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Illusion of women11
Illusion of women11
Illusion of women11
Illusion of women11
Illusion of women11
Illusion of women11
Illusion of women11
Illusion of women11
Illusion of women11
Illusion of women11
Illusion of women11
Illusion of women11
Illusion of women11
Illusion of women11
Illusion of women11
Illusion of women11
Illusion of women11
Illusion of women11
Illusion of women11
Illusion of women11
Illusion of women11
Illusion of women11
Illusion of women11
Illusion of women11
Illusion of women11
Illusion of women11
Illusion of women11
Illusion of women11
Illusion of women11
Illusion of women11
Illusion of women11
Illusion of women11
Illusion of women11
Illusion of women11
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Illusion of women11

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Illussion of Women

Illussion of Women

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  • 1. ILLUSION OF WOMEN S EMPOWERMENTThe concept of women lib gained widespread attention in recenttimes. Empowerment of women is closely linked to the opportunities theyhave in education, health & economic and political participation."Government has operationalising this approach through legislative andprogrammatic interventions as well as by mainstreaming gender into thedevelopment planning process". The government has started severalschemes and initiated many new policy initiatives for the welfare anddevelopment of women which also include initiatives for economic andsocial empowerment. The scope for development have been expandingunder various plans. The major schemes are as follows -1- Women and education - India which had a bottom – heavypopulation is now graduating to an economy with middle – heavypopulation. Government has exercised well to teach the girl child.Free education for all children between 6 and 14 years has beenmade a fundamental rights under the RTE Act 2009. The SSA hashad positive outcomes for girl child education leading to an increasein the gender parity index (GPI) in primary (0.94) as well as upperprimary (0.92) education. Enrolment of girls in schools in the agegroup of 5-14 years has increased from 79.6 percent 2004-05 to 87.7percent in 2009-10. Similarly, the number of girls in the educationalsystem in the 15-19 years age groups increased from 40.3 percentto54.6percent and in the age group 20-24 years 7.6 percent to 12.8percent over the same period. According to Indian Humandevelopment Report 2011, despite attaining high enrollment rates,the net attendance rates (NAR) remained low. The Nationalattendance rates (NAR) remained low. The National literacy missionor Saakshar Bhart Targeted female literacy as a critical instrument of1
  • 2. womens empowerment. This has led to an increase in literacyamongst women from 53.67 percent (census2001) to 65.46 percent(census2011). For the first time, out of the total of 217.70 millionliterates added during the decade, women (110.07) out numberedmen.2- Women and Health – The National health policy 2002 and thepriorities set in the implementation of policies and programmes forhealth care. Implementation of the NHRM has resulted in animprovement in many development indicators for women. As perthe India Human development Report, fertility rates have comedown and have reached replacement levels in a number of a states.MMR (Mother Mortality Rates) has come down to 212 per 1,00,000live births in 2009 from 301 in 2003. Infant Mortality Rates (IMR),through still high, has fallen to 50 per 1000 in 2009.3- Rajiv Gandhi scheme for empowerment of adolescent girls(RGSEAG) – This scheme was launched on 19 November 2010with the objective of empowering adolescent girls in the age group11-18 years by bringing improvement in their nutritional and healthstatus and upgrading various skills. It is implemented in 200 selecteddistricts across the country on a pilot basis. The RGSEAG is beingimplemented through state government / UT administrations with100 percent financial assistance from the central government for allinputs other than nutrition provision for which 50 percent assistanceis provided. Nearly 100 lakhs adolescent girls in 200 districts areexpected to be benefited per annum under the scheme. In these 200districts, the Kishori Shakti Yojna (KSY) and Nutrition Programmefor Adolescent Girls (NPAG) have been merged in RGSEAG. Forthis scheme Rs. 750 crore has been allocated.2
