SYNTAX (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)


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Universidad Técnica Particualr de Loja
Ciclo Académico Abril Agosto 2011
Carrera: Inglés
Docente: Dra. Rosario María Burneo Burneo
Ciclo: Quinto
Bimestre: Segundo

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SYNTAX (II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)

  1. 1. English Syntax ESCUELA : NOMBRES: Ciencias de la Educación, Mención Inglés Mgs. Rosario María Burneo BIMESTRE: Second Bimester Abril Agosto 2011
  2. 2. TE X TO GUIA : <ul><li>AN INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH SYNTAX By Jim Miller </li></ul>
  3. 3. Pay attention <ul><li>Por favor, prepare sus preguntas con anticipación. Estas serán respondidas al final de esta presentación </li></ul>
  4. 4. Clauses II Clause and Sentence A clause is a structure built by two main constituents: a noun phrase (subject) and a verb phrase (predicate). It expresses one single idea. Sam built a new house NP VP
  5. 5. A sentence <ul><li>It is more complex than a clause </li></ul><ul><li>A sentence can include two or more clauses. </li></ul><ul><li>It usually expresses more than one idea. </li></ul><ul><li>Sentences can be complex or compound. </li></ul><ul><li>She cooks lunch and he sets the table </li></ul><ul><li>Sam didn’t know how to fix his car </li></ul>
  6. 6. Main and Subordinate Clauses CLAUSES MAIN full meaning SUBORDINATE Not full meaning
  7. 7. Subordinate clauses <ul><li>Subordinate clauses have some characteristics. </li></ul><ul><li>They cannot stand on their own. </li></ul><ul><li>They are to a large extent grammatically independent from the main clause. </li></ul><ul><li>The choice of the verb and complements are not controlled by the main clause. </li></ul><ul><li>The farm which I bought is very small </li></ul>
  8. 8. Differences <ul><li>allows a variety of constructions; </li></ul><ul><li>- allows all distinctions of aspect, tense, and mood. </li></ul><ul><li>-allows tag questions . </li></ul><ul><li>appears in the declarative form only; </li></ul><ul><li>usually does not express full meaning by itself </li></ul>Main clause Subordinate clause
  9. 9. Clauses III Finite clauses tensed verbs and modal auxiliaries Non-finite clauses Verbs in the bare form, or the infnitive form 1 2
  10. 10. Examples of non-finite clauses <ul><li>Victoria lives in a small town </li></ul><ul><li>(finite clause, tensed verb) </li></ul><ul><li>Victoria wanted to marry Peter </li></ul><ul><li>(reduced, non-finite, infinitive) </li></ul><ul><li>Fanny enjoyed talking to Mr. Jones (reduced, gerund, non-finite) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Examples of non-finite clauses <ul><li>He saw the thief climb in the window. ( bare, non-finite) </li></ul><ul><li>He saw the thief climbing in the window . </li></ul><ul><li>( gerund, non-finite) </li></ul><ul><li>The man reading the newspaper did not listen to me. </li></ul><ul><li>(reduced, relative, non-finite) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Grammatical functions Functions Subject Direct object Indirect object Oblique object Roles Agent Patient Instrument A B
  13. 13. The Subject <ul><li>The subject is a complex grammatical function. It has some characteristics: </li></ul><ul><li>The subject precedes the verb in declarative statements </li></ul><ul><li>These boys build houses </li></ul><ul><li>2. It agrees in number with the verb </li></ul><ul><li>3. It is compulsory in English structures. </li></ul><ul><li>4. It goes after the preposition BY in passive constructions. </li></ul><ul><li>Houses are built by these boys </li></ul><ul><li>5. Single words, phrases and clauses might appear in subject position </li></ul>
  14. 14. Criteria <ul><li>Syntactic criterion </li></ul><ul><li>The subject controls the occurrence of reflexives </li></ul><ul><li>Mike bought himself a computer </li></ul><ul><li>Morpho/syntactic criterion </li></ul><ul><li>The subject is in the nominative case </li></ul><ul><li>Mike is in the nominative case </li></ul><ul><li>Semantic criterion </li></ul><ul><li>Subjects refer to entities that exist independently of the action or state of the verb </li></ul>
  15. 15. Types of subject <ul><li>Grammatical subject </li></ul><ul><li>Martha baked a cake </li></ul><ul><li>Martha is the grammatical subject because it has all the characteristics already mentioned. It is also the agent performing the action. </li></ul><ul><li>Logical subject </li></ul><ul><li>A cake was baked by Martha </li></ul><ul><li>Martha is the logical subject, even though it is not in subject position. It is after the preposition. </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological subject </li></ul><ul><li>It is the theme. The entity we are talking about. