Wind Energy Nguyen Hoang Viet Final


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  • Wind turbines, onshore or offshore can provide us free electrical energy for the benefit of many. It can assist us in managing our finances with good savings.
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  • Wind Energy Nguyen Hoang Viet Final

    1. 1. Wind Energy Nguyen Hoang Viet Lab. Nano-Particulate Material Processing University of Ulsan
    2. 2. Ancient Resource Meets 21 st Century
    3. 3. Wind Turbines Power for a House or City
    4. 4. Wind Energy Outline <ul><li>History and Context </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul><ul><li>Siting </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Economics </li></ul><ul><li>Future </li></ul>
    5. 5. History and Context
    6. 6. Wind Energy History <ul><li>1 A.D. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hero of Alexandria uses a wind machine to power an organ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>~ 400 A.D. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wind driven Buddhist prayer wheels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1200 to 1850 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Golden era of windmills in western Europe – 50,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9,000 in Holland; 10,000 in England; 18,000 in Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1850’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiblade turbines for water pumping made and marketed in U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1882 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thomas Edison commissions first commercial electric generating stations in NYC and London </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1900 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition from alternative energy sources reduces windmill population to fewer than 10,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1850 – 1930 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heyday of the small multiblade turbines in the US midwast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As many as 6,000,000 units installed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>1936+ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US Rural Electrification Administration extends the grid to most formerly isolated rural sites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grid electricity rapidly displaces multiblade turbine uses </li></ul></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Worldwide Growth in Wind Energy 0 10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 60,000 70,000 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Rest of the World India Denmark USA Spain Germany MW
    8. 9. This is strange because… Wind Energy is the Fastest Growing Energy Source in the World!!
    9. 11. Manufacturing Market Share Source: American Wind Energy Association
    10. 12. US Wind Energy Capacity
    11. 13. Installed Wind Turbines
    12. 14. Colorado Wind Energy Projects
    13. 15. New Projects in Colorado
    14. 16. Ponnequin – 30 MW <ul><li>Operate with wind speeds between 7-55 mph </li></ul><ul><li>Originally part of voluntary wind signup program </li></ul><ul><li>Total of 44 turbines </li></ul><ul><li>In 2001, 15 turbines added ~1 MW serves ~300 customers ~1 million dollars each </li></ul><ul><li>750 KW of electricity each turbine </li></ul><ul><li>Construction began Dec ‘98 </li></ul><ul><li>Date online – total June 1999 </li></ul><ul><li>Hub height – 181 ft </li></ul><ul><li>Blade diameter – 159 ft </li></ul><ul><li>Land used for buffalo grazing </li></ul>
    15. 17. Wind Power Advantages
    16. 18. Advantages of Wind Power <ul><li>Wind power is a renewable resource, which means using it will not deplete the earth's supply of fossil fuels. It also is a clean energy source, and produces no carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, particulates, or any other type of air pollution, as do conventional fossil fuel power sources. </li></ul><ul><li>Because it removes energy directly from the atmosphere, wind power is direct mitigation of global warming. </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Development </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel Diversity & Conservation </li></ul><ul><li>Cost Stability </li></ul><ul><li>The energy consumption for production, installation, operation and decommission of a wind turbine is usually earned back within 3 months of operation. </li></ul><ul><li>Different from fossil or nuclear power stations with a huge demand for cooling water, wind turbines do not need water to generate electricity </li></ul>
    17. 19. Pollution from Electric Power Source: Northwest Foundation, 12/97 Electric power is a primary source of industrial air pollution
    18. 20. Economic Development Benefits <ul><li>Expanding Wind Power development brings jobs to rural communities </li></ul><ul><li>Increased tax revenue </li></ul><ul><li>Purchase of goods & services </li></ul>
    19. 21. Economic Development Example Case Study: Lake Benton, MN $2,000 per 750-kW turbine in revenue to farmers Up to 150 construction, 28 ongoing O&M jobs Added $700,000 to local tax base
    20. 22. Fuel Diversity Benefits <ul><li>Domestic energy source </li></ul><ul><li>Inexhaustible supply </li></ul><ul><li>Small, dispersed design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reduces supply risk </li></ul></ul>