  • 3. 4- The Rajiv Gandhi National Crèche scheme for Children ofWorking Mothers- This scheme provides for a day- care facilitiesto 0-6 years old children of working mothers by opening crèches anddevelopment services, i.e. supplementary nutrition, health – careinputs like immunization, polio-drops, basic health monitoring andrecreation. The combined monthly income of both the parentsshould not exceed Rs. 12,000 for availing of the facilities. Thenumber of crèches functional at present are 23,785 and beneficiarychildren are beneficiary children are 594,625.The approved outlayfor 2011-12 for the scheme was Rs. 85 crore.5- Support of Training and Employment Programm for women(STEP) scheme- This scheme seeks to provide updated skills andnew knowledge to poor and new knowledge to poor women in 10traditional sectors of agriculture, animal husbandry, dairy, fisheries,handicrafts, khadi and village industries, sericulture, social forestryand waste land development so as to enhance their productivity andincome generation. For expanding the reach of the programme andfurther strengthening it, implementation of the scheme was revisedin November 2009. The scheme aims at introduction of locallyappropriate sectors. The number of beneficiaries in each project.may now vary from 200to 10,000 with the funding celing atRs16,000 per beneficiary upto a period of five years. Sinceinception, around 250 projects have been provided financialassistance under this scheme. Since January 2011, 12 new projectshave been sanctioned upto January 2012, covering 14,225beneficiaries and a sum Rs 11.50 crore has been allocated infinancial year 2011-12 under the STEP scheme.6- Rashtriya Mahila Kosh (RMK) – The RMK (National credit fundfor Women) was created in 1993 with a corpus fund of Rs 31 crore .3
  • 4. The initial corpus has now grown to over Rs 180 crore includingreserves and surplus due to credit investment and recoverymanagement an additional budgetary allocation of Rs 69 crore.Since its creation, the RMK has established itself as a principalorganization for the development of micro finance in theunorganized sector for poor women. The RMK has taken a numberof promotional measures through micro- financing, thrift and creditformation of SHGs, and also enterprise development for poorwomen. From its inception till 15 December 2011, the RMK hassanctioned loans worth Rs 315,32 crore and released Rs 260.23crore, covering over 6.94 lakh women beneficiaries.7- Women and the economy- The participation of women in theworkforce the quality of work allotted to them and their contributionto the GDP are indicators of the extent of their being mainstreamedinto the economy. The National Skill Development Programme(NSDP) has identified 231 modular courses for women. It is criticalthat the training has relevance to the changing labour markets.Efforts are needed to link skill development programmes to theNSDP to ensure relvance and enhance employability. An importantstrategy for financial inclusion of women, which is crucial for theirintegration into the economy, has been micro – finance. The modelencourages access of SHGs to both as a means of saving and asproviders of loan services. By March 2010, 69.53 lakh SHGsincluding those formed under the SGSY had been covered under theNational bank for Agricultural and Rural Development (NABARD)SHGs – bank linkage programme of these 76 percent of exclusivelywomen SHGs accounting for 72.5 percent of savings and 82 percentof outstanding loans.4