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Direct object <ul><li>In active, declarative clauses, the direct object happens after the main verb </li></ul><ul><li>Martha baked a cake </li></ul><ul><li>Cake = Direct object </li></ul><ul><li>It corresponds to the grammatical subject of passive constructions </li></ul><ul><li>A cake was baked by Martha </li></ul><ul><li>a cake = grammatical subject </li></ul><ul><li>Direct objects typically refer to patients </li></ul><ul><li>He broke the window </li></ul><ul><li>The window = patient (is affected by the action of the verb) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Indirect and oblique objects <ul><li>Oblique object refers to the noun phrase that happens after a preposition </li></ul><ul><li>She wrote a message to Sam </li></ul><ul><li>Sam is the oblique object </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect object </li></ul><ul><li>She wrote Sam a message </li></ul><ul><li>Sam is the indirect object </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect object is the NP that benefits from the action of the verb </li></ul>
  18. 18. Roles, grammar and meaning Roles are semantic. They are played by participants (nouns) in syntactic constructions. These roles establish some semantic relations and denote several meanings:
  19. 19. Semantic roles <ul><li>Semantic roles are the ones that participants play in events and situations. </li></ul><ul><li>They are part of the content of linguistic communication, therefore they are defined in terms of prototypes. </li></ul><ul><li>According to Berk (1999), there are central and peripheral semantic roles. </li></ul><ul><li>Central R oles: agent, patient and instrument </li></ul>
  20. 20. Agent <ul><li>AGENT is the typical animate being perceived as the doer of an action (Berk) </li></ul><ul><li>Charles ate all the rice </li></ul><ul><li>The noun “Charles&quot; expresses the AGENT as seen in these structures: </li></ul><ul><li>All the rice was eaten by Charles. </li></ul><ul><li>Why did Charles eat the rice? </li></ul>
  21. 21. Patient <ul><li>PATIENT (Berk) is a participant that is affected by the action of a verb. </li></ul><ul><li>She dropped the flowerpot on Charles. </li></ul><ul><li>“ flowerpot&quot; refers to a PATIENT in the example above. </li></ul><ul><li>The more a participant is affected by the action of the verb, the better example of a PATIENT it is. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Instrument <ul><li>INST R UMENT (Berk) refers to an &quot;intermediate cause.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Sam broke the window with a hammer. </li></ul><ul><li>“ a hammer&quot; refers to an INST R UMENT which is the intermediate cause. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually an AGENT acts upon an INSTRUMENT, and the INST R UMENT affects the event or situation. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Peripheral Roles <ul><li>EXPERIENCER (Berk) refers to an animate entity having a sensory impression or psychological state. </li></ul><ul><li>Edward heard a train coming. </li></ul><ul><li>My dog died </li></ul><ul><li>“ Edward” is who participates in the sensory experience expressed by the verb. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Peripheral roles <ul><li>THEME is a participant whose properties, location or involuntary movement is predicated. </li></ul><ul><li>The ball rolled into the kitchen </li></ul><ul><li>The ball is in the kitchen. </li></ul><ul><li>The ball is red. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Ball&quot; refers to the THEME; each clause indicates action, location, or description. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Peripheral roles <ul><li>R ECIPIENT is the typically animate endpoint of a transferred item. “Edward&quot; expresses a R ECIPIENT in the following examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Edward received the letter </li></ul><ul><li>BENEFACTIVE is the animate entity that benefits from an action or situation. </li></ul><ul><li>This book is for Martha </li></ul>
  26. 26. Criteria for roles <ul><li>R oles are played by nouns. They are assigned to nouns by verbs. </li></ul><ul><li>Sam broke the window </li></ul><ul><li>R oles depend on the type of lexical verb that follows the noun. </li></ul><ul><li>The baby ate the soup </li></ul><ul><li>The baby cries </li></ul>
  27. 27. Clauses, sentences and text <ul><li>Clause </li></ul><ul><li>It is a group of words containing a subject (NP) and a predicate (VP) conveying a statement, question, exclamation, or command. </li></ul><ul><li>Sentence </li></ul><ul><li>It is a set of words typically containing more than one clause, and consisting of a main clause and sometimes one or more subordinate clauses </li></ul>
  28. 28. Grammar Text Text It is a body of language; it could consist of a single word or phrase like ‘stop' or ‘do not enter” to a paragraph, essay, or complete book; it can be either written or spoken. It refers to “any instance of spoken or written language that could be considered in isolation as a self-sufficient entity“ A coherent stretch of language that may be regarded as an object of critical analysis.