    21. 23. Cost Stability Benefits <ul><li>Flat-rate pricing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hedge against fuel price volatility risk </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wind electricity is inflation-proof </li></ul>
    22. 24. Wind Power Design
    23. 25. Types of wind machines Darrieus Vertical Axis Fan Mill Horizontal Axis
    24. 26. <ul><li>The power in the wind is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li> Power = ½   A V 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Using the density of air at sea level: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power = 0.6125 AV 3 (metric) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power = 0.00508 AV 3 (mph, ft) </li></ul></ul>Power in the Wind (W/m2) Density = P/(RxT) P - pressure (Pa) R - specific gas constant (287 J/kgK) T - air temperature (K) = 1/2 x air density x swept rotor area x (wind speed) 3  A V 3 Area =  r 2 Instantaneous Speed (not mean speed) kg/m 3 m 2 m/s
    25. 27. Wind Energy Natural Characteristics <ul><li>Wind Speed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wind energy increases with the cube of the wind speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10% increase in wind speed translates into 30% more electricity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2X the wind speed translates into 8X the electricity </li></ul></ul>
    26. 28. <ul><li>V 2 = (H 2 /H 1 )  V 1 </li></ul>Wind Energy Natural Characteristics <ul><li>Height </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wind energy increases with height to the 1/7 power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2X the height translates into 10.4% more electricity </li></ul></ul>
    27. 29. Wind Energy Natural Characteristics <ul><li>Air density </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wind energy increases proportionally with air density </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humid climates have greater air density than dry climates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower elevations have greater air density than higher elevations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wind energy in Denver about 6% less than at sea level </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Blade swept area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wind energy increases proportionally with swept area of the blades </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blades are shaped like airplane wings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10% increase in swept diameter translates into 21% greater swept area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Longest blades up to 413 feet in diameter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resulting in 600 foot total height </li></ul></ul></ul>
    28. 30. Betz Limit <ul><li>Theoretical maximum energy extraction from wind = 16/27 = 59.3% </li></ul><ul><li>Undisturbed wind velocity reduced by 1/3 </li></ul><ul><li>Albert Betz (1928) </li></ul>
    29. 31. Rotor Designs <ul><li>Two blades are cheaper but do not last as long </li></ul><ul><li>Three blades are more stable and last longer </li></ul><ul><li>Options include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upwind vs downwind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passive vs active yaw </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Common option chosen is to direct the rotor upwind of the tower with a tail vane </li></ul>
    30. 32. Wind Turbine Power Curve KW MPH 50 40 30 20 10 Vestas V80 2 MW Wind Turbine
    31. 33. Recent Capacity Enhancements 2006 5 MW 600’ 2003 1.8 MW 350’ 2000 850 kW 265’
    32. 34. Rotor Diameter Vs. Output Power Capacity
    33. 35. <ul><li>Hub controller 11. Blade bearing </li></ul><ul><li>Pitch cylinder 12. Blade </li></ul><ul><li>Main shaft 13. Rotor lock system </li></ul><ul><li>Oil cooler 14. Hydraulic unit </li></ul><ul><li>Gearbox 15. Machine foundation </li></ul><ul><li>Top Controller 16. Yaw gears </li></ul><ul><li>Parking Break 17. Generator </li></ul><ul><li>Service crane 18. Ultra-sonic sensors </li></ul><ul><li>Transformer 19. Meteorological gauges </li></ul><ul><li>Blade Hub </li></ul>10 16 17 12 5 12 Nacelle Components
    34. 36. Turbines Constantly Improving <ul><li>Larger turbines </li></ul><ul><li>Specialized blade design </li></ul><ul><li>Power electronics </li></ul><ul><li>Computer modeling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>produces more efficient design </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing improvements </li></ul>
    35. 37. Improving Reliability <ul><li>Drastic improvements since mid-80’s </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturers report availability data of over 95% </li></ul>1981 '83 '85 '90 '98 % Available Year 0 20 40 60 80 100
    36. 42. Photos by George Gull, Cornell University
    37. 43. Largest Existing Offshore Turbine is REpower 5M Beatrice Project in North Sea will demonstrate two REpower 5-MW turbines in offshore application for the first time. Other firsts for Europe include: Deepest water (45 m depth) Farthest offshore (25 km) Tower platform and anchoring concept 750-tonne truss-work platform Rotor diameter = 126 m Suction-caisson anchor 410-tonne turbine and 210-tonne tower Each rotor blade weighs 18 tonnes Sep 2004 installation of turbine rotor in onshore prototype at Brunnsbutel, Germany, in Schleswig-Holstein
    38. 44. Horns Rev 2-MW Turbines Installed Using Self-Propelled A2 SEA Vessels