  • 5. 8- GENDER Budgeting for Women- Women constituting 48 percentof Indias population, lag behind men due to sickness education andeconomic opportunities and many other problems, the governmenthas started gender budgeting in 2005. In this regard the first step inthis direction was to establish Gender Budgeting Cells in 56ministries / departments at union level. A significant break throughwas the introduction of the GB statement in 2005-06, which isplaced in parliament with the Union Budget documents every year.It serves as a reporting mechanism and provides on indication of thefunds flowing to women. The magnitude of GB allocation as apercentage of the total budget has also gone up from 2.79 percent in2005-06 to 6.22 percent in 2011-12.9- National Mission for Empowerment of women(NMEW) – It is anumbrella mission to strengthen inter- sectoral convergence andfacilitate the process of co-ordination of all the womens welfare andsocioeconomic development programmes across ministries anddepartments, was launched on 8 march 2010 to ensure economic andsocial empowerment of women. The NHEW is piloting theconvergence model across the country in 32 selected districts withthe aim of bridging the gap between demand and supply of women-related services by undertaking realistic estimates of the demand forvarious services/schemes for and connecting them service providers.The first such pilot convergence projects. The first such pilotconvergence project was launched in Pali district in Rajasthan on 16September 2011 with the opening of 150 village level centers.10- Other schemes - Some other schemes related to women are asfollows – (1) Ujjwala It is started from 4 December 2007 aims atprevention of trafficking with five specific components –prevention, rescue, rehabilitation, reintegration and repatriation of5
  • 6. victims. The total number of rehabilitation centre under this schemeis 86 creating capacity for and rehabilitation centre under thesescheme is 86, creating capacity for and rehabilitation of more than4000 victims of trafficking.11- Swadhar Greh Scheme :- Two existing schemes, i.e swadhar andshort stay home, being implemented with the similar objective asabove. In Swadhar Greh scheme shelter are provided for thosewomen who are victims of unfortunates circumstances and are inneed of institutional support for rehabilitation, so that they lead theirlives with dignity. Under the new scheme, women are providedemotional support and counseling to enable them to become self-reliant and get rehabilitated economically through education, skillupgradation and personality development.Though government has sponsored so many programmes for thesecurity and empowerment of women and girls in particular findthemselves excluded from several opportunities. Women workers areexploited everywhere at several levels. They are always fighting againstlow wages, lack of social security, poor working conditions and sexualexploitation. In rural areas many of them are unable to get basic necessitiesfor their livelihood. Womens work is denied recognition for proper pay.They face enormous obstacles in having their voices heard and in claimingrights and freedoms that are enshrined in our constitution and laws butdenied in practice. In rural areas generally girl denied the chance to fulfillher potential and any women exploited and repressed by unscrupulousmoney lenders, land lords, traders or even their families is a loss to ourcountry."By nature inequality between the sexes occurs everywhere. In theirdaily lives girls and women face many barriers which is not for men.Tradition, culture and religion are often the underlying justification for this6
