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SYNTAX (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)
SYNTAX (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)
SYNTAX (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)
SYNTAX (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)
SYNTAX (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)
SYNTAX (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)
SYNTAX (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)
SYNTAX (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)
SYNTAX (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)
SYNTAX (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)
SYNTAX (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)
SYNTAX (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)
SYNTAX (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)
SYNTAX (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)
SYNTAX (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)
SYNTAX (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)
SYNTAX (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)
SYNTAX (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)
SYNTAX (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)
SYNTAX (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)
SYNTAX (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)
SYNTAX (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)
SYNTAX (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)
SYNTAX (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)
SYNTAX (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)
SYNTAX (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)
SYNTAX (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)
SYNTAX (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)
SYNTAX (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)
SYNTAX (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)
SYNTAX (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)
SYNTAX (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)
SYNTAX (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)
SYNTAX (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)
SYNTAX (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)
SYNTAX (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)
SYNTAX (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)
SYNTAX (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)
SYNTAX (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)
SYNTAX (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)
SYNTAX (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)
SYNTAX (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)
SYNTAX (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)
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SYNTAX (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)

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Universidad Técnica Particualr de Loja …

Universidad Técnica Particualr de Loja
Ciclo Académico Abril Agosto 2011
Carrera: Inglés
Docente: Dra. Rosario María Burneo Burneo
Ciclo: Quinto
Bimestre: Segundo

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  • 1. English Syntax ESCUELA : NOMBRES: Ciencias de la Educación, Mención Inglés Mgs. Rosario María Burneo BIMESTRE: Second Bimester Abril Agosto 2011
  • 2. TE X TO GUIA : <ul><li>AN INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH SYNTAX By Jim Miller </li></ul>
  • 3. Pay attention <ul><li>Por favor, prepare sus preguntas con anticipación. Estas serán respondidas al final de esta presentación </li></ul>
  • 4. Clauses II Clause and Sentence A clause is a structure built by two main constituents: a noun phrase (subject) and a verb phrase (predicate). It expresses one single idea. Sam built a new house NP VP
  • 5. A sentence <ul><li>It is more complex than a clause </li></ul><ul><li>A sentence can include two or more clauses. </li></ul><ul><li>It usually expresses more than one idea. </li></ul><ul><li>Sentences can be complex or compound. </li></ul><ul><li>She cooks lunch and he sets the table </li></ul><ul><li>Sam didn’t know how to fix his car </li></ul>
  • 6. Main and Subordinate Clauses CLAUSES MAIN full meaning SUBORDINATE Not full meaning
  • 7. Subordinate clauses <ul><li>Subordinate clauses have some characteristics. </li></ul><ul><li>They cannot stand on their own. </li></ul><ul><li>They are to a large extent grammatically independent from the main clause. </li></ul><ul><li>The choice of the verb and complements are not controlled by the main clause. </li></ul><ul><li>The farm which I bought is very small </li></ul>
  • 8. Differences <ul><li>allows a variety of constructions; </li></ul><ul><li>- allows all distinctions of aspect, tense, and mood. </li></ul><ul><li>-allows tag questions . </li></ul><ul><li>appears in the declarative form only; </li></ul><ul><li>usually does not express full meaning by itself </li></ul>Main clause Subordinate clause
  • 9. Clauses III Finite clauses tensed verbs and modal auxiliaries Non-finite clauses Verbs in the bare form, or the infnitive form 1 2
  • 10. Examples of non-finite clauses <ul><li>Victoria lives in a small town </li></ul><ul><li>(finite clause, tensed verb) </li></ul><ul><li>Victoria wanted to marry Peter </li></ul><ul><li>(reduced, non-finite, infinitive) </li></ul><ul><li>Fanny enjoyed talking to Mr. Jones (reduced, gerund, non-finite) </li></ul>
  • 11. Examples of non-finite clauses <ul><li>He saw the thief climb in the window. ( bare, non-finite) </li></ul><ul><li>He saw the thief climbing in the window . </li></ul><ul><li>( gerund, non-finite) </li></ul><ul><li>The man reading the newspaper did not listen to me. </li></ul><ul><li>(reduced, relative, non-finite) </li></ul>
  • 12. Grammatical functions Functions Subject Direct object Indirect object Oblique object Roles Agent Patient Instrument A B
  • 13. The Subject <ul><li>The subject is a complex grammatical function. It has some characteristics: </li></ul><ul><li>The subject precedes the verb in declarative statements </li></ul><ul><li>These boys build houses </li></ul><ul><li>2. It agrees in number with the verb </li></ul><ul><li>3. It is compulsory in English structures. </li></ul><ul><li>4. It goes after the preposition BY in passive constructions. </li></ul><ul><li>Houses are built by these boys </li></ul><ul><li>5. Single words, phrases and clauses might appear in subject position </li></ul>
