Lung Transplant
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    Lung Transplant Lung Transplant Document Transcript

    • Vidisha  Singh         Organ  Transplant  Essay   Vidisha  Singh   March  30,  2011                                
    • Vidisha  Singh              
    • Vidisha  Singh   Lung  Transplant     Lungs  are  the  largest  portion  in  our  respiratory  system,  they  are  capable  of   breathing  20,  000  times  a  day.  We  have  two  lungs.  The  right  lung  is  on  the  right  side   of  the  chest  cavity  and  the  left  lung  on  the  left  side  of  the  chest  cavity,  but  the  left   lung  contains  two  lobes.  Each  lobes  of  the  lung  is   like  a  balloon  filled  with  spongy  tissues  and  they   are  responsible  of  exchanging  gasses,  from  Carbon   dioxide  to  oxygen  and  visa  versa.  (Lee  Woodard,   2011)  This  essay  will  help  provide  some  information   Figure  1:  Comparison  of  a  healthy  lung  and  a   lung  of  a  smoker.  (Lungs  Transplant,    2011)   on  what  lungs  are,  the  reasons  for  lung  transplant,  the   basic  procedure  of  a  lung  transplant,  the  advantages  and  the  disadvantages,  the   One-­‐World  Issue  (Cultural  and  Economical  issues)  and  my  perspective.       Lungs  being  the  important  part  of  the  body   should  be  protected  and  the  symptoms  should  be   considered.  (look  at  figure  1  for  a  comparison  of  a   smoker’s  lung  and  normal  healthy  lung)  If  a  person   has  failed  lungs  (can  be  one  or  both)  should  get  a   lung  transplant.  It  is  important  to  know  the   symptoms  of  lung  failure,  some  examples  are:   permanent  enlargement  of  air  sacs  (alveoli)  with   loss  of  completely  exhaling  (emphysema),  heredity   lunch  blockage  (cystic  fibrosis),  long-­‐term  (chronic)  Figure  2:  Before  the  transplant  procedures  (Admin,  2008)   inflammation  (sarcoidosis)  and  permanent  scarring   and  thickening  of  lung  tissue  (idiopathic  pulmonary  fibrosis).  These  symptoms   should  be  considered  and  checked  if  any  appear.  (Lung  Transplant,  2011)  
    • Vidisha  Singh     If  the  symptoms  appear,  then  a  transplant  is  needed  unless  the  doctor  advices  better  options.  But  if  the  transplant  is  needed  then  to  get  the  transplant,  there  needs  to  be  many  things  that  need  to  be  considered  and  checked  like;  (see  figure  2  for  before  the  transplant  procedure)  donation  of  new  lungs  by  a  person  who  has  been  declared  brain-­‐dead  but  remains  on  life-­‐support.  The  donor’s  tissue  must  be  matched  as  closely  as  possible  to  that  recipients’  to  reduce  the  chances  of  transplantation  tissue  being  rejected.  When  the  recipient  is  unconscious  and  pain-­‐free,  an  incision  is  made  on  the  chest.  Tubes  are  used  to  re-­‐route  blood  to  the  heart-­‐lung  bypass  machine  to  provide  oxygen  during  the  surgery.  (Lung  Transplant,  2008)  One  or  both  lung  could  be  removed,  and  the  donor’s  lungs  are  stitched.  Chest  tubes  are  inserted  to  drain  out  air,  fluid,  and  blood  out  of  the  chest  for  several  days  so  the  lungs  can  fully  re-­‐expand  and  recover.  Sometimes  heart  and  lung  transplantation  are  done  together,  if  heart  is  diseased.  (Lung  Transplant,  2011)   For  every  transplant,  there  are  bright  sides  and  there  are  also  downsides.  But  looking  on  the  bright  side  of  this  transplantation,  there  are  many  benefits  to  the  recipients  after  he  has  the  transplantation.  The  benefits  are  that  even  though  the  recipient  loses  one  damaged  and  malfunctioned  lung,  but  gains  back  the  lung  but  more  healthier.  (Lung  Transplantation,  2011)  Following  that  the  recipient  will  have  a  cleaner  lung  with  no  infectious  disease  that  will  threaten  the  recipient’s  life  again  unless  the  recipient  has  habits,  which  could  damage  the  lungs  again.  But  amazingly,  after  the  transplant  the  recipient  will  have  more  energy,  be  more  active  and  independent  along  with  being  able  to  gain  weight  easily.  Luckily  physicians  have  medications  for  rejection  of  new  lungs  called  immune-­‐suppressing  drugs,  this  helps  the  lungs  be  settled  into  the  body  without  any  attack  from  the  immune  system.  This  transplant  holds  many  benefits  that  will  improve  the  patient’s  life  further.    