  • 7. discrimination. This is unfair for our future. There is a labour union forwomen is established in informal sector. Its name is SEWA (Self –Employed womens Association). There are millions of women earn theirincomes by producing goods in their homes, picking and recycling,rubbish, working as agricultural laboures, street wenders and hawkers.They work incredibly hard for their survival but the impact of financialindependence goes for beyond getting more food or securing shelter atnight. This is the reason they are safe from domestic violence, theirdecision are shared in the families.A survey conducted by Thomas Reuters Trust Law Women, a hubof legal information and legal support for womens rights, India ranks withAfghanistan, Congo and Somalia as one of the most dangerous place forwomen. In a country where women and girls are accepted as Mother andthe Goddess, but at present many cases have been registered of theirmolestation. A society that is unable to respect, protect and nurture itswomen, loses its mortality. This problem can not be solved by thegovernment alone but by a national awakening involving the entire countryand civil society.Generally women in the country face numerous disadvantages –poor health indicators, lower literacy rates, lower income levels, poorfemale to male ratio due to sex- selective abortions and female infanticideacts of violence against women etc. For example Prevention of WitchesPractices Act was passed in undivided Bihar in 1999, yet witch killings arereported at present. This social malaise needs to be treated as a nationalsecurity issue at the highest level of government, both at Centre and inStates.There are so many acts for the protection of women but they aretoothless.7
  • 8. ANALYSIS OF THE PROJECTPhysical Area of the Research Project - Block Development office,Baragaon Varanasi, U.P is situated on the road of Babatpur to Anaei. Itsdistance is 6 kilometer from Lal Bahadur shastri Inter-national Airport,Bahtpur Varanasi. The geographical area of the block is 174.33 squareKilometer in 2001. It is 25 kilometer away from Varanasi city headquarter.There are 8 Block development Office in Varanasi district. The BargaonBlock is highest in area comparative to other Blocks. In the Block area,there are 13 Nyay Panchayats and 78 Village Panchayats. Total revenuevillages are 139. The population of the Block is 1,95,972 in which 98,758male and 97214 female. The male literacy rate is 80.87 percent and femaleis 47.04 percent. After farming, weaving of carpet and saree is mainhandicraft work. Fisheries are also running by some families. Fifteen localmarkets are established in the block region. The density of population is1124 person per square kilometer in 2001. The percentage of farmers is58.1 and 18 percent population are engaged in family cottage industries.8
  • 9. Methodology of the Research ProjectIn Baragaa Block working force of the population is divided in fivesectors (i) Farmers (ii) Agricultural workers (iii) Family workers (iv) Otherworkers (v) Marginal workers. These workers belong to BPL population.Census 2001 express the numbers of category of workers in the followingTable.Sectoral working Force Distribution in Baragaon Block (2001 cencus)Sectors Population(i) Farmers 22543(ii) Agricultural Workers 4477(iii) Family workers 8388(iv) Other workers 11080(v) Marginal workers 16310(vi) Total Workers 62798Source: Statistical Magazine Varanasi District 2009The above table shows that 8388 family workers are registeredaccording to the census 2001, in the Block and majority of family workersbelongs to women in rural families. They are working very hard in everyseason. The number of registered revenue villagers are 135 .Womenworkers are counted in every village in the following category (AnnexureAttached).1- Women as farmer.2- Agricultural Women Labour3- Women Labour in family cottage industry4- Other women workers.The above four categories of women are targeted for the minorresearch project. The method of research is divided in two parts –(i) Survey and collection of data(ii) Empirical and Tabulation work.A questionnaire is prepared for the survey of working women in thetargeted village. The questionnaire is divided in various types of question,9
