Do you not see rapid industrialization as a time of progress and modernity ? D you think that the spread of railways and factories, and construction of high-rise building and bridges is a sign of society's development ? Is industrialization always based on rapid technological development ? Can we today continue to glorify continuous mechanization of all work ? What has industrialization meant to people's lives ? To answer such questions we need to tun to the history of Industrialization. In this chapter we will look at this history by focusing first on Britain, the first industrial nation, and the India, where the pattern of industrial change was conditioned by colonial rule.