  • 14. Criteria <ul><li>Syntactic criterion </li></ul><ul><li>The subject controls the occurrence of reflexives </li></ul><ul><li>Mike bought himself a computer </li></ul><ul><li>Morpho/syntactic criterion </li></ul><ul><li>The subject is in the nominative case </li></ul><ul><li>Mike is in the nominative case </li></ul><ul><li>Semantic criterion </li></ul><ul><li>Subjects refer to entities that exist independently of the action or state of the verb </li></ul>
  • 15. Types of subject <ul><li>Grammatical subject </li></ul><ul><li>Martha baked a cake </li></ul><ul><li>Martha is the grammatical subject because it has all the characteristics already mentioned. It is also the agent performing the action. </li></ul><ul><li>Logical subject </li></ul><ul><li>A cake was baked by Martha </li></ul><ul><li>Martha is the logical subject, even though it is not in subject position. It is after the preposition. </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological subject </li></ul><ul><li>It is the theme. The entity we are talking about. </li></ul>
  • 16. Direct object <ul><li>In active, declarative clauses, the direct object happens after the main verb </li></ul><ul><li>Martha baked a cake </li></ul><ul><li>Cake = Direct object </li></ul><ul><li>It corresponds to the grammatical subject of passive constructions </li></ul><ul><li>A cake was baked by Martha </li></ul><ul><li>a cake = grammatical subject </li></ul><ul><li>Direct objects typically refer to patients </li></ul><ul><li>He broke the window </li></ul><ul><li>The window = patient (is affected by the action of the verb) </li></ul>
  • 17. Indirect and oblique objects <ul><li>Oblique object refers to the noun phrase that happens after a preposition </li></ul><ul><li>She wrote a message to Sam </li></ul><ul><li>Sam is the oblique object </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect object </li></ul><ul><li>She wrote Sam a message </li></ul><ul><li>Sam is the indirect object </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect object is the NP that benefits from the action of the verb </li></ul>
  • 18. Roles, grammar and meaning Roles are semantic. They are played by participants (nouns) in syntactic constructions. These roles establish some semantic relations and denote several meanings:
  • 19. Semantic roles <ul><li>Semantic roles are the ones that participants play in events and situations. </li></ul><ul><li>They are part of the content of linguistic communication, therefore they are defined in terms of prototypes. </li></ul><ul><li>According to Berk (1999), there are central and peripheral semantic roles. </li></ul><ul><li>Central R oles: agent, patient and instrument </li></ul>
  • 20. Agent <ul><li>AGENT is the typical animate being perceived as the doer of an action (Berk) </li></ul><ul><li>Charles ate all the rice </li></ul><ul><li>The noun “Charles&quot; expresses the AGENT as seen in these structures: </li></ul><ul><li>All the rice was eaten by Charles. </li></ul><ul><li>Why did Charles eat the rice? </li></ul>
  • 21. Patient <ul><li>PATIENT (Berk) is a participant that is affected by the action of a verb. </li></ul><ul><li>She dropped the flowerpot on Charles. </li></ul><ul><li>“ flowerpot&quot; refers to a PATIENT in the example above. </li></ul><ul><li>The more a participant is affected by the action of the verb, the better example of a PATIENT it is. </li></ul>
  • 22. Instrument <ul><li>INST R UMENT (Berk) refers to an &quot;intermediate cause.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Sam broke the window with a hammer. </li></ul><ul><li>“ a hammer&quot; refers to an INST R UMENT which is the intermediate cause. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually an AGENT acts upon an INSTRUMENT, and the INST R UMENT affects the event or situation. </li></ul>
  • 23. Peripheral Roles <ul><li>EXPERIENCER (Berk) refers to an animate entity having a sensory impression or psychological state. </li></ul><ul><li>Edward heard a train coming. </li></ul><ul><li>My dog died </li></ul><ul><li>“ Edward” is who participates in the sensory experience expressed by the verb. </li></ul>
  • 24. Peripheral roles <ul><li>THEME is a participant whose properties, location or involuntary movement is predicated. </li></ul><ul><li>The ball rolled into the kitchen </li></ul><ul><li>The ball is in the kitchen. </li></ul><ul><li>The ball is red. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Ball&quot; refers to the THEME; each clause indicates action, location, or description. </li></ul>
  • 25. Peripheral roles <ul><li>R ECIPIENT is the typically animate endpoint of a transferred item. “Edward&quot; expresses a R ECIPIENT in the following examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Edward received the letter </li></ul><ul><li>BENEFACTIVE is the animate entity that benefits from an action or situation. </li></ul><ul><li>This book is for Martha </li></ul>
  • 26. Criteria for roles <ul><li>R oles are played by nouns. They are assigned to nouns by verbs. </li></ul><ul><li>Sam broke the window </li></ul><ul><li>R oles depend on the type of lexical verb that follows the noun. </li></ul><ul><li>The baby ate the soup </li></ul><ul><li>The baby cries </li></ul>
  • 27. Clauses, sentences and text <ul><li>Clause </li></ul><ul><li>It is a group of words containing a subject (NP) and a predicate (VP) conveying a statement, question, exclamation, or command. </li></ul><ul><li>Sentence </li></ul><ul><li>It is a set of words typically containing more than one clause, and consisting of a main clause and sometimes one or more subordinate clauses </li></ul>
  • 28. Grammar Text Text It is a body of language; it could consist of a single word or phrase like ‘stop' or ‘do not enter” to a paragraph, essay, or complete book; it can be either written or spoken. It refers to “any instance of spoken or written language that could be considered in isolation as a self-sufficient entity“ A coherent stretch of language that may be regarded as an object of critical analysis.
