ENGLISH PHONOLOGY: PRONUNCIATION LESSON 1 FEATURES OF PRONUNCIATION The Description of SpeechMgs. Nina Nesterenko
PhonemesPhonemes are considered the basic unit of phonology.The word phoneme is of Greek origin that means sound. Phonemes are speech sounds as they are perceived, that is to say, it is pronunciation “A phoneme is a perceived unit of language that signals a difference in meaning when contrasted to another”Whenever we think of the individual sounds that are combined tomake up a word, we always think in terms of phonemes. When welearn a new word, we should try to think about its phoneticpronunciation. We also use phonemes as a reference point forspelling.
Phonemes help us distinguish an uttered (spoken) wordfrom its written form. EX: log dog fog mob sob bob- Rhyme - similar phonemes“Pig Latin”- shifting vowel and consonant sounds. Ex: mess → essmay chick → ickchay father → atherfay star → arstay- telephone connection- accents: difficulty in understanding a foreigner speaking your native language.
Features of Pronunciation supra- segmental segmental diphthongs voicedvowels thriphthongs consonants voiceless shortSingle long B C D F G H J K L M N P Q R S T V X Z W Y
rhythm intonation length supra-segmental syllable tone elements ofstructure speech utterance pitch stress word sentence stress stress
1.THE PHYSIOLOGICAL DIFFERENCE - the way the sounds are produced.2. ACOUSTIC DIFFERENCE - auditory quality of sounds3. ROLE IN THE SYLLABLE - vowels are usually the centre or nucleus of the syllable; consonants are marginal Ex: dog, sail, book, phone, beau-ti-ful, di-ffi-cult4. VOICING - activity of the vocal cords. belief - believe baθ - baðe All vowel sounds are voiced
Human Speech Apparatus1. The RESPIRATORY apparatus (lungs) – provides the air which is used in the pro- duction of most speech sounds. 2. The LARYNX (vocal cords)- generates most of the energy in speech sounds.3. The SUPRAGLOTTAL CAVITIES(mouth, pharynx, nasal cavity), which act as resonators for the laryngeal tone
According to their functions, the organs of speechare sub-divided into: ARTICULATORS andPLACES ( POINTS) OF ARTUCULATION The articulators are movable parts of the vocal tract. They are organs or parts of organs that produce speech .
Lower lip production of p, b, m, t, vTongue, andits three parts: Tip Thin, then, din, line Middle Sin, chin, join Back Goal, coal, coldVocal cords All sounds
The PLACES (points) of Articulation The PLACES (points) of Articulation - place in the vocal tract where there is the greatest degree of air obstructionUpper lip Initial sounds like pill, billUpper front teeth and Initial sounds like fan, vanlower lipLower front teeth, with As in words likethe tip of tongue as articulator. think, thank, this, thoseAlveolar ridge, located Initial sounds in the words likebehind the upper front teeth. ten, den, let, chin.
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