    • Vidisha  Singh     Unfortunately  there  are  not  any  transplants  yet,  which  have  not  got  any  after  transplant  reactions  or  drawbacks  in  other  words  disadvantages.  The  downside  of  this  transplant  can  get  real  risky  if  the  new  lung/s  from  the  donor  isn’t  healthy,  because  the  whole  point  of  a  transplant  is  to  get  new  lung/s,  which  could  improve  life  quality  again.  Other  precaution  that  needs  to  be  taken  care  of  is  the  age  of  the  donor  and  the  blood  type  also  the  donor’s  tissue  must  be  matched.  After  the  lung  transplant  is  completed,  the  immune  system  may  believe  that  the  new  lung/s  are  invaders  and  they  will  try  to  immunize  them.  This  should  be  treated  as  soon  as  possible.  This  could  be  detected  by  the  signs  of  rejection,  which  are;  fever,  flu-­‐like  symptoms  (chills,  dizziness,  nausea,  general  feeling  of  illness,  night  sweats),  increased  difficulty  in  breathing,  worsening  pulmonary  test  results,  increased  chest  pain  or  tenderness  and/or  increase  of  decrease  in  body  weight  of  more  than  2  kilograms  in  a  24  hour  period.    Lung  transplant  not  being  an  easy  transplant  to  do  can  cause  quite  a  few  deaths  during  the  first  3  months,  or  first  5  years,  this  is  why  no  specialist  guarantees  long  life  after  the  transplant  (see  figure  3  for  more  survival  data).  The  risks  after  the  transplantation  are  infection,  internal/external  bleeding  and/or  malfunction  of  the  donor’s  lung  or  even  poor  healing  where  donor’s  airway  attached  to  the  recipient’s  airway.  Besides  long-­‐terms  use  of  immune  suppressing  drugs  can  cause  diabetes,  kidney  damage  or  infections  that  can  kill  the  patient.       Figure  3:  Survival  Data  (OPTN/SRTR,  2009)      
    • Vidisha  Singh   One  World  issues  also  concern  the  recipient  or  the  donor  and  lung  transplant.  One  of  the  One-­‐World  Issues  that  affects  the  lung  transplantation  idea  is  Cultural  Issue.  This  issue  has  two  sides  that  have  different  opinions.  It  is  believed  in  some  cultures  that  a  person  has  to  give  back  its  organs  to  the  Earth,  take  it  to  heaven  or  take  his  organs  to  his  next  life  in  order  to  gain  salvation  (freedom  from  the  birth  cycle)  and/or  nirvana.  (Vicky  R.  Bowden,  2010)  While  on  the  other  side  cultures  like  Catholic  Christians  believe  that  it  is  good  deed  to  save  many  people’s  life  just  through  one  person’s  donation.  Few  groups  like  the  Shinto  disfavor  organ  donation;  these  are  cultures  that  follow  the  folk  customs  of  the  Gypsies.  These  cultural  groups  believe  that  the  body  should  be  returned  back  to  god  after  the  death  of  one  or  that  body  after  death  is  impure.  (BBC,  2009)  While  the  Roman  Catholic  Church  is  in  favor  of  organ  donation,  because  it  acts  out  like  a  charity  and  means  of  saving  many  lives  just  by  giving  in  one’s.    This  is  a  Cultural-­‐Ethical  Issue,  because  it  has  ethical  implication  since  Ethical  issue  evolves  around  making  a  choice  based  on  what  is  ‘right  and  ‘wrong’  according  to  the  laws,  customs,  rules  or  beliefs.       The  second  One-­‐World  Issue  that  concerns  the  people  is  the  Economical  factor  or  in  other  words,  Economical  Issue.  It  is  knows  that  basically  all  transplants  costs  a  lot;  even  if  most  of  the  amount  is  paid  by  the  insurance  company.  The  costs  that  cover  this  are;  the  physician  fee,  admission  fee,  procurement,  post-­‐transplant  admission,  30-­‐day  pre-­‐transplant  fee  and  Immuno-­‐suppressant  fee.  (see  figure  4  for  transplant  fees.)The  fee  also  depends  on  how  serious  the  case  is  and  what  type  of  lung  transplant  is  wanted-­‐  Single  Lung,  Double  Lungs  or  Heart-­‐Lung  Transplant.  It  is  mostly  the  high  status  people  who  have  economic  means  support  who  are  able  to  spend  this  much  money  without  any  worry  for  the  transplant  surgery.  The  U.S.  Average  2008  First-­‐year  Billed  Charges  for  a  Single  lung  was  $450,  400;  Double  lung  
