Part 2: Marvels & Mysteries of Our Animal World By An Admirer Of Nature
<ul><li>Master of Macabre  - Scorpion  </li></ul><ul><li>Marvels of Disguise  - Peppered moth  </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf & St...
<ul><li>Epic Home Return  -  Salmon </li></ul><ul><li>Producers of Shock  -  Electric Eel </li></ul><ul><li>Costume Change...
<ul><li>MASTER OF THE MACABRE </li></ul><ul><li>SCORPION (800species 0.5-11”)   </li></ul><ul><li>FAMILY  BUTHIDAE </li></...
<ul><li>COURTSHIP DANCE </li></ul><ul><li>Cannibal like scorpions prey </li></ul><ul><li>upon one another </li></ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>MERRY RIDING </li></ul><ul><li>Baby scorpions live on </li></ul><ul><li>mother’s back for two weeks </li></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>Major orders of insects  Number of species </li></ul><ul><li>Orthoptera  (grasshoppers)  20,000 </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>MARVELS OF DISGUISE– PEPPERED MOTH  </li></ul><ul><li>PHYLUM: ARTHROPODA </li></ul><ul><li>CLASS  : INSECTA </li><...
<ul><li>LEAF INSECT   </li></ul><ul><li>ORDER : PHASMIDA </li></ul><ul><li>FAMILY: PHASMIDAE  </li></ul><ul><li>Phyllium b...
<ul><li>STICK INSECT- 3000 species </li></ul><ul><li>Long and Slender  </li></ul><ul><li>Asian species over 30 cm </li></u...
<ul><li>PRAYING MANTIS </li></ul><ul><li>2000 Species </li></ul><ul><li>ORDER:  </li></ul><ul><li>DICTYOPTERA </li></ul><u...
<ul><li>Mantis religiosa   </li></ul><ul><li>The head is removed for the mating to take effect properly. It causes the bod...
<ul><li>POND SKATER  </li></ul><ul><li>Gerris remigis </li></ul><ul><li>FAMILY :Gerridae </li></ul><ul><li>ORDER: Hemipter...
<ul><li>SURFACE TENSION </li></ul><ul><li>The surface tension of water at 20 C is  0.07  mN/ mm  </li></ul><ul><li>( milli...
<ul><li>The deformation of the water caused by the clip's weight can be seen. This bending of light is similar to the bend...
<ul><li>MAKER OF FIRE WORKS </li></ul><ul><li>Bombardier Beetle </li></ul><ul><li>Brachinus explodens   </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>Two chemicals hydroquinones  </li></ul><ul><li>and hydrogen peroxide </li></ul><ul><li>are produced in glands and ...
<ul><li>WEIGHT LIFT CHAMPION </li></ul><ul><li>Scarab Beetle </li></ul><ul><li>FAMILY  SCARABAEIDAE </li></ul><ul><li>ORDE...
<ul><li>Scarab, Symbol  Egyptian  Amulets  of resurrection   heiroglyphs   </li></ul><ul><li>The dung beetle with </li></u...
850  50  0.67 Rhinoceros beetles capable of lifting 850 times their own weight. Stag beetles are able to drag an object 12...
<ul><li>INSECT LIGHT MAKERS </li></ul><ul><li>CLICK BEETLE </li></ul><ul><li>GENUS  PYROPHORUS  </li></ul><ul><li>FAMILY  ...
<ul><li>Click beetle  Pyrophorus   noctilucus </li></ul><ul><li>4 cm long, Belize </li></ul><ul><li>(Central America) </li...
<ul><li>GLOW WORMS ( female & larva glow) </li></ul><ul><li>Lampyris noctiluca  Lampyris splendidula </li></ul><ul><li>Luc...
