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Dra. ROSARIO MARIA BURNEO MASTER OF ARTS ESCUELA :  Lenguas NOMBRES: FECHA : SYNTAX
ENGLISH  SYNTAX <ul><li>SECOND BIMESTER  UNITS 4, 5 AND 6 </li></ul>
<ul><li>Dear students: </li></ul><ul><li>Please study hard and keep in mind that you are  great and smart students and the...
MODIFICATION <ul><li>Modification is the use of words or structures to give more information about the person, thing, acti...
ADJECTIVES <ul><li>The category “adjective” is an open class. It means that there are many adjectives in English. </li></u...
TYPES OF ADJECTIVES <ul><li>This  category includes: </li></ul><ul><li>Typical adjectives (tall),  </li></ul><ul><li>Prese...
TYPES OF ADJECTIVES <ul><li>Also nouns might function as adjectives. </li></ul><ul><li>They are called Denominal adjective...
PREDICATE ADJECTIVES <ul><li>Predicate adjectives follow copula verbs. </li></ul><ul><li>Your career is important. </li></...
Types of  adjectives <ul><li>Postnominal adjectives occur after the noun they modify. </li></ul><ul><li>Typical adjectives...
COPULA VERBS <ul><li>A copula verb links a subject to a complement in a sentence.  </li></ul><ul><li>The verb BE is usuall...
ADJECTIVE COMPLEMENTS <ul><li>Adjective complements complete the meaning of some adjectives like  fond, aware, etc. </li><...
ADVERBIALS <ul><li>The term ‘adverbial’ includes all structures functioning as adverbs. PPs, typical adverbs, adverb phras...
LOCATIVE ADVERBS <ul><li>Locative adverbs:  adverbs of place </li></ul><ul><li>adverbs of direction </li></ul><ul><li>My h...
Temporal Adverbs <ul><li>Adverbs of point on time indicate when an event occurs. </li></ul><ul><li>They can show: </li></u...
Temporal Adverbs <ul><li>c.  Time frame bound on both  sides. </li></ul><ul><li>The meeting  is from 10 to 12 </li></ul><u...
Temporal Adverbs <ul><li>Adverbs of frequency specify how often an event occurs. </li></ul><ul><li>He visits us twice a ye...
Temporal Adverbs <ul><li>Time relationship adverbs communicate a time in relation to some other time. </li></ul><ul><li>I ...
Adverbs of Manner and Means <ul><li>Adverbs of manner indicate how something is done </li></ul><ul><li>The President acted...
Adverbs of Reason/purpose   <ul><li>Adverbs of reason and purpose indicate why something happens. </li></ul><ul><li>Elizab...
CLAUSES <ul><li>A clause is a syntactic structure larger than a phrase. It has two main constituents: a noun phrase that f...
Constituents <ul><li>A constituent is a string of words grammatically structured and which expresses meaning. </li></ul><u...
Constituents… <ul><li>A constituent has these characteristics: </li></ul><ul><li>- It behaves distributinally. For example...
Constituents… <ul><li>- A constituent can be coordinated with another similar structure. For example, two noun phrases can...
Constituents… <ul><li>It can be replaced by a proform.  </li></ul><ul><li>Martha said that she will cook dinner, and so  s...
Constituents... <ul><li>- It can be omitted under appropriate discourse conditions. A constituent can be omitted to avoid ...
OPERATIONS TO JOIN CLAUSES : coordination and suordination <ul><li>Coordination joins two or more structures of the same t...
Correlative Conjunctions <ul><li>Correlative Conjunctions (both…and, …) might express conjunction, disjunction and alterna...
Conjunctive Adverbs <ul><li>Conjunctive Adverbs (therefore, however..) link clauses where one is the consequence of the ot...
Subordination <ul><li>Subordination joins a dependent clause to an independent clause. </li></ul><ul><li>Mike looked up  w...
RELATIVE CLAUSES <ul><li>Relative clauses are noun clauses that may refer to  noun phrases in different positions: </li></...
Continues… <ul><li>THAT refers to people and things, and it refers back to the subject. </li></ul><ul><li>The house that i...
Finite and Non-finite Clauses <ul><li>Also we can distinguish  finite  and  non-finite  clauses.  </li></ul><ul><li>Finite...
RESTRICTIVE AND NONRESTRICTIVE RELATIVE CLAUSES <ul><li>Restrictive relative clauses are noun clauses functioning as adjec...
THAT CLAUSES & RELATIVE CLAUSES <ul><li>That clauses fill noun phrase slots. They function as nouns. </li></ul><ul><li>Mar...