    39. 45. North Hoyle 2-MW Turbines Installed Using Towed Seacore Jack-Up Rigs
    40. 46. How Big is a 3.6 MW Wind Turbine? This picture shows a Large Rotor Blades (Shipped by Water Offshore Wind Projects Minimize Transfers) 3.6-MW wind turbine superimposed on a Boeing 74-400 GE 3.6 MW rotor (104 m diameter)
    41. 47. VCERC submitting a CRADA Proposal to Develop Large-Blade Testing Facility Opportunities to develop remote structural monitoring methods for non-destructive testing of long,composite aerospace structures Wind turbine blades require static (bending, twist) and dynamic (fatigue) load testing to ensure durability for book life of project. No North American test facilities now exist that are capable of testing 70 m long blades.
    42. 48. Hybridizing Marine Renewables with Offshore Gas for Baseload Power <ul><li>ADVANTAGES: </li></ul><ul><li>Provides high-value baseload power </li></ul><ul><li>Avoids utility need for land-based “spinning reserve” to accommodate wind variability </li></ul><ul><li>Submarine power cable to shore more secure, with less environmental impact than gas pipeline </li></ul><ul><li>Avoids onshore siting challenge of finding cooling water for land-based gas power plants </li></ul><ul><li>Prolongs offshore gas reservoir life for more secure future </li></ul>Eclipse Energy’s hybrid project in Irish Sea to come on line in 2007
    43. 49. Wind Project Siting
    44. 50. Wind Speed and Power Density Classes
    45. 53. Siting a Wind Farm <ul><li>Winds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimum class 4 desired for utility-scale wind farm (>7 m/s at hub height) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transmission </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distance, voltage excess capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Permit approval </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Land-use compatibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public acceptance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual, noise, and bird impacts are biggest concern </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Land area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economies of scale in construction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of landowners </li></ul></ul>
    46. 54. Wind Disadvantages
    47. 55. Market Barriers <ul><li>Siting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Noise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aesthetics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intermittent source of power </li></ul><ul><li>Transmission constraints </li></ul><ul><li>Operational characteristics different from conventional fuel sources </li></ul><ul><li>Financing </li></ul>
    48. 56. Wind Energy and the Grid <ul><li>Pros </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small project size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short/flexible development time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dispatchability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally remote location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grid connectivity -- lack of transmission capability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intermittent output </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only When the wind blows (night? Day?) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low capacity factor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predicting the wind -- we’re getting better </li></ul></ul>
    49. 57. Birds - A Serious Obstacle <ul><li>Birds of Prey (hawks, owls, golden eagles) in jeopardy </li></ul><ul><li>Altamont Pass – News Update – from Sept 22 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>shut down all the turbines for at least two months each winter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>eliminate the 100 most lethal turbines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Replace all before permits expire in 13 years </li></ul></ul>
    50. 58. Wind – Characteristics & Consequences <ul><li>Remote location and low capacity factor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher transmission investment per unit output </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Small project size and quick development time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning mismatch with transmission investment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intermittent output </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher system operating costs if systems and protocols not designed properly </li></ul></ul>
    51. 59. Balancing Supply & Demand Base Load – Coal Gas/Hydro Gas 3500 4000 4500 3000
    52. 60. Energy Delivery
    53. 61. Energy Delivery
    54. 62. Wind Economics
    55. 63. Wind Farm Design Economics <ul><li>Key Design Parameters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mean wind speed at hub height </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity factor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Start with 100% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subtract time when wind speed less than optimum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subtract time due to scheduled maintenance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subtract time due to unscheduled maintenance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subtract production losses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dirty blades, shut down due to high winds </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Typically 33% at a Class 4 wind site </li></ul></ul></ul>