  • 10. i.e. Name, Age, Marital position, Children, education, type of work, Timeof work, Payment of wok etc. The format of questionnaire is attached.The random survey has been conducted in random families ofregistered villages. The survey is divided in four categories, i.e. General,Other Backward classes, Schedule caste/ Scheduled Tribes and Minorities.The questionnaire paper is filled by attaining the answer of femaleworkers. The questionnaire is duly filled by face to face conversation givetheir family background, earning of her family members and time of work,work load, work- facilities, her qualification and her dependents. Thesamples paper of questionnaire is attached. After survey tabulation workhas been done. To get fruitful results 100 families are selected by lotterymethod for micro studies. During tabulation the job work load andearnings of female workers have been presented in 8 tables comprises thecategories-general, other backward classes scheduled castes/scheduledtribes and minorities. Table 1 to 4 shows the working hours of husbandsand wives and their mean value of every categories. In the same way table5to 8 the average income of husband and wives in every categories.(Annexure Attached).From the above mentioned tables the mean value of work load canexpressed by the following table -Mean Distribution of work load in various categoriesCategory of societyMean distribution of work load in hoursHusband Wives(i) General 8.14 9.54(ii) O.B.C 9.68 9.38(iii) S.C/S.T 9.68 9.51(iv) Minorities 10.01 9.4The above table shows the per day per workers work load in hours.The mean hours of work load of wives more or less are equal in everycategories while it express some difference in male workers. There is a10
  • 11. minor difference of work load of male and female workers of O.B.C andS.C/S.T categories.After showing the work load of female workers it is necessary toexplain their earning. After tabulation the average monthly family incomeof various categories of society in Baragaon Block has been expressed bythe following table.Average Monthly Family Income of various Categories of thesociety in Baragaon Block (in Rs 000)Category of SocietyAverage Monthly Income (Rs.000)Husband Wives1. General 7.1 3.32. O.B.C. 5.17 3.113. S.C./S.T. 3.25 3.114. Minorities 5.58 4.20After calculations of the table (shows in annexure) the averagemonthly family incomes in every categories of the society shows a bigdifference between the earnings of husband and wives in generalcategories and a marginal difference in the family incomes of O.B.C., S.C./S.T. and minorities.Findings-i. The work load, work hour and work facilities of women workersmore or less equal to male workers.ii. The nature of work for women is too much hard.iii. Educational qualifications of women workers are less, ascomparative to male.iv. Average dependants of women workers are about equal exceptminorities of the society.v. It is amazing that the work-hours, work-load of male and femaleworkers are equal in every categories but the earnings of womenare too much less as compared male workers.11