OTHER TYPES OF CLAUSES <ul><li>Infinitival Clauses </li></ul><ul><li>Robert wants  to be  happy </li></ul><ul><li>I would ...
ADVERBIAL CLAUSES <ul><li>Adverbial clauses are introduced by words like: after, before, because, if, unless… </li></ul><u...
THE EXTERNAL SYNTAX OF CLAUSES <ul><li>The external syntax refers to the function clauses perform in sentences. </li></ul>...
FUNCTIONS OF CLAUSES <ul><li>Clauses as complements of prepositions. </li></ul><ul><li>Results depend on how data is proce...
FUNCTIONS OF CLAUSES <ul><li>Clauses as complements of nouns </li></ul><ul><li>Mike’s  eagerness  to win the game is amazi...
TRANSFORMATIONS <ul><li>Syntactic Rules to build base structures:. </li></ul><ul><li>- Phrase Structure Rules </li></ul><u...
Operations used to apply transformations <ul><li>*  movement </li></ul><ul><li>*  insertion </li></ul><ul><li>*  deletion ...
STRUCTURAL DESCRIPTION AND STRUCTURAL CHANGE <ul><li>Structural description refers to any string of words that can be anal...
TRANSFORMATION RULES <ul><li>NP-Aux. Inversion Rule </li></ul><ul><li>WH-Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Negative Insertion Rul...
BE HAPPY <ul><li>THANK YOU </li></ul><ul><li>GOD BLESS YOU </li></ul>
 
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Syntax

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Nos da aconocer la sintaxis de las palabras en ingles

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  1. 1. Dra. ROSARIO MARIA BURNEO MASTER OF ARTS ESCUELA : Lenguas NOMBRES: FECHA : SYNTAX
  2. 2. ENGLISH SYNTAX <ul><li>SECOND BIMESTER UNITS 4, 5 AND 6 </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Dear students: </li></ul><ul><li>Please study hard and keep in mind that you are great and smart students and the best human beings in the whole world. </li></ul>
  4. 4. MODIFICATION <ul><li>Modification is the use of words or structures to give more information about the person, thing, action or quality being modified. </li></ul><ul><li>Traditionally, modification relations are classified in two categories: adjectives and adverbs. </li></ul><ul><li>Adjectives modify nouns. </li></ul><ul><li>While adverbs might modify verbs, adjectives and other adverbs </li></ul>
  5. 5. ADJECTIVES <ul><li>The category “adjective” is an open class. It means that there are many adjectives in English. </li></ul><ul><li>Adjectives can be compared and intensified. </li></ul><ul><li>Adjectives are “content words” </li></ul>
  6. 6. TYPES OF ADJECTIVES <ul><li>This category includes: </li></ul><ul><li>Typical adjectives (tall), </li></ul><ul><li>Present participles forms (charming), which describe ongoing situations; and, </li></ul><ul><li>Past participles forms (broken), which describe resultant states. </li></ul>
  7. 7. TYPES OF ADJECTIVES <ul><li>Also nouns might function as adjectives. </li></ul><ul><li>They are called Denominal adjectives. </li></ul><ul><li>The history class is tomorrow </li></ul><ul><li>Prenominal adjectives go before the noun they modify. They can modify almost any noun in English. </li></ul><ul><li>I bought an old house </li></ul>
  8. 8. PREDICATE ADJECTIVES <ul><li>Predicate adjectives follow copula verbs. </li></ul><ul><li>Your career is important. </li></ul><ul><li>Peter is handsome </li></ul><ul><li>This frog is beautiful </li></ul>
  9. 9. Types of adjectives <ul><li>Postnominal adjectives occur after the noun they modify. </li></ul><ul><li>Typical adjectives and Prepositional Phrases appear in postnominal position. </li></ul><ul><li>- The people present were happy </li></ul><ul><li>- The girl in blue is my sister </li></ul>
  10. 10. COPULA VERBS <ul><li>A copula verb links a subject to a complement in a sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>The verb BE is usually known as a copula, but some linking verbs (become, look, seem, feel) also perform this function. </li></ul><ul><li>My children are very young </li></ul><ul><li>He feels tired </li></ul>
  11. 11. ADJECTIVE COMPLEMENTS <ul><li>Adjective complements complete the meaning of some adjectives like fond, aware, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Mike is fond of his profession </li></ul><ul><li>Prepositional phrases function as adjective complements </li></ul>
  12. 12. ADVERBIALS <ul><li>The term ‘adverbial’ includes all structures functioning as adverbs. PPs, typical adverbs, adverb phrases and clauses might function as adverbials. </li></ul><ul><li>Adverbs tell you where, when, how long, how, why, how often, to what extent, and under what condition something happens. </li></ul>