    56. 64. Wind Farm Financing <ul><li>Financing Terms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interest rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LIBOR + 150 basis points </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loan term </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Up to 15 years </li></ul></ul></ul>
    57. 65. Cost of Energy Components <ul><li>Cost (¢/kWh) = (Capital Recovery Cost + O&M) / kWh/year </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capital Recovery = Debt and Equity Cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>O&M Cost = Turbine design, operating environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>kWh/year = Wind Resource </li></ul></ul>
    58. 66. Cost of Energy Trend 1979: 40 cents/kWh <ul><li>Increased Turbine Size </li></ul><ul><li>R&D Advances </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing Improvements </li></ul>NSP 107 MW Lake Benton wind farm 4 cents/kWh (unsubsidized) 2004: 3 – 4.5 cents/kWh 2000: 4 - 6 cents/kWh
    59. 67. Construction Cost Elements
    60. 68. Future Trends
    61. 69. Expectations for Future Growth <ul><li>20,000 total turbines installed by 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>6% of electricity supply by 2020 </li></ul>100,000 MW of wind power installed by 2020
    62. 70. Future Cost Reductions <ul><li>Financing Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing Economy of Scale </li></ul><ul><li>Better Sites and “Tuning” Turbines for Site Conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Technology Improvements </li></ul>
    63. 71. Future Tech Developments <ul><li>Application Specific Turbines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Offshore </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited land/resource areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transportation or construction limitations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low wind resource </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold climates </li></ul></ul>
    64. 72. The Future of Wind - Offshore <ul><li>1.5 - 6 MW per turbine </li></ul><ul><li>60-120 m hub height </li></ul><ul><li>5 km from shore, 30 m deep ideal </li></ul><ul><li>Gravity foundation, pole, or tripod formation </li></ul><ul><li>Shaft can act as artificial reef </li></ul><ul><li>Drawbacks- T&D losses (underground cables lead to shore) and visual eye sore </li></ul>
    65. 73. Wind Energy Storage <ul><li>Pumped hydroelectric </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Georgetown facility – Completed 1967 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two reservoirs separated by 1000 vertical feet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pump water uphill at night or when wind energy production exceeds demand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flow water downhill through hydroelectric turbines during the day or when wind energy production is less than demand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>About 70 - 80% round trip efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Raises cost of wind energy by 25% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to find, obtain government approval and build new facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Compressed Air Energy Storage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using wind power to compress air in underground storage caverns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Salt domes, empty natural gas reservoirs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Costly, inefficient </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen storage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use wind power to electrolyze water into hydrogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Store hydrogen for use later in fuel cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50% losses in energy from wind to hydrogen and hydrogen to electricity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>25% round trip efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Raises cost of wind energy by 4X </li></ul></ul>
    66. 74. U.S. Wind Energy Challenges <ul><li>Best wind sites distant from </li></ul><ul><ul><li>population centers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>major grid connections </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wind variability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can mitigate if forecasting improves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Non-firm power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Debate on how much backup generation is required </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NIMBY component </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cape Wind project met with strong resistance by Cape Cod residents </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Limited offshore sites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sea floor drops off rapidly on east and west coasts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>North Sea essentially a large lake </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Intermittent federal tax incentives </li></ul>
    67. 75. Many Thanks for your attention!