DIGITAL LIBRARIES
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  • 1. SEMANTIC WEB OPPORTUNITIES FOR DIGITAL LIBRARIES Enrique Herrera-Viedma Pamplona, December 2008 1 11/12/2008
  • 2. INTRODUCTION 2 11/12/2008
  • 3. DIGITAL LIBRARIES (DL) TRADITIONAL Goal of DL: offer access to large amounts of content in form of digital documents (books, journals) Question: DL have to make their information sources available to a wider audience 3 11/12/2008
  • 4. DIGITAL LIBRARIES (DL) TRADITIONAL PROBLEM: HOW TO ALLOW AN EASY ACCESS TO THE USER INFORMATION NEEDS? SOLUTION: APPLICATION OF WEB TECHNOLOGIES (Processing, dissemination, storage, search and analysis of all types of digital informaton) 4 11/12/2008
  • 5. EVOLUTION OF DIGITAL LIBRARIES 5 11/12/2008
  • 6. WEB TECHNOLOGIES APPLIED IN DL Three kinds of web technologies: • APPLYING TECHNOLOGIES WEB 1.0: DIGITAL LIBRARY 1.0 (THE PAST) • APPLYING TECHNOLOGIES WEB 2.0: DIGITAL LIBRARY 2.0 (THE PRESENT) • APPLYING TECHNOLOGIES FROM THE WEB 3.0: DIGITAL LIBRARY 3.0 (THE FUTURE) 6 11/12/2008
  • 7. DIGITAL LIBRARY 1.0 7 11/12/2008
  • 8. BASIC CONCEPTS IN WEB 1.0 and DL 1.0 • The web as a portal of information • Focused on information of the sites exclusively • Based on owning content • Drawbacks: • Interaction • Scalability 8 11/12/2008
  • 9. DIGITAL LIBRARY 2.0 9 11/12/2008
  • 10. BASIC CONCEPTS IN WEB 2.0 From the O’Reilly piece: “A core concept of Web 2.0 is that people are the content of sites. That is, a site is not populated with information for users to consume. Instead, services are provided to individual users for them to build networks of friends and other groups (professional, recreational, etc.). The content of a site then, comprises user-provided information that attracts new members of an ever-expanding network.” 10 11/12/2008
  • 11. BASIC CONCEPTS IN WEB 2.0 • The web as a platform of services • Focused on user communities (create and validate content) • Based on sharing content • Emphasis on ease of use • Based on Interactivity • Drawbacks: • Personalization • True portability • Interoperatibility 11 11/12/2008
  • 12. 2.0-style Service Examples Blogging Wikis User tagging Skypecasts Folksonomies Community citation services User comments Community photo User ratings services RSS feeds Community book services Feed aggregators IDEA: TO APPLY THESE TOOLS in DLs 12 11/12/2008
  • 13. Digital Library 2.0: Properties The library is everywhere The library has no barriers The library invites participation The library uses flexible, best-of-breed, component-based systems The library is a human-centered organization 13 11/12/2008
  • 14. Digital Library 1.0 versus Digital Library 2.0 Digital Library 1.0 is a pull model • Acquire / store / lend / find Digital Library 2.0 is a push model • Acquire / store / broadcast / converse PROBLEMS OF DL 2.0: • PERSONALIZATION • INTEROPERATIBILITY 14 11/12/2008
  • 15. DIGITAL LIBRARY 3.0 15 11/12/2008
  • 16. BASIC CONCEPTS IN WEB 3.0 16 11/12/2008
  • 17. What is the Semantic Web? • An extension of the current Web in which information is given well-defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation. [Tim Berners-Lee] • Semantic Web is able to describe things in a way that computers can understand 17 11/12/2008
  • 18. Tools of Semantic Web: • RDF (Resource Description Framework): A fundamental data format for describing information and resources. Putting information into RDF files makes it possible for “scutters” or RDF crawlers to search, discover, pick up, collect, analyse and process information from the Web • Ontology languages for modeling de data source’s semantics: RDF Schema, OWL, ect. • IDEA: TO APPLY THESE TOOLS in DLs 18 11/12/2008
  • 19. Semantic Web Technologies for DLs: Metadata is the key concept the Web does not have metadata • the idea of a Semantic Web is nice but difficult to implement DLs do have metadata in place: • We must make them available in a machine understandable format • Semantic Web provides the format: RDF DLs already have controlled vocabularies, taxonomies or even ontologies in place: • We have to model this knowledge in a machine understandable way • Semantic Web provides ontology languages: RDF Schema or OWL 19 11/12/2008
  • 20. DL 3.0 based on Semantic Web= SEMANTIC DL • integrate information based on different metadata, e.g.: resources, user profiles, bookmarks, taxonomies – high quality semantics = highly and meaningfully connected information • provide interoperability with other systems (not only digital libraries) on either metadata or communication level or both – RDF as common denominator between digital libraries and other services • delivering more robust, user friendly and adaptable search and browsing interfaces empowered by semantics 20 11/12/2008
  • 21. Semantic DL: Evolving Knowledge Space In state-of-the-art digital libraries users are consumers • Retrieve contents based on available bibliographic records (DL 1.0) Recent trends: user communities (DL 2.0) • Connetea • Flickr In Semantic DL users are consumers/contributers/advisors • Tagging (Web 2.0) • Social Semantic Collaborative Filtering • Annotations Semantic DL enforce the transition from a static information to a dynamic (collaborative) knowledge space 21 11/12/2008
  • 22. Semantic DLs: BENEFITS The two main benefits of Semantic DL: new search paradigms for the information space • Ontology-based search / facet search • Community-enabled browsing providing interoperability on the data level • integrating metadata from various heterogeneous sources • Interconnecting different digital library systems 22 11/12/2008
  • 23. Semantic Digital Libraries: Examples JeromeDL • a social semantic digital library makes use of Semantic Web and Social Networking technologies to enhance both interoperability and usability BRICKS • aims at establishing the organizational and technological foundations for a digital library network in order to share knowledge and resources in the cultural heritage domain. FEDORA • delivers flexible service-oriented architecture to managing and delivering content in the form of digital objects SIMILE • extends and laverages DSpace, seeking to enhance interoperability among digital assets, schemata, metadata, and services 23 11/12/2008
  • 24. TREND 24 11/12/2008
  • 25. From Semantic DL to Social Semantic DL Challenge: To get SOCIAL SEMANTIC DL • It´s the following step towards DL 3.0 • Advantages: Collaborative search and browsing (interface) Users contribute to the classification process Users can understand community driven annotations Users enhance digital content using blogs, wikis on the side • Drawbacks: Not everyone is convinced 25 11/12/2008
  • 26. THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION 26 11/12/2008