  • 12. vi. The average earnings of women in every category more or lessequal.Thus, female work force are facing various type of problems anddiscrimination in the country. This is the reason the percentage of femalework force dipped by 7 percent between 1983 to 2009-10. As per result ofvarious round of surveys conducted during 1983 to 2009-10, female labourforce participation rate on usual status basis has varied from around 30percent to 23.3 percent in 2009-10. These figures have been taken from thelast National Sample Survey of 2009-10, conducted once every five years.The reason for the decline in the rate of growth of labour forceduring 2004-05 to 2009-10 is being attributed to drastic deceleration rate,in labour force participation rate, particularly among women. There hasbeen a reduction in subsidiary employment, thereby leading to lesserwomen participating in labour force. Not only this, an increase in level ofincome in rural areas due to increase in real wages and higher level ofparticipation in education are also responsible for the decline in numbers.Subject – EconomicsFinal ReportofMinor Research ProjectOn12
  • 13. Economic Participation of Women in RuralFamily with special Reference toBaragaon Block, Varanasi, U.P.atSri Baldeo Post- Graduate CollegeBaragaon Varanasi, Uttar-PradeshPresented byDr. PH.K. SrivastavaHeadDepartment of EconomicsSri Baldeo P.G CollegeBaragaon Varanasi13
  • 14. izukoyh@vuqlwph (Questionnaire / Schedule)kh"kZd % xzkeh.k ifjokjksa esa efgykvksa dhvkfFkZd Hkkxhnkjh(Economics Participation of Women in the Rural Families)1- xk¡o dk uke % dksM la02- lwpd dk uke % dksM la03- oxZ %lkekU;&0] fiNM+k & 1] vuqlwfpr&2] vYila[;d&34- ikfjokfjd fooj.k&Ø-la-lnL;dkukelwpd lsfjrkmezo"kZfookfgrfk{kk dkLrjO;olk;{ks=chekdhjkfkdkeds ?kaVsvkjkeds ?kaVscSadesa[kkrkvk;¼:0½izfrekg1-2-3-4-5-6-fk{kk ddk Lrj dksM&vui<&0] lk{kj&1] izkFkfed&2] ek/;fed&3] baVj&4] Lukrd&5]LukrdksÙkj&6] rduhdh&7] nh{kk&814
  • 15. O;olk; dk uke&csjkstxkj&0] nSfud etnwjh&1 ¼d`f"k {ks= esa&1-1] xSj d`f"k{ks= esa&1-2½] Lojkstxkj&1 ¼d`f"k ,oa ikqikyu&2-1] xSjd`f"k dk;Z nksuksa&2-2½] futh {ks= esa ukSdjh&3 ¼?kjsywdk;Z&3-1] O;kolkf;d dk;Z&3-2½] ljdkjh ukSdjh&4] Lo;a dk ?kjsyw dk;Z&5] fo|kFkhZ&615
  • 16. lkekU; oxZ¼okrhdk-1½18ls 60o"kZ ds nEifRr;ks ds dk;Z dk fooj.kdk;Z ds?k.Vsifr;ksadh la0(Fx)ifRu;ksa dhla0 (Fy)e/;ekuMMFx MFy0-2 6 4 1 6 42-4 18 6 3 108 184-6 16 8 5 80 406-8 18 22 7 126 1548-10 12 11 9 108 9910-12 10 15 11 110 16512-14 12 18 13 156 23414-16 8 16 15 120 240Total 100 100 814 954(i) 14.8100814==∑NMfx(ii) 54.9100954==∑NMfx16
  • 17. fiNM+k oxZ ¼okfrdk & 2½18 ls 60 o"kZ ds nEifRr;ks dsdk;Z dk fooj.kvk;¼gtkj :i;kesa½ifr;ksadh la0(Fx)ifRu;ksa dhla0 (Fy)e/;ekuMMFx MFy0-1 3 32 0.5 1.5 16.01-2 5 16 1.5 7.5 24.02-3 5 12 2.5 12.5 30.03-4 7 8 3.5 24.5 28.04-5 4 3 4.5 18.0 13.55-6 4 7 5.5 22.0 38.56-7 6 8 6.5 39.0 52.07-8 16 4 7.5 120.0 30.08-9 24 3 8.5 204.0 25.59-10 12 3 9.5 114.0 28.510-11 8 2 10.5 84.0 21.011-12 6 2 11.5 69.0 23.0Total 100 100 716.0 3301.7100716===∑nMFxMfx gtkj :i;s3.3100330===∑NMFyMfx gtkj :i;s17
  • 18. 18
  • 19. lkekU; oxZ ¼okfrdk & 5½18 ls 60 o"kZ ds nEifRr;ks dsdk;Z dk fooj.kvk;¼gtkj :i;kesa½ifr;ksadh la0(Fx)ifRu;ksa dhla0 (Fy)e/;ekuMMFx MFy0-1 3 32 0.5 1.5 16.01-2 5 16 1.5 7.5 24.02-3 5 12 2.5 12.5 30.03-4 7 8 3.5 24.5 28.04-5 4 3 4.5 18.0 13.55-6 4 7 5.5 22.0 38.56-7 6 8 6.5 39.0 52.07-8 16 4 7.5 120.0 30.08-9 24 3 8.5 204.0 25.59-10 12 3 9.5 114.0 28.510-11 8 2 10.5 84.0 21.011-12 6 2 11.5 69.0 23.0Total 100 100 716.0 3301.7100716===∑nMFxMfx gtkj :i;s19
  • 20. 3.3100330===∑NMFyMfx gtkj :i;s20
  • 21. fiNM+k oxZdk;Z ds?k.Vsifr;ksadh la0(Fx)ifRu;ksa dhla0 (Fy)e/;ekuMMFx MFy0-2 4 5 1 4 52-4 4 5 3 12 154-6 8 8 5 40 406-8 16 12 7 112 848-10 16 24 9 144 21610-12 22 22 11 242 24212-14 18 12 13 234 15614-16 12 12 15 180 180Total 100 100 968 93862.9100968===∑nMFxMfx gtkj :i;s38.9100938===∑NMFyMfx gtkj :i;s21
  • 22. fiNM+k oxZ ¼okfrdk & 6½18 ls 60 o"kZ ds dk;Z dk fooj.kvk;¼gtkj :i;kesa½ifr;ksadh la0(Fx)ifRu;ksa dhla0 (Fy)e/;ekuMMFx MFy0-1 6 42 0.5 3.0 21.01-2 6 8 1.5 9.0 12.02-3 12 6 2.5 30. 15.03-4 15 4 3.5 52.5 14.04-5 16 12 4.5 72.0 30.05-6 14 6 5.5 77.0 33.06-7 6 4 6.5 39.0 26.07-8 4 8 7.5 30.0 60.08-9 6 2 8.5 51.0 17.09-10 7 3 9.5 66.5 28.510-11 5 3 10.5 52.5 31.511-12 3 2 11.5 34.5 23.0Total 100 100 517.0 31117.5100517===∑nMFxMfx gtkj :i;s11.3100311===∑NMFyMfx gtkj :i;s22
