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This document briefs on calculating loads and forces applied on structures

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- 1. Vigyan Ashram, Pabal
- 2. Why should you know how to design aWhy should you know how to design a structure?structure?
- 3. Step 1 – What is the load on the structure?Step 1 – What is the load on the structure? 1) Dead Load Self weight Static loads 2) Dynamic Load Wind Rain People Loading/Unloading
- 4. Tractor ShedTractor Shed 10m 4m 9m 5m Truss Column Foundations
- 5. Dead LoadDead Load Self weight Golden Rule: Work top to bottom 1. Truss 2. Column 3. Foundations
- 6. 1. Load on Truss1. Load on Truss 10m 4m Steel Sheet – 10kg/m2 Mass 1 Truss – 100kg Area of roof (m2 ) = x x10 m 4 m 2 = 80 m2 Mass of roof (kg) = x Weight of roof (N) = x = = 80 m2 10 kg/m2 800 kg 800 kg 10 8000 N
- 7. Weight of 1 truss (N) = x 1. Load on Truss1. Load on Truss 10m 4m Steel Sheet – 1kg/m2 Mass 1 Truss – 100kg 100 kg 10 8000N = 1000 N
- 8. Total weight on trusses (N) = + 1. Load on Truss1. Load on Truss 10m 4m Steel Sheet – 1kg/m2 Mass 1 Truss – 100kg 3000 N 8000N = 11,000 N 1000 N 1000 N 1000 N 8000 N
- 9. ActivityActivity How much roof weight must your structure support? Plastic Sheet – 4.5 kg/m2 Mass 2’ PVC Pipe – 0.75 kg/m Mass bamboo 1’ – 0.2 kg/m Mass steel pipe 0.5’ – 0.36 kg/m Mass steel pipe 0.75’ – 0.5 kg/m Mass steel pipe 1’ – 0.75 kg/m Area of roof (m2 ) = x x Mass of roof (kg) = x Weight of roof (N) = x 10 m 4 m 2 = = = 80 m2 80 m2 10 kg/m2 800 kg 800 kg 10 8000 N Weight of 1 truss (N) = x100 kg 10 = 1000 N Total weight on trusses (N) = + 3000 N = 11,000 N 8000 N
- 10. 2. Load on Column. Load on Column 5m Mass 1 Column – 10 kg/m 8000N 1000 N 1000 N 1000 N Mass 1 pole = x Weight 1 pole = x = = 50 kg 5m 10kg/m 50kg 500 N 10
- 11. 2. Load on Column. Load on Column 5m Mass 1 Column – 10 kg/m 11,000N 500 N 500 N 500 N 500 N 500 N 500 N Force on each column = +11,000 N 3000 N = 14,000 N
- 12. Try it youself!Try it youself! How much weight does each lower support hold? Mass 1 pole = x Weight 1 pole = x = = 50 kg 5m 10kg/m 50kg 500 N 10 Force on columns = +11,000 N 3000 N = 14,000 N Mass 2’ PVC Pipe – 0.75 kg/m Mass bamboo 1’ – 0.2 kg/m Mass steel pipe 0.5’ – 0.36 kg/m Mass steel pipe 0.75’ – 0.5 kg/m Mass steel pipe 1’ – 0.75 kg/m
- 13. Weight of Foundations = x 3. Load on Foundations. Load on Foundations 14,000N Force on Foundations = + 2000kg 10 = 34,000N Mass Foundations – 2000kg 20,000N 14,000N 20,000N =
- 14. Try it yourself:Try it yourself: How much weight do the bottom supports hold? Mass 2’ PVC Pipe – 0.75 kg/m Mass bamboo 1’ – 0.2 kg/m Mass steel pipe 0.5’ – 0.36 kg/m Mass steel pipe 0.75’ – 0.5 kg/m Mass steel pipe 1’ – 0.75 kg/m Force on Foundations = +11,000 N 20,000 N = 34,000N
- 15. Extreme WindExtreme Wind normal air pressure low air pressure Tornado
- 16. Windflow over buildingsWindflow over buildings high pressure low pressure low pressure
- 17. So how do I calculate wind load?So how do I calculate wind load? What things do you think affect wind load?
- 18. Zone Windspeed (m/s) 55 50 47 44 39 33 Step 1 – Highest WindspeedStep 1 – Highest Windspeed Pabal – 39 m/s
- 19. Wind speed is affected by local terrain If you are on a hill, increase the wind speed by multiplying by 1.1 Safety FactorSafety Factor Design wind speed = 1.1 x 39 m/s = 43 m/s
- 20. Pressure is the force per square metre on the building Wind PressureWind Pressure Pressure (N/m2 ) = 0.6 x windspeed2 = x x430.6 1109 N/m2= 43 1m 1m
- 21. Wind force is the specific force on a particular part of the building Safety Factor: account for internal pressure changes with a safety factor of 2 Wind ForceWind Force Force (N) = Pressure (N/m2 ) x Area (m2 ) x Safety Factor
- 22. Wind ForceWind Force Force (N) = Pressure (N/m2 ) x Area (m2 ) x Safety Factor Force On Wall (N) = x x Area Of Wall (m2 ) = x = = 9m 5m 45 m2 21109 N/m2 9,9810 N 9m 5m Wind Pressure = 1325 N/m2 Safety Factor = 2 45 m2 Wind Force (N)
- 23. Wind ForceWind Force Force (N) = Pressure (N/m2 ) x Area (m2 ) x Safety Factor Force On Roof (N) = x x Area Of Roof (m2 ) = x = = 10m 4m 40 m2 21109 N/m2 8,8720 N 10m 4mWind Pressure = 1325 N/m2 Safety Factor = 2 Wind Force (N) 40 m2
- 24. Activity – Own designs!Activity – Own designs! Force (N) = Pressure (N/m2 ) x Area (m2 ) x Safety Factor 1 2 Safety Factor of 1.2 Pressure (N/m2 ) = 0.6 x windspeed2 3 4

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