  13. 13. LOCATIVE ADVERBS <ul><li>Locative adverbs: adverbs of place </li></ul><ul><li>adverbs of direction </li></ul><ul><li>My history book in on that desk (place) </li></ul><ul><li>They walked down this street (direction) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Temporal Adverbs <ul><li>Adverbs of point on time indicate when an event occurs. </li></ul><ul><li>They can show: </li></ul><ul><li>a. Specific time frame. </li></ul><ul><li>Our class is at 5 p.m. </li></ul><ul><li>b. Time frame bound on one side </li></ul><ul><li>You must be back at noon </li></ul>
  15. 15. Temporal Adverbs <ul><li>c. Time frame bound on both sides. </li></ul><ul><li>The meeting is from 10 to 12 </li></ul><ul><li>d. Vague time frame (not specific). </li></ul><ul><li>We plan to visit Chile someday </li></ul>
  16. 16. Temporal Adverbs <ul><li>Adverbs of frequency specify how often an event occurs. </li></ul><ul><li>He visits us twice a year </li></ul><ul><li>Adverbs of duration indicate for how long an event lasts. </li></ul><ul><li>They will be here for two weeks </li></ul>
  17. 17. Temporal Adverbs <ul><li>Time relationship adverbs communicate a time in relation to some other time. </li></ul><ul><li>I lost my cell phone again </li></ul>
  18. 18. Adverbs of Manner and Means <ul><li>Adverbs of manner indicate how something is done </li></ul><ul><li>The President acted very coldly </li></ul><ul><li>Steven learns math easily </li></ul><ul><li>Adverbs of means indicate by what method something is done They usually indicate the instrument used to do something </li></ul><ul><li>I cut my finger with a knife </li></ul>
  19. 19. Adverbs of Reason/purpose <ul><li>Adverbs of reason and purpose indicate why something happens. </li></ul><ul><li>Elizabeth killed herself for love (reason) </li></ul><ul><li>Bob studied hard for the context (purpose) </li></ul>
  20. 20. CLAUSES <ul><li>A clause is a syntactic structure larger than a phrase. It has two main constituents: a noun phrase that functions as the subject, and a verb phrase that functions as the predicate. </li></ul><ul><li>word: people </li></ul><ul><li>phrase: these people </li></ul><ul><li>clause: these people live in a small town </li></ul>
  21. 21. Constituents <ul><li>A constituent is a string of words grammatically structured and which expresses meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>Noun phrases, verbs phrases, prepositional phrases, adjectival phrases and adverbial phrases are regarded as constituents. </li></ul><ul><li>Besides, single words in subject, object, predicate and complement position are seen as constituents. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Constituents… <ul><li>A constituent has these characteristics: </li></ul><ul><li>- It behaves distributinally. For example, a noun phrase can appear in subject or object position. </li></ul><ul><li>The students are in class </li></ul><ul><li>(NP subject) </li></ul>
  23. 23. Constituents… <ul><li>- A constituent can be coordinated with another similar structure. For example, two noun phrases can be joined by the conjunction AND. </li></ul><ul><li>I live here and my brother lives next door </li></ul>
  24. 24. Constituents… <ul><li>It can be replaced by a proform. </li></ul><ul><li>Martha said that she will cook dinner, and so she will </li></ul><ul><li>I like this car because it is fast </li></ul>
  25. 25. Constituents... <ul><li>- It can be omitted under appropriate discourse conditions. A constituent can be omitted to avoid repetition. </li></ul><ul><li>Who took the money? </li></ul><ul><li>Bob did (took the money) </li></ul>
  26. 26. OPERATIONS TO JOIN CLAUSES : coordination and suordination <ul><li>Coordination joins two or more structures of the same type to form a conjoined structure. </li></ul><ul><li>- Conjunction (and) </li></ul><ul><li>- Disjunction (but) </li></ul><ul><li>- Alternation (or) </li></ul>
  27. 27. Correlative Conjunctions <ul><li>Correlative Conjunctions (both…and, …) might express conjunction, disjunction and alternation. </li></ul><ul><li>Both Mike and Peter are good friends </li></ul><ul><li>Either Mike or Vincent will pay the bill </li></ul><ul><li>Not you but your sister broke the cup </li></ul>
  28. 28. Conjunctive Adverbs <ul><li>Conjunctive Adverbs (therefore, however..) link clauses where one is the consequence of the other, or they occur at the same time. They are regarded as discourse markers </li></ul><ul><li>We are poor; therefore, we have to work harder </li></ul>