  • 23. vuqlwfpr oxZ ¼okfrdk & 3½18 ls 60 o"kZ ds nEifRr;ks dsdk;Z dk fooj.kdk;Z ds?k.Vsifr;ksadh la0(Fx)ifRu;ksa dhla0 (Fy)e/;ekuMMFx MFy0-2 - - 1 - -2-4 3 1 3 9 34-6 4 3 5 20 156-8 18 28 7 126 1968-10 32 35 9 288 31510-12 22 16 11 242 17612-14 16 12 13 208 15614-16 5 6 15 75 90Total 100 100 968 95168.9100968===∑nMFxMfx gtkj :i;s51.9100951===∑NMFyMfx gtkj :i;s23
  • 24. vuqlwfpr oxZ ¼rkfydk &7½18 ls 60 o"kZ ds nEifr;ksa ds vk; dk fooj.kvk;¼gtkj :i;kesa½ifr;ksadh la0(Fx)ifRu;ksa dhla0 (Fy)e/;ekuMMFx MFy0-1 0.5 6 3 3.0 1.51-2 1.5 18 22 27.0 33.02-3 2.5 26 28 65.0 70.03-4 3.5 31 32 108.5 112.04-5 4.5 5 4 22.5 18.05-6 5.5 4 3 22.0 16.56-7 6.5 3 3 19.5 19.57-8 7.5 3 2 22.5 15.08-9 8.5 2 3 17.0 25.59-10 9.5 2 - 19.0 -10-11 10.5 - - - -11-12 11.5 - - - -Total 100 100 225.5 311255.31005.225===∑nMFxMfx gtkj :i;s11.3100311===∑NMFyMfx gtkj :i;s24
  • 25. vYila[;d oxZ ¼rkfydk 8½18 ls 60 o"kZ ds nEifr;ksa ds vk; dk fooj.kdk;Z ds?k.Vsifr;ksadh la0(Fx)ifRu;ksa dhla0 (Fy)e/;ekuMMFx MFy0-2 4 2 1 4 22-4 6 3 3 18 64-6 8 15 5 40 756-8 12 32 7 84 2248-10 36 18 9 324 16210-12 24 26 11 264 28612-14 12 8 13 156 10414-16 8 6 15 120 90Total 100 100 1010 949¼1½vYla[;d oxZ esa oh-ih-,y- ifRu;ksa ds dk;Z ?k.Vs dkvkSlr1.101001010===∑nMFxMFxX ?k.Vs¼2½vYla[;d oxZ esa oh-ih-,y- ifRu;ksa ds dk;Z ?k.Vs dkvkSlr4.9100949===∑NMFyMFyX ?k.Vs25
  • 26. vYila[;d oxZ ¼rkfydk &8½18 ls 60 o"kZ ds nEifr;ksa ds vk; dk fooj.kvk;¼gtkj :i;kesa½ifr;ksadh la0(Fx)ifRu;ksa dhla0 (Fy)e/;ekuMMFx MFy0-1 2 13 0.5 1.0 6.51-2 8 12 1.5 12.0 18.02-3 8 14 2.5 20.0 35.03-4 12 18 3.5 42.0 63.04-5 14 10 4.5 63.0 45.05-6 16 8 5.5 88.0 44.06-7 14 8 6.5 91.0 52.07-8 6 4 7.5 45.0 30.08-9 6 4 8.5 51.0 34.09-10 6 4 9.5 57.0 38.010-11 4 3 10.5 42.0 31.511-12 4 2 11.5 46.0 23.0Total 100 100 225.5 42058.5100558===∑nMFxMFX gtkj :i;s20.4100420===∑NMFyMFyX gtkj :i;s26
  • 27. eq[; efgyk Jfed ¼jktLo xzke&cM+kxk¡o Cykd½Ø-la-xzked`"kdefgykd`f"kefgykJfedikfjokfjd m|ksxesaefgykJfedvU;efgykJfeddqyJfedefgykdqyiq:"kJfed;ksx1.dfBjk¡o229 357 114 16 716 1973 26892.eygFk207 2 8 9 137 578 7153.ncsFkqvk221 72 14 3 310 351 6614 rM+lM+k240 1 3 1 370 458 8285 <+ksjk22 1 1 3 27 160 1876 cukjlhiqj0 0 0 0 0 13 137 udVh13 27 7 29 76 316 3928 BBjk7 0 0 14 21 192 2139 cthZ194 93 23 7 317 678 99510 cjkbZ80 1 7 0 88 261 34911 chdkiqj28 2 5 0 35 173 20812 pdcjkbZ6 0 0 0 6 4 1013 NsM+kiqj7 0 0 0 7 197 20414 cpkSjk13 27 7 29 76 316 39215 cjghdyk101 116 0 5 222 596 81816 cjgh usoknk16 3 18 8 45 998 104317 gfjukFkiqj3 2 3 14 22 320 34218 nYyhiqj8 3 12 0 23 220 24319 QÙksiqj12 2 3 0 17 130 14720 edlwnuiV~Vh17 1 5 4 27 46 7321 Hkokuhiqj3 0 4 3 10 49 5922 tudiV~Vh0 1 0 3 4 39 4327
  • 28. 23 rkM+hMhg5 0 1 0 6 15 2124 rkM+h14 4 16 25 59 315 31425 lohZiqj22 6 1 1 30 102 13826[ksekiqjcUnkscLrh17 1 0 0 18 28 4627 vkjth cLrh0 0 0 0 0 29 2928[ksekiqjuhykeh5 0 0 0 5 18 2329 uksfu;kiqj42 3 2 2 49 66 11530 vtksjsiqj1 28 0 8 37 48 8531 dqokj0 0 0 7 0 36 3632 lksuojlk0 0 0 2 2 59 6133 ?kegkiqj169 0 11 8 188 372 56034 gehjkiqj1 6 5 2 14 186 20035 uFkbZiqj15 0 1 0 16 121 13736 VsaVqvk58 24 29 2 113 106 21937 vfgjkuh23 3 6 4 36 146 18238 vlokjh2 1 0 0 3 154 15739 nkjkiqj23 0 0 0 23 72 9540 nsopUniqj13 6 1 2 22 276 29841 vusbZ32 13 12 49 106 487 59342 HkjFkhiqj2 3 0 4 9 92 10143 e>xok¡dyk20 3 5 14 42 179 22144vf/kdfV;k[kqnZ1 0 0 0 1 9 1028
  • 29. 45 fryokj37 1 0 0 38 25 6346 pd cudV4 0 0 0 4 23 2747 vf/kdfV;kdyk0 0 00 0 0 8 848 e>xok¡ [kqnZ1 0 0 0 1 73 7449 <+ks<+bZiqj80 8 0 1 89 124 21350 pd pejku3 99 0 0 102 117 21951 pd HkVku3 0 0 0 3 14 1752 jk;iqj154 5 20 2 181 415 59653 pd xf>;k1 0 0 1 2 39 4154 fllok¡81 56 6 0 143 243 38655 egqvkjh0 0 0 0 0 3 356 pdpnjk0 0 0 0 0 1 157 /kuat;iqj60 0 1 3 64 177 24158 dFkdkSyh0 0 0 0 0 3 359 vfeyks22 0 2 0 24 26 5060 ifpeiqj39 83 13 0 135 252 28761 lksuiqjok93 2 23 13 131 161 29262 yfNjkeiqj1 0 1 1 3 64 6763 y[kUlhiqj51 2 0 1 146 123 26964 fojk¡o17 1 0 34 52 252 30465 cM+okiqj0 0 0 0 0 23 2366 lhghiqj0 1 0 0 1 18 1967 lksUgbZ2 0 0 6 8 24 3268 cyjkeiqj25 9 6 10 50 447 49769 gluiqj11 37 56 14 118 432 55070 fl;jgk¡11 0 0 2 13 118 13129
