BRAND The American Marketing Association defines a brand as “a name, term, sign, symbol or design, or a combination of them, intended to identify the goods or services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of competitors”.
THE ROLE OF BRAND Consumers may evaluate the identical product differently depending on how it is branded. Consumers learn about brands through past experiences with the product and find out which brands satisfy their needs. Simplify decision making and reduce risk.
Brands also perform valuable functions for firms: simplify product handling or tracing. help to organise inventory and accounting records. offers the firm legal protection for unique features or aspects of the product. brand name -- trademarks manufacturing processes -- patents packaging -- copyrights & designs
THE SCOPE OF BRANDING Branding is endowing products and services with the power of a brand. Branding can be applied virtually anywhere a consumer has a choice. It is possible to brand a physical good (Pantene shampoo), a service (Indian Airlines), a store (Big Bazaar), a person (Rani Mukharjee), a place (the city of Education), an organisation (UNICEF), or an idea (freedom of speech).
BRAND EQUITY the added value endowed to products and services. how consumers think, feel, and act with respect to the brand, as well as the prices, market share and profitability that the brand commands for the firm. an important intangible asset that has psychological and financial value to the firm.
Consumer-based brand equity Customer-based brand equity can be defined as the differential effect that brand knowledge has on consumer response to the marketing of that brand. Positive customer-based brand equity Negative customer-based brand equity
There are three key ingredients to thisdefinition. Brand equity arises from differences in consumer response. These differences in response are a result of consumer’s knowledge about the brand. Brand knowledge consists of all the thoughts, feelings, images, experiences, beliefs, and so on that become associated with the brand. Brands must create strong, favourable and unique brand associations with customers, as has been the case with Volvo (safety), hallmark (caring), and Harley-Davidson (adventure). The differential response by consumers that makes up the brand equity is reflected in perceptions, preferences, and behaviour related to all aspects of the marketing of a brand.
APPLE COMPUTERS“To create great things that change people’s lives” “Open iPod DJ Parties” Apple spent $293 million to create 73 retail stores to fuel excitement for the brand......14 million visitors in 2003.....more people can see and touch Apple products—and see what Apple can do for them—the more likely Apple is to increase its market share, which is still a tiny slice of the PC market.
1. BRAND ASSET VALUATOR Developed by Advertising agency Young and Rubicam (Y&R) . There are four key components—or pillars—of brand equity, according to BAV: Differentiation measures the degree to which a brand is seen as different from others. Relevance measures the breadth of a brand’s appeal. Esteem measures how well the brand is regarded and respected. Knowledge measures how familiar and intimate consumers are with the brand.
Differentiationand Relevancedetermine Brand Strength. Esteemand Knowledge together create Brand Stature. BAV POWER GRID
2. AAKER MODEL Former UC-Berkeley marketing professor David Aaker views brand equity as a set of five categories of brand assets and liabilities. Brand loyalty Brand Awareness Perceived Quality Brand Associations Other proprietary assets such as patents, trademarks, and channel relationships.
According to Aaker, a particularly important concept for building brand equity is brand identity—the unique set of brand association that represent what the brand stands for and promises to customers. Brand identity consists of 12 dimensions organised around 4 perspectives: Brand-as-product (product scope, product attributes, quality/value, uses, users, country of origin). Brand-as-organization (organizational attributes, local versus global). Brand-as-person (brand personality, brand-customer relationships). Brand-as-symbol (visual imagery/ metaphors and brand heritage).
3. BRANDZ Marketing research consultants Millward Brown and WPP have developed the BRANDZ model of brand strength, at the heart of which is the Brand Dynamics pyramid. Bonding. Nothing else beats it? Advantage. Does it offer something better than others? Performance. Can it deliver? Relevance. Does it offer me something? Presence. Do I know about it?
brandis evokedunder various purchase or consumption situations.
Brand performance relates to how the product or
service meetscustomers’ functional needs.
Brand imagery deals with the extrinsic properties of the
productor service, including the ways in which the brand attempts to meet customers’ psychological or social needs.
Brand judgments focus on customers’ own personal
Brand feelings are customers’ emotional responses
and reactionswith respect to the brand.
Brand resonance refers to the nature of the relationship
that customers have with the brand and the extent to which customers feel that they are“in sync” with the brand.
BUILDING BRAND EQUITY The initial choices for the brand elements or identities making up the brand. The product and service and all accompanying marketing activities and supporting marketing programs. Other associations indirectly transferred to the brand by linking it to some other entity (e.g., a person, place, or thing).
CHOOSING BRAND ELEMENTS Brand elements are those trademarkable devices that serve to identify and differentiate the brand. Most strong brands employ multiple brand elements. Nikehas the distinctive “swoosh” logo, the empowering “Just Do It” slogan, and the mythological “Nike” name based on the winged goddess of victory. Brand elements can be chosen to build as much brand as possible. Based on its name alone, a consumer might expect ColorStay lipsticks to be long-lasting and SnackWell to be healthful snack foods.
BRAND ELEMENT CHOICE CRITERIA Memorable.How easily is the brand element recalled, recognised? Short brand names such as Tide, Crest, and Puffs can help. Meaningful.Does it suggest something about a product ingredient or the type of person who might use the brand? Consider the inherent meaning in names such as DieHard auto batteries. Likeability.How aesthetically appealing do consumers find the brand element? Concrete brand names such as Sunkist, Spic and Span, and Firebird evoke much imagery. Transferable.To what extent does the brand element add to brand equity across geographic boundaries and market segments? Adaptable.How adaptable and updatable is the brand element? Betty Crocker has received over eight makeovers through the years—although she is over 75 years old, she doesn’t look a day over 35!! Protectable. How legally protectable is the brand element? Can it be easily copied?
DEVELOPING BRAND ELEMENTS Before choosing a brand name generating a list of possible names debating their merits eliminating all but a few testing them with target consumers making a final choice.
Today, many companies hire a marketing research firm to develop and test names. association tests (what images come to mind?) learning tests (How easily is the name pronounced?) memory tests (How well is the name remembered?) preference tests (Which names are preferred?). Of course, the firm must also conduct searches to make sure the chosen name has not already been registered.
10 MOST TRUSTED BRANDS OF INDIA NOKIA COLGATE LUX Hindustan Unilever Ltd. LIFEBUOY Hindustan Unilever Ltd. DETTOL HORLICKS Glaxo Smith Kline TATA SALT Tata Group PEPSODENT BRITANNIA RELIANCE MOBILE Reliance Communications
TOP 10 SERVICES IN INDIA RELIANCE COMMUNICATIONS BHARTI ENTERPRISE STATE BANK OF INDIA LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY OF INDIA BSNL VODAFONE Vodafone Group TATA INDICOM Tata Group BANK OF INDIA BIG BAZAAR Future Group ICICI BANK
BENEFITS OF BRAND EQUITY Strong brand names simplify the decision process and reduce risk. Brand names are used to maintain higher awareness of products. Company’s use brand equity to gain leverage when introducing new products. The brand name is often interpreted as an indicator of quality. Strong brand equity insures that your products are considered by most buyers.. Higher brand name equity leads to greater loyalty from customers. Strong brand equity is the best defence against new products and new competitors. Improvements in brand equity lead to higher rates of product trial and repeat purchasing due to buyers' awareness of your brand, approval of its image/reputation and trust in its quality.