creativity. Individual comes out
more ideas than the te...
Thank you
Design thinking yuechi li
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  • Tame ProblemsCharacter- well defined, clear solution Methods A linear fashionUsing straightforward, reductionist, repeatable, sequential techniques.
  • http://www.open.ac.uk/cpdtasters/gb052/index.htmSecondly Complex problems are difficult but well understood, leading to other problems and unexpected consequences by using new technology , development environment or applications.
  • What cause the wicked problems? People are involved in the situation.
  • Wicked problems look like a messy sutures which are no stopping rule the problems keep coming out. No right or wrong but it is good or bad. unique and novel which means the problems never exist before. Solution is one -shot operation which are one time to hit the key point if not it will fail and cost a lot of problems and money. No alternative solutions which means there is no other choice solutions and choose.
  • as a system of overlapping spaces rather than a sequence of orderly steps.
  • Design thinking process is a circle process which start from Empathize, Define, Ideation, Prototyping and testing .
  • What is Empathize? it is a human-centered design process to using qualitative methods observations, interviews and immersion to understand the needs, behavior and feeling of users in order to get insights within a human-centered mindset, which lead to innovation solution.
  • Define is reframe problems from designers’ point of view by using one of methods “how might we..?” to focus on specific users, and insights and needs that designers uncovered during the empathize mode.
  • Diversity way“Going wide “No judgmentQuick and breadth of ideasEvaluation- Convergence way
  • Prototyping is to get ideas to build rough and rapid representation physical model to show others in order to experience and interact with team. From the interaction , designers can drive more deeper empathy and get more closer to solutions.
  • Testing is returning to original user group and testing ideas for feedbacks by using feedback capture Grid , wizard of prototyping or testing with users methods to refine prototypes, point of view and learn more about users. It is a circle process to keep refine and reframed each problems points.
  • There is an example of Doug Dietz is an expert in designing advanced medical equipment like the MRI. He found out the problems that children get scared about machine and need to be sedated which make the process so difficult. http://www.slate.com/blogs/the_eye/2013/10/18/creative_confidence_a_new_book_from_ideo_s_tom_and_david_kelley.htmlhttp://innovationflow.blogspot.com/2012/06/making-pirate-ships-out-of-mri-design.html
  • He realized that need to understand the need of customers to gain empathy for children to redesign the the MRI suite into a kid’s adventure pirate ship.
  • Employees build value
  • 2. While explaining design as an algorithm goes down well with managers, this pitch skips over the pivotal importance of talent and craft.http://www.plan.bz/docs/BeyondDesignThinking_Plan.pdf
  • “Thinking like a designer can transform the way organizations develop products, services, processes, and strategy. It also allows people who aren’t trained as designers to use creative tools to address a vast range of challenges.”
  • Design thinking yuechi li

    1. 1. Design Thinking Yuechi Li Graphic Design Seminar: Methodologies GRDS-701-OL1 Project A, Part 2
    2. 2. What is Design?
    3. 3. ”Design as an innovation technique is always a problem solving activity." Professor Brigitte Borja de Mozota Universite Rene Descartes in France
    4. 4. Types of Problem Simple Problems Questions Clear problem Solutions Clear solution and end point
    5. 5. Difficult Complex Problems Questions Other Questions Well understood Solutions
    6. 6. Difficult Complex Problems Questions Solutions Wicked Problems But not well understood More Questions More Questions ……
    7. 7. Wicked Problems looks like this
    8. 8. Usually People are involved in the problem which why it is wicked
    9. 9. Wicked Problems’ Characteristics • • • • • No stopping rule No right or wrong Unique and novel Solution is one-shot operation No alternative solutions
    10. 10. Smart people + technology Solutions
    11. 11. Design Thinking
    12. 12. “ Thinking of design as an experience rather than as isolated objects Help us deal with a much more complex world. Tim Brown ”
    13. 13. “Design thinking is a humancentered approach to innovation that draws from the designer's toolkit to integrate the needs of people, the possibilities of technology, and the requirements for business success.” —Tim Brown, president and CEO
    14. 14. Design Thinking Process Empathize Define Testing Prototyping Ideation
    15. 15. Empathize A human-centered design process Qualitative methods Uncover Needs Identify right users Guide Innovation Discover emotions Observations Immersion Interviews
    16. 16. Define Reframe problems from designers’ point of view Focus on specific users Provides focus and frames the problem Captures the hearts and minds of people Provides a reference for evaluating competing ideas Empowers team members to make decisions
    17. 17. Ideation Brainstorming and coming up with creative solutions “Step beyond general solution and make innovation” “Uncover unexpected areas of exploration” “Harness Collective perspective” “Create fluency and flexibility in innovation Options”
    18. 18. Prototyping Building a representation of ideas to show to others Build to think- exploration Testing- refine solution with users Inspiration others Solve disagreements Fail quickly and cheaply Manage the solution- building process
    19. 19. Returning to original user group and testing ideas for feedbacks. Testing Refine prototypes and solutions Test and refine point of view Learn more about users Feedback Capture Grid Wizard of Oz Prototyping Testing with Users
    20. 20. Applications MRI Scan for children a problem Problems: • Children get scared about the machine • need to be sedated • Difficult process
    21. 21. Pirate Ship • The number of patients were reduced. • More patient can get scanned every day. • Patient satisfaction was increased.
    22. 22. Culture required for supporting Design Thinking Cultural Diversity Physical Environment Multi-disciplinary Collaboration Organization/Leadership
    23. 23. Arguments ‘Design Thinking is a failed experiment. The success rate for Design Thinking processes was very low.’ Bruce Nussbaum Processes do need to be in place; but too much emphasis on process can turn off talented designers. Process is not enough, success also requires design leaders to set the right context and deploy high-quality design talent Kevin McCullagh “Radical innovation does not come from users” “Designers have become less visionary. They have spent the last 10 years getting close to consumers and trying to become businessmen, and have lost their visions.”Verganti
    24. 24. Arguments Counter Brainstorming is not a best template for group creativity. Individual comes out more ideas than the teams. Brainstorming and nearly all idea generation techniques are divergence acts which is not convergence methods. Criticism in the brainstorming is more productive. Brainstorming is idea volume, not depth or quality. The people leading an idea generation session matters. Building 20 “ranks as one of the most creative environments of all time” but brainstorming has achieved nothing. GROUPTHINK The brainstorming myth. BY JONAH LEHRER Generating ideas is a small part of the process. IN DEFENSE OF BRAINSTORMING: AGAINST LEHRER’S NEW YORKER ARTICLE
    25. 25. Thank you
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