  • 30. 71 pfd;k6 0 1 0 7 74 8172 lkjhiqj0 0 0 1 1 66 6773 lkbZiqj2 5 2 0 9 157 16674 rsykjh0 0 0 0 0 52 5275 e/kqefD[k;k195 1 0 3 199 378 57776 vkjkth gluiqj7 0 9 0 16 23 3977 paxokj177 22 2 16 217 432 64978 nknwiqj103 6 19 28 156 1077 123379 vdks<+k19 3 0 4 26 241 26780 jlqygk38 1 14 20 73 416 48981 dksbykj1 0 0 0 1 64 6582 ljkok¡26 80 5 20 131 647 77883 efgekiqj66 9 10 8 93 470 56384 ckSfy;k55 20 2 1 78 229 30785 cyqvk32 10 36 2 80 558 63886 gjsgw6 1 0 0 7 96 10387 ksjokuhiqj56 42 0 6 104 334 43888 dksnbZiqj10 14 1 5 30 296 32689 bZojiqj2 14 0 6 22 93 11590 xtkiqj3 0 0 4 7 50 5791 irsj17 1 1 3 22 159 18192 ik;diqj24 8 9 0 41 38 7993 dq#160 1 1 8 170 454 62494 dqM+h104 27 29 4 164 1346 151095 fpyfcyk192 51 18 11 192 279 47196 Qqyofj;k0 0 0 0 0 104 10430
  • 31. 97 dqEHkkiqj3 1 1 1 6 114 12098 nhukiqj69 0 1 2 72 130 20299 dfu;j43 21 6 40 110 707 817100 fooukFkiqj12 0 7 2 21 288 309101 djeiqj62 0 0 0 62 106 168102 ipjklh276 20 6 5 307 308 615103 jruiqj165 36 45 6 165 126 291104 xkaxdyk157 3 41 18 219 574 793105 xkax[kqnZ17 0 27 2 46 113 159106 dqlqeqjk76 3 103 21 203 515 718107 bVgk7 38 0 1 46 240 286108 QÙksiqj36 5 1 2 44 327 371109 bZlhiqj237 12 4 3 56 182 238110 ik.Ms;iqj2 1 0 1 4 60 64111 dfojkeiqj225 0 14 8 247 522 769112 cluh92 21 179 58 350 1647 1997113 pdUnj1 0 0 0 1 3 4114 tn~nwiqj0 0 0 0 0 19 19115 jkeiqj10 0 2 25 47 244 291116 Hkxokuiqj10 0 0 4 14 103 117117 fllok¡10 29 33 11 83 547 630118 lxqugk¡10 2 0 8 20 378 398119iqjkj?kqukFkiqj210 90 5 15 320 1147 1467120 dSFkksyh28 6 7 4 45 333 378121 csyok¡81 27 127 6 241 547 78831
  • 32. 122 cgqrjk61 39 1 2 103 271 374123 fuUnuiqj30 15 0 0 45 155 200124 y[kehqij53 2 14 8 77 372 449125 HkjFkjk15 52 27 0 94 207 301126 [kVkSjk4 20 0 2 26 224 250127 [kjkou225 37 21 33 225 368 593128 pd[kjkou163 0 6 3 172 545 717129 [kVfj;k79 0 0 6 85 157 242130 usoknk63 0 0 1 64 110 174131 HkhVh71 1 0 0 72 148 220132 pÙkqjiqj0 0 2 1 3 107 110133 [kVfj;k [kkl243 13 0 22 278 486 764134 fuekbp66 28 12 19 125 241 366135 jlwyiqj8 0 0 0 8 23 131lzksr & okf"kZd lkaf[;dh fooj.kokjk.klhokjk.klh fodkl Hkouo"kZ 20091 Narinder Jeteli, edited - Manpower, Employment Policy andLabour Welfare 1947 to 2007 Newcentury Publications, New Delhi32
  • 33. 2 N.K Jetli - India: Economic Perform and LabourPolicy New century Publications, NewDelhi 20063 R.M.Divedi - Poverty and Development Programme inIndia : Labour and Employment Scenarioin the 21stcentury. New centuryPublication, New Delhi 20054 V.S.Jaffa edited - India: Labour and Employment Sceniroin the 21stcenturyNew century Publication, New Delhi20055 R.Datta,K.P.MSudaram- India economy,S. chand Publication New Delhi6 A Desai - Women in Mordern India VaraPublications, Bombay 19577 Yogesh Atal - The changing Frontiers of caste NationalPublication, Delhi 19688 Praveen Swami - "The Danger to women Lurks within us"The Hindu 29thDecember 20129 Kalpana Sharma - Should Women Run Our cities, TheHindu, Sunday 1 December 201110 Deepa Kurup - Face of Inequality The Hindu 20thMarch201211 Sushma Mishra - Rural Development. Initiatives forWomen Employment .Indian Journal of Social Sciences andSocieties ,10 Feb,201112 Sunil K Mishra - Role of media in Women Empowerment.India Journal of Sciences and SocietiesFeb 201113 Ajay Kumar ManikSingh Kuldip Bandh- Women and child health Profile in UttarPradesh Kurukshetra Feb 201033
  • 34. 14 - Independence to Decide, The Hindu, 7August 201115 K.P. Kannan - "Estimating and Identifying the Poor inIndia."India Journal of Human DevelopmentJanuary, June 2010.Reports and News Papers1. Govt. of India - Economic Survey2. Govt. of India - N.S.S.O Reports3. Govt. of India - India -20104. News Paper - The Hindu5. lekpkj i= & nSfud tkxj.k34

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