CHAPTER 4LEARNER LANGUAGEPSYCHOLOGY AND LANGUAGELEARNING
CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS, ERRORANALYSIS, ANDINTERLANGUAGEThe strong version of the contrastive analysis hypothesis isassociated with Charles Fries and Robert Lado. It predictsthat second language learners will have difficulty withaspects (structures, or vocabulary) which differ from their firstlanguage, and conversely no problems with aspects whichare similar in their first language.This approach, which developed during the 1970s, becameknown as “error analysis” and involved detailed descriptionand analysis of the kinds of errors second language learnersmake.
CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS, ERRORANALYSIS, ANDINTERLANGUAGEFahrettin ŞANAL in his paper mention that:a. Identification of errorsThere are those so-called “errors” or “mistakes” that are more correctlydescribed as lapses. A mistake refers to a performance error, it is afailure to make use of a known system. Everybody makes mistakes inboth native and second language situations. Normally native speakersare able to recognize and correct such “lapses” or “mistakes” whichare not the result of a deficiency incompetence, but the result of imperfection in the process of producingspeech(Brown 1987).Errors are deviances that are due to deficient competence (i-e“knowledge” of the language, which may or may not be conscious). Asthey are due to deficient competence they tend to be systematic andnot self correctable. Whereas “mistakes” or “lapses” that are due toperformance deficiencies and arise from lack of attention, slips ofmemory, anxiety possibly caused by pressure of time etc. They are not
CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS, ERRORANALYSIS, ANDINTERLANGUAGEb. Description of errorsAs we know error analysis is a comparative process. So, in order todescribe the errors, in a way, we use a special case of contrastiveanalysis, and we compare synonymous utterances in the learner‟sdialect and the target language, in other words we compare“erroneous utterance” and “reconstructed utterance”.(Corder 1973)According to Corder‟s model (1973) any sentence uttered by thesubsequently transcribed can be analyzed for idiosyncrasies. A majordistinction is made between “overt” and “covert” errors.(Brown 1987).c. Explanation of errors (Tracing errors to their sources)In order to arrive at effective remedial measures the analyst mustunderstand fully the mechanism that triggers each type of error.(Şanal2007).The source of an error could be Interlanguage orIntralanguage.(Richards 1971)
CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS, ERRORANALYSIS, ANDINTERLANGUAGE1. Errors caused by negative transferIf the learner of a foreign language makes some mistakes in thetarget language by the effect of his mother tongue, that is calledas Interlanguage errors. For example, any Turkish speakerlearning English may say, “Ahmet Fatma ile evlendi.” in hismother tongue, and he may transfer his old habit to the targetlanguage.(Altunkaya 1985) The result would be “Ahmet marriedwith Fatma.” Which is not acceptable in English.2. Errors caused by the target languageLearners may make mistakes in the target language, since theydon‟t knowthe target language very well, they have difficulties in using it .Forexample, theymay say “mans” instead of saying “men” as the plural form of“man”. In thatway the learner overgeneralize the use of plural suffixes
INTERLAGUAGE: A learner´s developingsecond language knwoledge. It may havecharacteristics of the learner´s first language,characteristics of the second language, andsome characteristics that seem to be verygeneral and tend to occur in all or mostinterlanguage systemss. Internlanguage aresystematic, but they are slado dynamic. Theychange as learners receive more input andrevise theyri hypothesis abotu the secondlanguage.CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS, ERRORANALYSIS, ANDINTERLANGUAGE
CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS, ERRORANALYSIS, ANDINTERLANGUAGERichards (19719 focuses on intralanguage/developmentalerrors and distinguishes four types of developmental errors. Overgeneralization Ignorance of rule restriction Incomplete application of rule False concepts hypothesized.The problem with this classification is that it‟s difficult todistinguish between these types.
DEVELOPMENTALSEQUENCESAcquisition of Grammatical Morphemes : Order andSequence Much of the early research focussed on the order ofacquisition while subsequent research hasincreasingly paid attention to sequence of stagesevident in the acquisition of a single feature as well asorder. Morphemes are the smallest meaningful units of alanguage. Eg: developmental = develop + ment + al Early studies of the acquisition of grammaticalmorphemes such as plural –s and articles producedmixed results. The morpheme order acquisition is not the same in L1and L2 acquisition. Dulay and Burt (1974), studied the acquisition of 10grammatical morphemes by children learning Englishas a second language .