  29. 29. Organization of texts <ul><li>The organization of clauses and sentences into a text has to meet some demands: </li></ul><ul><li>To signal the topic of a text; </li></ul><ul><li>What is your proposal about? </li></ul><ul><li>To introduce new entities (new topic of conversation); new entities are introduced with full noun phrases: lexical noun + adjective </li></ul><ul><li>There is a new play on stage </li></ul><ul><li>Someone is at the door </li></ul><ul><li>The tall guy at the door is sad </li></ul>
  30. 30. Organization of text <ul><li>To refer to given entities; </li></ul><ul><li>The new play is very good </li></ul><ul><li>It is very good </li></ul><ul><li>The use of pronouns for a given entity applies only if the first and second mentions are not far from each other. </li></ul><ul><li>To highlight information that speakers or writers consider important: </li></ul><ul><li>Clefts </li></ul><ul><li>What you are doing is to cause trouble </li></ul><ul><li>It was very late when they arrived </li></ul>
  31. 31. Description of entities <ul><li>New entity: </li></ul><ul><li>A wild onion = first mention, treated as new, indefinite noun phrase. </li></ul><ul><li>Given entity: </li></ul><ul><li>The town of Chicago = given, already mentioned, definite noun phrase </li></ul>
  32. 32. Aspect, tense and voice <ul><li>Grammatical devices are central to the organization of text. They are: </li></ul><ul><li>Aspect allows speakers and writers to present events as completed or as ongoing. </li></ul><ul><li>Aspect in English has two forms: perfect and progressive. </li></ul><ul><li>Gabriella is singing outside </li></ul><ul><li>They have played soccer all morning </li></ul>
  33. 33. Progressive aspect <ul><li>The progressive has this structure: </li></ul><ul><li>BE + verb + -ing = aspect </li></ul><ul><li>The progressive combines two features: </li></ul><ul><li>Tense is represented by the verb BE </li></ul><ul><li>Aspect is represented by the participle of the main verb. </li></ul><ul><li>Charles is writing a novel </li></ul><ul><li>IS = present tense </li></ul><ul><li>Writing = progressive </li></ul>
  34. 34. Aspect <ul><li>Perfect aspect </li></ul><ul><li>This indicates that the action performed by a verb in a clause is completed. </li></ul><ul><li>The perfect aspect is formed by a combination of suffixes and auxiliaries: </li></ul><ul><li>Have + verb + -ed = perfect </li></ul><ul><li>It can be in past and present </li></ul><ul><li>I had finished lunch when he arrived </li></ul><ul><li>Vargas Llosa has written a many of books </li></ul>
  35. 35. Present and past perfect <ul><li>The present perfect indicates: </li></ul><ul><li>- An event that began in the past and continues into the present; </li></ul><ul><li>An event that is over, but which has effects in the present; </li></ul><ul><li>An event that has happened in the recent past </li></ul><ul><li>I have lived in Loja for many years </li></ul><ul><li>They have broken the window (now they are fixing it) </li></ul>
  36. 36. Aspect <ul><li>The past perfect denotes: </li></ul><ul><li>- An event that happened before another event in the past. </li></ul><ul><li>I had prepared lunch when my son arrived </li></ul><ul><li>Some grammarians also refer to the Simple aspect as in: </li></ul><ul><li>Lucy plays the guitar </li></ul><ul><li>Lucy played the guitar </li></ul>
  37. 37. Active, passive, and middle voice <ul><li>Voice presents events from different perspectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Active voice presents an event having the agent in subject position: </li></ul><ul><li>Mary baked a cake </li></ul><ul><li>Passive voice presents an event having the patient in subject position: </li></ul><ul><li>A cake was baked by Mary </li></ul>
  38. 38. Passive forms <ul><li>We can choose to keep agent and patient out: </li></ul><ul><li>There was an attack last night </li></ul><ul><li>We want to convey all the details: </li></ul><ul><li>Martha was attacked by a thief </li></ul><ul><li>We want to mention the patient only: </li></ul><ul><li>Martha was attacked yesterday </li></ul><ul><li>The short passive mentions only the patient and it is the most common in speech. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Middle passive <ul><li>The middle passive is related to the properties of entities being involved in the proposition. </li></ul><ul><li>This sweater washes easily </li></ul><ul><li>The middle passive can also represent a single episode or event. </li></ul><ul><li>These cars sold very well last year </li></ul>
  40. 40. Passive with GET <ul><li>The vase was broken </li></ul><ul><li>It describes an event or a state </li></ul><ul><li>The vase got broken </li></ul><ul><li>It describes an event </li></ul>
  41. 41. Questions? Think about Your worst days are never so bad that you are beyond the reach of God’s grace; And your best days are never so good that you are beyond the need of God’s grace.
  42. 42. Thank you God Bless You Mgs. Rosario María Burneo [email_address] Phone: 2570275 Ext.2326 Tutoring: 13:00 to 15:00, Monday - Friday