  29. 29. Subordination <ul><li>Subordination joins a dependent clause to an independent clause. </li></ul><ul><li>Mike looked up when he heard my voice </li></ul><ul><li>Independent clauses can stand alone as full sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent clauses cannot stand alone because they depend on another clause to have full meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>Some workers expected their boss to join them </li></ul>
  30. 30. RELATIVE CLAUSES <ul><li>Relative clauses are noun clauses that may refer to noun phrases in different positions: </li></ul><ul><li>WHO refers to people and replaces NPs in subject position. </li></ul><ul><li>The doctor who is in your office is very upset </li></ul><ul><li>WHICH refers back to noun phrases functioning as subjects, but naming things. </li></ul><ul><li>The car which caused the accident broke down </li></ul>
  31. 31. Continues… <ul><li>THAT refers to people and things, and it refers back to the subject. </li></ul><ul><li>The house that is on sale is old </li></ul><ul><li>The girl that lives next door is very nice </li></ul>
  32. 32. Finite and Non-finite Clauses <ul><li>Also we can distinguish finite and non-finite clauses. </li></ul><ul><li>Finite clauses contain tensed verbs or modals. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-finite clauses have verbs not marked for tense </li></ul>
  33. 33. RESTRICTIVE AND NONRESTRICTIVE RELATIVE CLAUSES <ul><li>Restrictive relative clauses are noun clauses functioning as adjectives. </li></ul><ul><li>The bus which caused the accident broke down </li></ul><ul><li>Non restrictive relative clauses are set off by commas. </li></ul><ul><li>Doctor Bush, who is an old man, is in the hospital </li></ul>
  34. 34. THAT CLAUSES & RELATIVE CLAUSES <ul><li>That clauses fill noun phrase slots. They function as nouns. </li></ul><ul><li>Martha told Sam that her doctor is good </li></ul><ul><li>Relative clauses function as adjectives and they are embedded into noun phrases. </li></ul><ul><li>The car that you sold is n the yard </li></ul>
  35. 35. OTHER TYPES OF CLAUSES <ul><li>Infinitival Clauses </li></ul><ul><li>Robert wants to be happy </li></ul><ul><li>I would prefer for the boys to finish their studies </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect Questions </li></ul><ul><li>The librarian asked which books Sam took </li></ul>
  36. 36. ADVERBIAL CLAUSES <ul><li>Adverbial clauses are introduced by words like: after, before, because, if, unless… </li></ul><ul><li>Marie went to Quito after she finished classes. </li></ul>
  37. 37. THE EXTERNAL SYNTAX OF CLAUSES <ul><li>The external syntax refers to the function clauses perform in sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>Clauses as complements of verbs: </li></ul><ul><li>I asked which car he bought </li></ul><ul><li>Clauses as complements of adjectives </li></ul><ul><li>Michael is eager to come home </li></ul>
  38. 38. FUNCTIONS OF CLAUSES <ul><li>Clauses as complements of prepositions. </li></ul><ul><li>Results depend on how data is processed. </li></ul>
  39. 39. FUNCTIONS OF CLAUSES <ul><li>Clauses as complements of nouns </li></ul><ul><li>Mike’s eagerness to win the game is amazing </li></ul><ul><li>Clauses as subjects </li></ul><ul><li>That Sam bought a new house surprised me </li></ul>
  40. 40. TRANSFORMATIONS <ul><li>Syntactic Rules to build base structures:. </li></ul><ul><li>- Phrase Structure Rules </li></ul><ul><li>- The Lexicon </li></ul><ul><li>- Lexical Insertion Rule </li></ul>
  41. 41. Operations used to apply transformations <ul><li>* movement </li></ul><ul><li>* insertion </li></ul><ul><li>* deletion </li></ul><ul><li>* copying </li></ul>
  42. 42. STRUCTURAL DESCRIPTION AND STRUCTURAL CHANGE <ul><li>Structural description refers to any string of words that can be analyzed (NP + VP + NP) </li></ul><ul><li>Structural Change to the transformations that can be applied to a basic structure. Deletion, insertion, copying and movement are the types of structural change. </li></ul>
  43. 43. TRANSFORMATION RULES <ul><li>NP-Aux. Inversion Rule </li></ul><ul><li>WH-Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Negative Insertion Rule </li></ul><ul><li>Passive Transformation Rule </li></ul><ul><li>VP deletion </li></ul><ul><li>Existential Construction </li></ul><ul><li>Tag Question Rule </li></ul>
  44. 44. BE HAPPY <ul><li>THANK YOU </li></ul><ul><li>GOD BLESS YOU </li></ul>
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