DARWIN & RUSSEL WALLACE AD 1823 “ ORIGIN OF SPECIES” AD 1913 AD 1809 AD 1882 HUXLEY : Introduced the term “ BIOGENESIS” AD 1825 AD 1895 LAMARCK : Introduced the term “BIOLOGY” Invertebrate classes first introduced AD 1744 AD 1829 JOHN RAY : Published “ORNITHOLOGY” and “HISTORY OF FISHES” AD 1628 AD 1705 ALBERTUS MAGNUS : Aristotle’s work enlarged AD 1193 AD 1280 ARISTOTLE : History, Parts, Movements, Locomotion & Reproduction Of Animals BC 384 BC 322
History Of Classification Of Life Binomial Nomenclature – “ SYSTEMA NATURAE” 10 TH Edition (1758) Animals into 6 Classes: Quadrupeds, Birds, Reptiles, Fishes, Insects & Worms LINNAEUS 1707 1778 “ NATURAL HISTORY” ROMAN PLINY THE ELDER 23 – 79 AD Followed Aristotle THEOPHRASTUS 372 – 287 BC Red Blood: Mammals,Birds,Reptiles,Fish Colourless Blood: Squids,Shellfish Crayfish,and Insects. ARISTOTLE 384 322 BC
Geographical Distribution Of Animals in 1857. PL SCLATER 1829-1913 Heredity Principle MENDEL 1822 - 1884 “ PHILOSOPHIE ZOOLOGIQUE” On Evolution in 1809 LAMARCK 1744 - 1829 “ HISTOIRE NATURELLE” First Treatise On Animal Geography in 1777 BUFFON 1707 - 1788
Extensively revised … .. 1981 Edition of International Code Of Zoological Nomenclature 1958 International Congress On Zoology organized a commission for naming animals 1898 Geographical Distribution Of Animals RUSSEL WALLACE 1823 - 1913 Origin of Species By Means Of Natural Selection in 1859 CHARLES DARVIN 1809 - 1882
Zoology Development Chronologically Gave the word “Species” a practical limitation JOHN RAY 1628-1694 Anatomical discoveries with microscope MALPIGHI 1628-1694 Blood Circulation HARVEY 1578 – 1657 A D Rough classification of animals ARISTOTLE 384 – 322 BC
Discovery of animal cell Foundation of Embryology and Physiology SCHWANN 1810-1882 Comparative anatomy and Paleontology CUVIER 1769-1832 Theory of evolution Lamarckism LAMARCK 1744-1829 Binomial system of Nomenclature LINNAEUS 1707-1778
Heredity Principle MENDEL 1822-1884 Supported the theory of Evolution HUXLEY 1825-1895 Supported the theory of Evolution WALLACE 1823-1913 Theory of Evolution Origin of species by means of natural selection DARWIN 1809-1882
Darwin in his translation of Aristotle’s Parts of Animals remarked “I have a high notion of Aristotle’s merits. Linnaeus and Cuvier have been my two Gods, though in very different ways, but they were mere schoolboys to old Aristotle”
Anglerfishes seem to eat anything that is available
Encyclopedia of the Animal World (Bay books, Sydney, 1972), volume 1, page 68:
“ It is interesting to note that Aristotle who well merits the title of Father of Zoology recorded this curious feeding habit over 2000 years ago”
ARISTOTLE S HARVEY K N JOHN RAY L U C CUVIER I E E R W D A SCHWANN A R WALLACE N N M HUXLEY A E N A D M I L L ZOOLOGY MANSION BY GREAT MASTERS
The deformation of the water caused by the clip's weight can be seen. This bending of light is similar to the bending of light by strong gravitational fields, as predicted by Einstein's theories. Surface tension is due to an attraction between the molecules in water, which cause its surface to act in an elastic manner.
secretes peroxidases and catalases (enzymes) that break down the hydrogen peroxide, and catalyse the oxidation of the hydroquinones into p-benzoquinones compounds that are well known for their irritant properties.
Scarab, Symbol Egyptian Amulets of resurrection heiroglyphs
The dung beetle with
the sun god “Khepri”
to the left of sun god
Priest at right with offerings
850 50 0.67 Rhinoceros beetles capable of lifting 850 times their own weight. Stag beetles are able to drag an object 120 times their own weight, ants can carry 50 times their weight, and honeybees fly along with pollen loads up to 24 times their weight. Man can lift two thirds of his weight.
The Electric eel is actually a fish that can reach 9 feet (2.7 m) in length and weigh more than 50 pounds (23 kg). The electricity comes from nerve ending cells in the tail that can produce from 600-1,000 volts at one time. Electric eels have 200-250 "electric" cells per centimeter. They are native to South American rivers.
The female seahorse deposits up to 200 eggs into a brood pouch on the male, where they are fertilized. In the male's brood, the seahorse eggs hatch and develop into baby seahorses. After almost two to six weeks of being "pregnant," the male "gives birth" to the baby seahorses. Labor can take up to three hours! Same thing for sea-dragon.
Food, water, protective cover, and a sheltered place to nest and breed are basic to survival. Changing seasons can transform a comfortable environment into an unlivable one -- the food and water supply can dwindle, plant cover can vanish, and competition with other animals can increase. Migration is mass movement
Eventually, they fly off in separate directions, and the male dies because he expended so much energy in the mating
The female flutters out to place her 400+ eggs on milkweed bushes all the way over in California's San Joaquin Valley. She will lay them one at a time, on the underside of a leaf.
After she has laid all her eggs, she dies
Four days after tiny caterpillar emerges
The caterpillar eats its shell and the leaf it was attached to. The milkweed leaf is poisonous to the Monarch's predators, so the newborn can develop without being eaten by a bird. After two weeks the caterpillar crawls up on a stem, or, a branch, and using its last two back legs, hangs upside down and becomes a butterfly chrysalis. When the new Monarch has formed, and splits the cocoon, it must remain still for two hours so its wings dry, and the veins harden .
Then strong enough to fly, it goes north to repeat the mating cycle. Four short (one-month) generations of Monarchs fly north (like a relay race) until the fourth generation reaches the last milkweed of autumn in Canada.
The fifth generation, the long-living (8 month) butterfly is born in Canada in late summer, and immediately migrates south to sanctuaries in California.
A generation of Monarch butterflies hatched in Canada is able to find its way to winter roots in Mexico, used by their grandparents and ancestors before them.
The information is stored in their genes!
Pacific grove in California is proud of monarch and the whole town is sanctuary for them “ It is the duty of every citizen to protect the butterflies” is the town ordinance. Street signs are everywhere. “School children parade” is on a Saturday morning in early October every year
Echolocation is a high pitched sound produced in the bat's larynx. The sound frequencies range from 11 kHz to 160 kHz. When these pulses strike an object, an echo of the sound returns and is collected by the bat's forward-facing ears. The echoes enable bats to judge the shape, texture and distance of any object such as a tree, building or insects. As the bat gets closer to its prey the frequency increases.