    • Vidisha  Singh  transplant  cost  was  $657,  800  and  Heart-­‐Lung  transplant  cost  $1,  123,  800  in  2008.  Normally  this  issue  concerns  a  lot  of  people  because  of  their  economic  means  support  and  the  insurance  support.       Figure  4:  Fees  covered  in  the  transplant  (Financing  A  Transplant,  2010)   This  lung  transplant  essay  covered  the  topics  of  what  lungs  are,  reasons  for  lung  transplant,  basic  procedure  of  lung  transplants,  the  advantages  and  the  disadvantages  and  the  One-­‐World  Issue.  My  belief  and  view  on  lung  transplant  is  that  the  cultural-­‐ethical  belief  of  different  people  is  quite  interesting  because  of  difference  of  thoughts  and  opinions,  another  thing  that  takes  me  back  is  the  precautions,  the  symptoms  before  and  after  the  lung  transplant,  it  is  quite  fascinating  how  the  science  developed  and  is  developing.  To  help  resolve  some  problems  dealing  with  Cultural-­‐Ethical  Belief  is  a  very  complicated  and  almost  impossible  complication  to  resolve,  because  a  group’s  law,  customs  and  rules  cannot  be  changed  unless  their  leader/holy  book  or  sprit  advises  them  to.  Though  one  thing  
    • Vidisha  Singh  could  be  changed  that  is  the  reason  why  lung  transplant  are  happening,  if  people  manage  to  stop  drugging  their  lungs  or  using  any  material  or  object  that  harms  that  part,  then  it  would  be  more  convenient,  untroubled  and  life  saving  method  to  follow.      
    • Vidisha  Singh   Works Cited"Admin. How Organ Transplants Work." Kidney Friends. Kidney Friends, 19 Aug. 2008. Web.13 Mar. 2011. <http://www.shenyounet.com/en/?p=140>.    "American Red Cross."American Red Cross. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Mar. 2011.<http://www.redcross.org/donate/tissue/relgstmt.html#Jehovahs>."BBC - Religions - Shinto: Organ donation." BBC - Homepage. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Mar. 2011.<http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/shinto/shintoethics/organs.shtml>.Bowden, Vicky R. "Children and Their Families: The ..." Google Books. Web. 14 Mar. 2011.<http://www.google.com/#sclient=psy&hl=en&qscrl=1&q=some%20culture%20dont%20allow%20organ%20transplantation%3F&qscrl=1&aq=&aqi=&aql=&oq=&pbx=1&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.&fp=ea2f9aa1ff7c4ad2&pf=p&pdl=3000transplantation?&source=bl&ots=eB8FWEdPCp&sig=8DHjIeFfQzc2RhqCAd8JztzPWgw&hl=en&ei=uAd7TZzGJYXyvQOuhM3SBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=7&sqi=2&ved=0CEAQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q&f=false>.Contributor, An eHow. "How Much Does a Lung Transplant Cost? | EHow.com." EHow | HowTo Do Just About Everything! | How To Videos & Articles | EHow.com. Web. 14 Mar. 2011.<http://www.ehow.com/about_4673807_much-does-lung-transplant-cost.html>."Financing a Transplant: The Costs." Transplant Living: Your Perscription for TransplantInformation. United Network of Organ Sharing. Web. 13 Mar. 2011.<http://www.transplantliving.org/beforethetransplant/finance/costs.aspx>.Harris, Tom. "HowStuffWorks "Egyptian Embalming"."Howstuffworks "Science". N.p., n.d.Web. 14 Mar. 2011. <http://science.howstuffworks.com/mummy2.htm>."HowStuffWorks "Egyptian Embalming"" Howstuffworks "Science" Web. 13 Mar. 2011.<http://science.howstuffworks.com/mummy2.htm>.InteliHealth:. Web. 12 Mar. 2011.<http://www.intelihealth.com/IH/ihtIH/WSIHW000/9339/31212.html>."Lung Transplant." HealthCentral.com - Trusted, Reliable and Up To Date Health Information.Web. 12 Mar. 2011. <http://www.healthcentral.com/ency/408/003010.html?ic=506048>."Lung Transplantation." Cystic Fibrosis Education. Web. 13 Mar. 2011.<http://www.cfeducation.ca/en/lungtrans.aspx#Whataresomeofthebenefitsoflungtransplantation>"One World Essay Organ Transplant." Upload & Share PowerPoint Presentations andDocuments. Web. 13 Mar. 2011. <http://www.slideshare.net/imdoldoli/one-world-essay-organ-transplant>.Woodard, Lee. "What Do the Lungs Do? | EHow.com." EHow | How To Do Just AboutEverything! | How To Videos & Articles | EHow.com. Web. 13 Mar. 2011.<http://www.ehow.com/about_5372527_do-lungs-do.html>.