The Acquisition of Grammatical Morphemes : Order and Sequence Using the „Bilingual Syntax Measure‟ they counted morpheme use inobligatory contexts, that is, a context where the item was obligatoryincorrect native speaker speech. They compared the acquisition order they obtained with the acquisitionorder for the same morphemes obtained in both longitudinal studies andcross-sectional of L1 English. They found that the orders were different. Articles, copula and auxiliary „be‟ were acquired earlier by L2 learnerswhile irregular past tense was acquired later. The process by which individual morphemes are acquired displays bothsimilarities and differences. For example: both L1 and L2 learners omit pronouns and they bothovergeneralize individual pronouns. In general , the morpheme acquisition order studies appear to showstrong evidence of a natural sequence, but there is also evidence thatDEVELOPMENTALSEQUENCES
Acquisition of Tense and Aspect• The morpheme studies belong to an early period in SLA (the 1970sand 1980s),however, tense and aspect, both of which involve theacquisition of morphological features, have been studied intensively inSLA in more recent years. Studies of the acquisition of tense and aspect lend strong support tothe existence of developmental patterns in L2 acquisition. Learners of different L2s manifest similar patterns of developmentwhen acquiring tense and aspect. Klein (1995), identified the following order of acquisition of Englishtense-aspect morphological forms in a longitudinal study of an Italianlearner:Third person – s and present tense copula; Irregular past tense formsand verb-ingPresent perfect forms; Regular past tense forms; Future with „shall‟ or„will ‟;DEVELOPMENTALSEQUENCES
DEVELOPMENTALSEQUENCESAcquisition of Tense and AspectProposed „natural order‟ for L2 acquisitionIngPluralCopulaAuxiliaryArticleI. PastR. PastIII SingularPossessive
DEVELOPMENTALSEQUENCESAcquisition of Syntactic Structures – Negatives• A number of studies which examined the acquisition ofnegatives in English and German provide evidence of aclear sequence of development.• The acquisition of negation shows clear transitionalstructures which involves a series of forms which learnersuse en route to mastering the target language form.• EXAMPLES OF ENGLISH: no swim (at the beginning of the utterance) – externalnegation I no can swim (the negative article comes inside theutterance) internal negation I can‟t swim (negative is attached to modal verbs)• These forms are indicative of the developmental stages thatlearners pass through on the way to TL competence.Examples of negatives : no, not, don‟t, doesn‟t, didn‟t won‟t,can‟t
DEVELOPMENTALSEQUENCESAcquisition of Syntactic Structures - RelativeClauses• Studies on the acquisition of relative clausesalso provide evidence of an order of acquisition.• There is evidence that learners solve itpiecemeal by learning to modify noun phrasesbefore the verb, and then noun phrases thatfollow the verb.Examples :„A beautiful girl who lives nextdoor.‟ „I got a friend who speaks fluentEnglish.‟• Also, learners acquire the functions that relativepronouns can perform in a fairly well-definedorder.
DEVELOPMENTALSEQUENCESThe Acquisition of Syntactic StructuresThe ZISA project and research based on Pienamann‟sProcessibility Theory have provided impressive evidence toshow that learners acquire a range of features in a predictableorder.STAGE L2 PROCESS MORPHOLOGY / SYNTAX6 Main and subordinateclausesEmbedded questions: „Iwonder why he sold the car‟5 Subject-verb agreement 3rd person-s: „This man owns adog4 Inversion Yes/no inversion: „Has he seenyou?‟3 Noun phrase agreement Plural: „He own many dogs‟Adverb: „He sleeps always.‟2 Plural/possessive pronoun Canonical order (Subject- verb-object: „He buy car.‟1 Invariant forms Single constituent
The Acquisition of Vocabulary• Two broad approaches to the study of developmental patterns in theacquisition of vocabulary can be identified:1) Longitudinal studies ofL2 learners productive vocabulary2) Experimental studies oflearners‟ acquisition of individual words• L2 acquisition, like the acquisition of grammar, is a slow and gradualprocess.• Learners gradually extend their lexicons while simultaneouslyaccumulating knowledge of lexical forms and meanings.• However, there is little evidence of any order or sequence.• There is some evidence that early acquisition is characterized bynouns and adjectives, with verbs only appearing later.• But there does not seem to be any clear hierarchy in learners‟acquisition of the properties of individual words.• It is important to note that vocabulary constitutes an open systemthat is not subject to „rules‟ in the same way as grammar orphonology• The acquisition of vocabulary is seen as involving item rather thanDEVELOPMENTAL SEQUENCES
Acquisition of Phonology• Similarities are also evident in the acquisition of phonology,despite the fact that L2 learners are known to transferfeatures from their L1.• Abrahamson (2003), claimed that closed syllable structureis essentially the same for L1 and L2 learners.• When faced with articulating a closed syllable such as „sad‟learners are likely to either omit the final consonant (i.e.Say „sa‟), add a vowel (i.e. Say „sadi‟), or devoice the /d/(i.e. Say „sat‟)• Thus, learners‟ acquisition of closed syllable structureshows a staged progression from consonant deletion toepenthesis to feature substitution to target form.Taken from http://www.slideshare.net/Xfsams/developmental-sequences-in-learner-languageDEVELOPMENTALSEQUENCES
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