  • 29. Organization of texts <ul><li>The organization of clauses and sentences into a text has to meet some demands: </li></ul><ul><li>To signal the topic of a text; </li></ul><ul><li>What is your proposal about? </li></ul><ul><li>To introduce new entities (new topic of conversation); new entities are introduced with full noun phrases: lexical noun + adjective </li></ul><ul><li>There is a new play on stage </li></ul><ul><li>Someone is at the door </li></ul><ul><li>The tall guy at the door is sad </li></ul>
  • 30. Organization of text <ul><li>To refer to given entities; </li></ul><ul><li>The new play is very good </li></ul><ul><li>It is very good </li></ul><ul><li>The use of pronouns for a given entity applies only if the first and second mentions are not far from each other. </li></ul><ul><li>To highlight information that speakers or writers consider important: </li></ul><ul><li>Clefts </li></ul><ul><li>What you are doing is to cause trouble </li></ul><ul><li>It was very late when they arrived </li></ul>
  • 31. Description of entities <ul><li>New entity: </li></ul><ul><li>A wild onion = first mention, treated as new, indefinite noun phrase. </li></ul><ul><li>Given entity: </li></ul><ul><li>The town of Chicago = given, already mentioned, definite noun phrase </li></ul>
  • 32. Aspect, tense and voice <ul><li>Grammatical devices are central to the organization of text. They are: </li></ul><ul><li>Aspect allows speakers and writers to present events as completed or as ongoing. </li></ul><ul><li>Aspect in English has two forms: perfect and progressive. </li></ul><ul><li>Gabriella is singing outside </li></ul><ul><li>They have played soccer all morning </li></ul>
  • 33. Progressive aspect <ul><li>The progressive has this structure: </li></ul><ul><li>BE + verb + -ing = aspect </li></ul><ul><li>The progressive combines two features: </li></ul><ul><li>Tense is represented by the verb BE </li></ul><ul><li>Aspect is represented by the participle of the main verb. </li></ul><ul><li>Charles is writing a novel </li></ul><ul><li>IS = present tense </li></ul><ul><li>Writing = progressive </li></ul>
  • 34. Aspect <ul><li>Perfect aspect </li></ul><ul><li>This indicates that the action performed by a verb in a clause is completed. </li></ul><ul><li>The perfect aspect is formed by a combination of suffixes and auxiliaries: </li></ul><ul><li>Have + verb + -ed = perfect </li></ul><ul><li>It can be in past and present </li></ul><ul><li>I had finished lunch when he arrived </li></ul><ul><li>Vargas Llosa has written a many of books </li></ul>
  • 35. Present and past perfect <ul><li>The present perfect indicates: </li></ul><ul><li>- An event that began in the past and continues into the present; </li></ul><ul><li>An event that is over, but which has effects in the present; </li></ul><ul><li>An event that has happened in the recent past </li></ul><ul><li>I have lived in Loja for many years </li></ul><ul><li>They have broken the window (now they are fixing it) </li></ul>
  • 36. Aspect <ul><li>The past perfect denotes: </li></ul><ul><li>- An event that happened before another event in the past. </li></ul><ul><li>I had prepared lunch when my son arrived </li></ul><ul><li>Some grammarians also refer to the Simple aspect as in: </li></ul><ul><li>Lucy plays the guitar </li></ul><ul><li>Lucy played the guitar </li></ul>
  • 37. Active, passive, and middle voice <ul><li>Voice presents events from different perspectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Active voice presents an event having the agent in subject position: </li></ul><ul><li>Mary baked a cake </li></ul><ul><li>Passive voice presents an event having the patient in subject position: </li></ul><ul><li>A cake was baked by Mary </li></ul>
  • 38. Passive forms <ul><li>We can choose to keep agent and patient out: </li></ul><ul><li>There was an attack last night </li></ul><ul><li>We want to convey all the details: </li></ul><ul><li>Martha was attacked by a thief </li></ul><ul><li>We want to mention the patient only: </li></ul><ul><li>Martha was attacked yesterday </li></ul><ul><li>The short passive mentions only the patient and it is the most common in speech. </li></ul>
  • 39. Middle passive <ul><li>The middle passive is related to the properties of entities being involved in the proposition. </li></ul><ul><li>This sweater washes easily </li></ul><ul><li>The middle passive can also represent a single episode or event. </li></ul><ul><li>These cars sold very well last year </li></ul>
  • 40. Passive with GET <ul><li>The vase was broken </li></ul><ul><li>It describes an event or a state </li></ul><ul><li>The vase got broken </li></ul><ul><li>It describes an event </li></ul>
  • 41. Questions? Think about Your worst days are never so bad that you are beyond the reach of God’s grace; And your best days are never so good that you are beyond the need of God’s grace.
  • 42. Thank you God Bless You Mgs. Rosario María Burneo [email_address] Phone: 2570275 Ext.2326 Tutoring: 13:00 to 15:00, Monday - Friday
  • 43.  

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