Hrm10e Chap09

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Hrm10e Chap09

  1. 1. Human Resource Management TENTH EDITON Training Human Resources © 2003 Southwestern College Publishing. All rights reserved. PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook SECTION 3 Training and Developing Human Resources Chapter 9 Robert L. Mathis  John H. Jackson
  2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>After you have read this chapter, you should be able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Define training and discuss why a strategic approach is important. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss the four phases of the training process. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify three types of analyses used to determine training needs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe internal, external, and e-learning as training delivery approaches. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give an example for each of the four levels of training evaluation. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The Nature of Training <ul><li>Training </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A process whereby people acquire capabilities to aid in the achievement of organizational goals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employers spend $60 billion on training annually. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Context of Training </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization Competitiveness and Training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Training make organizations more competitive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Training helps retain valuable employees </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Training is no longer the first casualty of a business downturn. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The Context of Training <ul><li>Organization Competitiveness and Training </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Training makes organizations more competitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training helps retain valuable employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training is no longer the first casualty of a business downturn. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Training as a Revenue Source </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marketing training with or alongside products can contribute significantly to a firm’s revenues. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. The Context of Training (cont’d) <ul><li>Integration of Job Performance, Training, and Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Training is moving “closer to the job” to achieve “real time” learning. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training is using more real-world problems to increase employee learning. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Performance Consulting Figure 9 –1
  7. 7. Typical Division of HR Responsibilities: Training Figure 9 –2
  8. 8. Linking Business and Training Strategies Figure 9 –3 Source: Based on ideas from Lisa A. Burke and Joseph V. Wilson III.
  9. 9. Basic Business Strategy Concepts <ul><li>Low-cost leader </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attempting to increase market share by focusing on the low cost of the firm’s products or services, compared to competitors. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Differentiation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trying to make the firm’s products or services competitively different from others in the industry in terms of quality, service, technology, or perceived distinctiveness. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Training Process Figure 9 –4
  11. 11. Sources of Training Needs Assessment Figure 9 –5
  12. 12. Establishing Training Objectives <ul><li>Gap Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The distance between where an organization is with its employee capabilities and where it needs to be. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types of Training Objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge: Impart cognitive information and details to trainees. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skill: Develop behavior changes in how job and tasks are performed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attitude: Create interest and awareness of the training importance. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Elements of Training Design Figure 9 –6
  14. 14. Learning: The Focus of Training <ul><li>Learner Readiness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to learn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learners must possess basic skills (3Rs) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation to learn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learners must desire and value training </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-efficacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learners must believe that they can successfully learn the training content </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Learning Styles Adult Learning Principles Have need to know why they are learning something. Have need to be self-directed. Bring more work-related experiences into the process. Employ a problem-solving approach in the experience. Are motivated by both extrinsic and intrinsic factors.
  16. 16. Learning Practices <ul><li>Active Practice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The performance of job-related tasks and duties by trainees during training </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spaced Practice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Several practice sessions spaced over a period of hours or days </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Massed practice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance of all the practice at once. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Learning: Behaviors <ul><li>Behavior Modeling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Copying someone else’s behavior by observing how another person deals with a problem. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Law of effect states that people tend to repeat behaviors that are rewarded and avoid behaviors that are punished. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Immediate Confirmation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforcement and feedback are most effective when given as soon as possible after training. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Learning: Types of Training Developmental and Innovative Training Required and Regular Training Job/Technical Training Interpersonal and Problem-Solving Training Types of Training
  19. 19. Course Types and Training Expenditures Figure 9 –7 Source: Mark E. Van Buren, ASTD State of the Industry Report, 2001 (Alexandria, VA: ASTD, 2001), 13. Used with permission.
  20. 20. Orientation: Training for New Employees Achievements of Effective Orientation Co-Worker Acceptance Favorable Impression Provides Information Socialization and Integration Performance and Productivity
  21. 21. Effective New Employee Orientation Prepare New Employee Consider “buddy” mentors Use an orientation checklist Cover needed information Present information effectively Avoid information overload Evaluation and follow-up
  22. 22. Training Delivery: Considerations <ul><li>Nature of training </li></ul><ul><li>Subject matter </li></ul><ul><li>Number of trainees </li></ul><ul><li>Individual vs. team </li></ul><ul><li>Self-paced vs. guided </li></ul><ul><li>Training resources </li></ul><ul><li>Costs </li></ul><ul><li>Geographic locations </li></ul><ul><li>Time allotted </li></ul><ul><li>Completion timeline </li></ul>
  23. 23. Internal Training <ul><li>Informal Training </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Training that occurs through interactions and feedback among employees. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>On-the-Job Training (OJT) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems with OJT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poorly-qualified or indifferent trainers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disruption of regular work </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bad or incorrect habits are passed on </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Stages of On-the-Job Training Figure 9 –8
  25. 25. External Training <ul><li>Reasons for External Training </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May be less expensive to outsource training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insufficient time to develop training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of expertise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages of interacting with outsiders </li></ul></ul><ul><li>E-Learning: Training Online </li></ul>
  26. 26. External Training: E-Learning <ul><li>E-Learning: Training Online </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The using the Internet or an organizational intranet to conduct training online. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Criteria for adopting e-learning: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sufficient top management support and funding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accepting the idea of decentralized and individualized training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Current training methods not meeting needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer literacy and access to computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time and travel cost concerns for trainees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The number and self-motivation of trainees </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Developing E-Learning Figure 9 –9
  28. 28. Advantages and Disadvantages of E-Learning Figure 9 –10 Source: Developed by Lisa A. Burke. May not be reproduced without permission.
  29. 29. Training Methods Training Methods Distance Training/Learning Cooperative Training Instructor-Led Classroom and Conference Training Technology and Training
  30. 30. Levels of Training Evaluation Figure 9 –11
  31. 31. Balancing Costs and Benefits of Training Figure 9 –12
  32. 32. Training Evaluation (cont’d) <ul><li>Cost-Benefit Analyses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparison of costs and benefits associated with training </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Return on Investment </li></ul><ul><li>Benchmarking Training </li></ul>
  33. 33. Evaluation Designs Evaluation Design Post-Measure Pre-/Post-Measure Pre-/Post-Measure with Control Group

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