Structural elements


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This presentation describes structural elements used in construction

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Structural elements

  1. 1. Vigyan Ashram, Pabal
  2. 2. Torsion Bar Round Bar Where is steel used
  3. 3. For RCC structure, torsion bars are used and due to this, bonding between cement and the steel is good Torsion bars used in RCC are 8/10/12/16 mm Round bars used for RCC are 6 mm.They are flexible hence used for square frames
  4. 4. To increase tensile strength we use mild steel bars in cement concrete. Steel bars used in cement concrete provide good strength to the structure. Usually steel bars are roughened or corrugated to further improve the bond or cohesion between the concrete and steel. Care must be taken that there should be no joints in steel bars used for RCC work. Therefore you might have observed that steel used for RCC work is long in length. If full length steel bars are not available, proper overlap should be given in steel bar and overlap should be staggered. A care must be taken that steel should not disturb during concreting. Steel rods should be properly binded and proper planks or plates must be provided for walking.
  5. 5. RCC structure - Columns The vertical members supporting the beams are called 'Columns'.
  6. 6. Beam : The peripheral horizontal members supporting the slab are called 'Beams'. The beams at ground level or plinth level (the lowermost habitable level) are called 'Plinth Beams'.
  7. 7. Foundation : The system below ground transferring the entire load of the structure to the soil is called 'Foundation'. Foundation is in direct contact with soil and transmits load of complete structure to soil. If foundation is weak then there is danger that walls will collapse or tilt due to load of the structure. Generally foundation is below the ground level. Depth of foundation depends on type of soil and its bearing capacity, depth of ground water table and the size of structure. To allow removal of top loose soil and variation in ground level, the best recommended depth of foundation is from 1.00 meter to 1.5 meter from original ground level.
  8. 8. Slab : A The flat ceiling of a story is called a 'Slab'.
  9. 9.  Cement is a fine, soft, powdery-type substance. It is made from a mixture of elements that are found in natural materials such as limestone, clay, sand and/or shale. When cement is mixed with water, it can bind sand and gravel into a hard, solid mass called concrete. What is Cement Æ
  10. 10. Manufacturing of cement :  Cement is made from calcium oxide, aluminum oxide, silica, and iron oxide. Calcium (which is the main ingredient) can be obtained from limestone, whereas silicon can be obtained from sand and/or clay. Aluminum and iron are required in small amount and can be extracted from bauxite and iron ore. Following are the steps in cement manufacturing. 1.Mixture of limestone, sand, aluminum oxide and iron oxide is powered and is heated in the furnace. 2.Water present in these materials gets evaporated and the material comes to the melting stage. This partially molten material combines together. 3.The material that comes out of the furnace is large, glassy, red-hot cinders called "clinker". 4.After cooling the clinker, its powder is made. This is called as Portland cement. video
  11. 11.  When cement is mixed with water, its molecules form bond with each with the help of water. Because of this chemical bond, the cement gets hardened. Cement is always used to join two things. Concrete is made by mixing sand and gravels in the cement. Cement holds together gravels tightly and the block become a like a stone, though the quantity of cement is less, the concrete become like a stone.  Cement must be stored in dry place. If it gets wet due to water or humidity in storage then we cannot used it again by drying it. How cement gets it strength?
  12. 12. Mortar and concrete:  Cement is used to join the small stones together. In this process the gaps between this mixtures is filled using cement. To reduce the cost of cement different small sized stones (sand, grovel) are used. The mixture of cement and sand is called as mortar. The mixture of cement, sand and gravel is called as concrete. Concrete becomes strong as the stones are joined to each other. 
  13. 13. Characteristics of cement:  Once chemical reaction is complete then cement is durable in water.  Cement never gets rusted or rotten in normal environment.  Cement concrete is strong in compression but weak in tension. Therefore steel is used in the concrete in places with tension. This is called as R.C.C (Reinforced Cement Concrete). For e.g columns and slabs in multistoried buildings.  There is no effect of normal heat on cement concrete or it never catches fire. But it gets cracked in big fire.  Cement is bad conductor of electricity or heat.  If water contains in cement mixture is more then after curing, hollows spaces are formed and cement becomes weak.  Strength of the cement is more if its density is more.
  14. 14. Curing and Drying :  Cement powder solidifies due to the reaction of water on it. Therefore if sufficient water is not available while using the cement, this process will not get completed and it will not get solidified. Therefore for first 20 days cement should be kept wet. This is called as curing.  If excess water is used immediately after applying the cement then small cement particles will washed away. Therefore on the first day of the construction, care should be taken that the cement will remain wet. Further during the process of solidification, cement needs water but outside air will dry it quickly. Therefore it is necessary to give sufficient water. Curing takes place quickly if temperature is more.
  15. 15. Strength increases with curing : Time required for curing Strength of concrete 0 Days 50 % 1 Days 61 % 7 Days 85 % 14 Days 92 % 20 Days 100 %