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Part 2: Marvels & Mysteries of Our Animal World

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Transcript of "Part 2: Marvels & Mysteries of Our Animal World "

  1. 1. Part 2: Marvels & Mysteries of Our Animal World By An Admirer Of Nature
  2. 2. <ul><li>Master of Macabre - Scorpion </li></ul><ul><li>Marvels of Disguise - Peppered moth </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf & Stick insects </li></ul><ul><li>Praying Mantis </li></ul><ul><li>Water Walker - Pond skater </li></ul><ul><li>Maker of Fireworks - Bombardier beetle </li></ul><ul><li>Weight Lift Champion - Scarab beetle </li></ul><ul><li>Insect Light Makers - Click beetle </li></ul><ul><li>Glow worms </li></ul><ul><li>Wizards of Light - Luminous shrimp </li></ul><ul><li>(See Part 3 ) Dragon & Angler fish </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Epic Home Return - Salmon </li></ul><ul><li>Producers of Shock - Electric Eel </li></ul><ul><li>Costume Changers - Chameleon, </li></ul><ul><li>Octopus </li></ul><ul><li>(Part 3 ends ) Sea horse </li></ul><ul><li>The King of Ocean Air - Albatross </li></ul><ul><li>Miracle in the Air - Humming bird </li></ul><ul><li>Migration Mysteries </li></ul><ul><li>Prince of Night Air - Bat </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>MASTER OF THE MACABRE </li></ul><ul><li>SCORPION (800species 0.5-11”) </li></ul><ul><li>FAMILY BUTHIDAE </li></ul><ul><li>ORDER SCORPIONIDA </li></ul><ul><li>CLASS ARACHNIDA </li></ul><ul><li>PHYLUM ARTHROPODA </li></ul><ul><li>Buthus occitanus , FAT TAIL SCORPION, N.Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Light yellow, 3” long – World most dangerous </li></ul><ul><li>Poison neurotoxin – Affects nervous system - Convulsions, Paralysis & stops Breathing </li></ul><ul><li>Fat tail kills human in seven hours, a dog in seven minutes and a mouse in few second. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>COURTSHIP DANCE </li></ul><ul><li>Cannibal like scorpions prey </li></ul><ul><li>upon one another </li></ul><ul><li>Mating runs the risk of </li></ul><ul><li>not as a mate but a meal </li></ul><ul><li>Mating demands rituals of courtship </li></ul><ul><li>Male approaches female with great care </li></ul><ul><li>Pincers are grabbed, thus with her weapon </li></ul><ul><li>neutralized the pair begins to dance </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>MERRY RIDING </li></ul><ul><li>Baby scorpions live on </li></ul><ul><li>mother’s back for two weeks </li></ul><ul><li>Afterwards very aggressive, </li></ul><ul><li>attack and eat each other </li></ul><ul><li>Enemies: birds, mantis, toads, </li></ul><ul><li>lizards, snakes, foxes, mongooses,bats, </li></ul><ul><li>rodents and monkeys. Life term is 4 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Withstand extreme temperature and even atomic radiation. Without water for 3 months and without food for nearly a year </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Major orders of insects Number of species </li></ul><ul><li>Orthoptera (grasshoppers) 20,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Hemiptera (true bugs) 1,00,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Coleoptera (beetles) 3,70,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Diptera (true flies) 1,00,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Lepidoptera (butterflies & moths) 1,50,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Hymenoptera (ants, bees &wasps) 1,20,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Total 8,60,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Total number of species more than10,00,000 </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>MARVELS OF DISGUISE– PEPPERED MOTH </li></ul><ul><li>PHYLUM: ARTHROPODA </li></ul><ul><li>CLASS : INSECTA </li></ul><ul><li>ORDER : LEPIDOPTERA </li></ul><ul><li>FAMILY : GEOMETRIDAE </li></ul><ul><li>Biston betularia </li></ul><ul><li>The mutant, darker peppered moth is better camouflaged against trees darkened by pollution. In 1953, Bernard Kettlewell proposed </li></ul><ul><li>Bird Predation Theory&quot; (BPT), explained industrial melanism in the peppered moth as due primarily to natural selection in the form of differential bird predation on differently-camouflaged backgrounds. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>LEAF INSECT </li></ul><ul><li>ORDER : PHASMIDA </li></ul><ul><li>FAMILY: PHASMIDAE </li></ul><ul><li>Phyllium bioculatum </li></ul><ul><li>Up to 80 mm long. The whole insect looks just like a leaf. Lives on vegetation and well camouflaged against the leaves on which it feeds. Distribution: Indonesia. </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf & Stick insects are pure vegetarians </li></ul><ul><li>Put themselves into positions just like those real leaves and twigs </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>STICK INSECT- 3000 species </li></ul><ul><li>Long and Slender </li></ul><ul><li>Asian species over 30 cm </li></ul><ul><li>Brown stick insect paler </li></ul><ul><li>by day, darker by night </li></ul><ul><li>Many species of stick insects </li></ul><ul><li>reproduce without mating. </li></ul><ul><li>Female lays fertile eggs from which emerge female babies. This type of virgin birth is called Parthenogenesis . So no males ever found in some species </li></ul><ul><li>The walking stick has the unusual ability of partial regeneration. If a leg is lost or damaged it will grow back after several successive molts </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>PRAYING MANTIS </li></ul><ul><li>2000 Species </li></ul><ul><li>ORDER: </li></ul><ul><li>DICTYOPTERA </li></ul><ul><li>Carnivorous insect uses disguise for its </li></ul><ul><li>protection and also to hide from its prey </li></ul><ul><li>Its large eyes can spot a victim at a distance </li></ul><ul><li>Waits patiently for the opportunity to seize </li></ul><ul><li>some unsuspecting beetle or butterfly with </li></ul><ul><li>its fast moving front legs </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Mantis religiosa </li></ul><ul><li>The head is removed for the mating to take effect properly. It causes the body to ejaculate faster. </li></ul><ul><li>Photographs by Catherine Chalmers In her book “Food Chain” </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>POND SKATER </li></ul><ul><li>Gerris remigis </li></ul><ul><li>FAMILY :Gerridae </li></ul><ul><li>ORDER: Hemiptera </li></ul><ul><li>Pond skaters walk </li></ul><ul><li>gracefully over the </li></ul><ul><li>surface of ponds, </li></ul><ul><li>lakes and rivers </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>SURFACE TENSION </li></ul><ul><li>The surface tension of water at 20 C is 0.07 mN/ mm </li></ul><ul><li>( milli N / milli meter) </li></ul><ul><li>A large pond skater’s mass is 0.02 gm or 0.00002 Kgm </li></ul><ul><li>Force exerted is = mass x gravitational acceleration </li></ul><ul><li>( 10 meter/square sec) </li></ul><ul><li>= 0.00002 into 10 = 0.0002 Newton </li></ul><ul><li>= 0.20 milli Newton </li></ul><ul><li>Contact surface of of its feet is (say) 20 mm , </li></ul><ul><li>this is 20 mN per 20 mm or 0.01 mN /mm </li></ul><ul><li>This is only one seventh of the force that the surface tension can withstand, so the pond skater easily avoids the danger of breaking through the surface film </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>The deformation of the water caused by the clip's weight can be seen. This bending of light is similar to the bending of light by strong gravitational fields, as predicted by Einstein's theories. Surface tension is due to an attraction between the molecules in water, which cause its surface to act in an elastic manner. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>MAKER OF FIRE WORKS </li></ul><ul><li>Bombardier Beetle </li></ul><ul><li>Brachinus explodens </li></ul><ul><li>FAMILY CARABIDAE ORDER COLEOPTERA </li></ul><ul><li>A living cannon fires explosives for defense </li></ul><ul><li>against ants and other ground beetles </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese invented gun powder. Roger Bacon in 13 th century did experiments with gun powder in England. But these beetles had been firing over millions of years </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Two chemicals hydroquinones </li></ul><ul><li>and hydrogen peroxide </li></ul><ul><li>are produced in glands and </li></ul><ul><li>stored in a large reservoir </li></ul><ul><li>When threatened the </li></ul><ul><li>chemicals are pushed to a </li></ul><ul><li>reaction chamber which </li></ul><ul><li>secretes peroxidases and catalases (enzymes) that break down the hydrogen peroxide, and catalyse the oxidation of the hydroquinones into p-benzoquinones compounds that are well known for their irritant properties. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>WEIGHT LIFT CHAMPION </li></ul><ul><li>Scarab Beetle </li></ul><ul><li>FAMILY SCARABAEIDAE </li></ul><ul><li>ORDER COLEOPTER </li></ul><ul><li>Beetle has more than 30,000 species </li></ul><ul><li>Dung beetles, chafers, Japanese beetles, </li></ul><ul><li>Dor beetles etc. </li></ul><ul><li>For breeding some scarabs come together </li></ul><ul><li>in pairs, mould a ball of dung, and roll this to a selected site. The female working underground moulds it into a mass. On this one egg will be laid </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Scarab, Symbol Egyptian Amulets of resurrection heiroglyphs </li></ul><ul><li>The dung beetle with </li></ul><ul><li>the sun god “Khepri” </li></ul><ul><li>Mummy Priestess </li></ul><ul><li>Nesykhonsu, standing </li></ul><ul><li>to the left of sun god </li></ul><ul><li>Priest at right with offerings </li></ul>
  20. 20. 850 50 0.67 Rhinoceros beetles capable of lifting 850 times their own weight. Stag beetles are able to drag an object 120 times their own weight, ants can carry 50 times their weight, and honeybees fly along with pollen loads up to 24 times their weight. Man can lift two thirds of his weight.
  21. 21. <ul><li>INSECT LIGHT MAKERS </li></ul><ul><li>CLICK BEETLE </li></ul><ul><li>GENUS PYROPHORUS </li></ul><ul><li>FAMILY ELATERIDAE </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Click beetle Pyrophorus noctilucus </li></ul><ul><li>4 cm long, Belize </li></ul><ul><li>(Central America) </li></ul><ul><li>surface brightness </li></ul><ul><li>is 1/4 candle </li></ul><ul><li>Click Beetles are called this way because of their ability to propel themselves into the air with a clicking sound. </li></ul><ul><li>A spine between two grooves on their underside allows them to &quot;snap' themselves as high as 6 inches if they somehow find themselves on their backs, eventually getting them back onto their feet. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>GLOW WORMS ( female & larva glow) </li></ul><ul><li>Lampyris noctiluca Lampyris splendidula </li></ul><ul><li>Luciferin is oxydised to produce oxyluciferin, with the enzyme luciferase acting as a catalyst in the reaction </li></ul><ul><li>“ Twenty glow-worms shall our lanterns be </li></ul><ul><li>To guide our measure round about the tree” </li></ul><ul><li>(Shakespeare, The Merry Wives of Windsor) </li></ul>

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