PART I The Context of Second Language Teaching and Learning
Chapter One: The Conceptual Basis of Second Language Teaching and Learning
Chapter Two: The Empirical Basis of Second Language Teaching and Learning
Chapter Three: From the Traditional to the Contemporary In Second Language Teaching and Learning
PART II Language, Learners and the Learning Process
Chapter Four: Focus on Language
Chapter Five: Focus on the Learner
Chapter 1 traces some of the trends and issues emerging from the general educational fields that have had an important influence on the current state of SLTL. This chapter serves as a reminder that the philosophy and principles of second language education are rooted firmly in the field of general education. As language teachers, we are a branch on a much larger tree, and our professional lives will be immeasurably enriched if we are knowledgeable about the rest of the tree.
Experiential learning builds a bridge from the known to the new by taking the learner’s perceptions and experiences as the point of departure for the learning process. Traditional model: Behaviorism Experiential Model: Constructuvism Transmition of knowledge Transforamtion of knowledge Professionalism as individual autonomy Collaborative professionalism Application problem solving Identification of problems Knowledge of facts, concepts and skills, focus on content and product Emphasis on process, learning skills, and social skills Teacher-structure learning Emphasis on learner, self-directed learning. Mainly extrinsic Mainly intrinsic
Deductive learning is a process of adding to our knowledge by working from principles to examples.
In inductive learning one works from examples to principles, rules, and generalizations.
CLT a system for the expression of meanings. THERE ARE MANY WAYS to teach language. One is called Communicative Language Teaching (CLT). This method is learner-centered and emphasizes communication and real-life situations.
In CLT, students practice everyday situations that involve communication, such as asking someone for the time
In CLT, students practice real-life situations, for example, buying food at the market or asking someone for directions. In these exercises, the goal is for the student to communicate his or her needs and thoughts, without worrying about having perfect grammar. In CLT, students practice everyday situations that involve communication, such as asking someone for the time. In CLT, students learn about language in social contexts, such as the difference between speaking with an elder and a peer.
Chapter 2 turns to some of the research that has influenced the current state of SLTL. Again, this is a selective review. To do full justice to the wealth of research in the diverse fields that feed into pedagogy would take several volumes, and a great deal of research is covered in other chapters of the book as well. The author’s principal purpose in this chapter is to put two questions of critical importance to language teachers under the microscope.
What is the relationship between formal instruction and language acquisition?
What tasks and patterns of classroom organization best facilitate second language acquisition?
The chapter therefore looks at research in second language acquisition, classroom interaction, task-based language teaching, and learning styles and strategies.
2. Theoretical Approaches to Explaining SLL Behaviorism Language is the result of imitation, practice, feedback on sucess, and habit formation. Innatism Chomsky : Language develops in the child in the same way that other biological functions develop. Connectionism According to it children are born with a special ability to discover for themselves the underlying rules of a language system. Interactionist Language develops as a result of interplay between the human characteristics of the child and the environment in which the child develops.
The Acquisition/ Learning hypothesis ‘adults have two ways of developing competence in second languages…acquisition, that is by using language for real communication… learning.. “knowing about” language’.
The acquired system is the product of subconcious process similar to the way children pick up their L1.
Chapter 3 is intended to highlight the main issues and themes that emerged from the two main chapters in the section. In this chapter the intention of the author is to do this by drawing a contrast between what, for want of better terms, he has called “traditional” and “contemporary” approaches to SLTL. He realized that in drawing this distinction he runs the risk of placing in conceptual opposition, what are in fact, points on a continuum. So, contemporary practice represents an evolution, and that the best practice incorporates the best of “traditional” practice rather than rejecting it.
Syllabus design has to do with selecting and sequencing content.
Methodology with selecting and sequencing appropriate learning experiences.
Evaluation with appraising learners and determining the effectiveness of the curriculum as a whole.
Traditional and Contemporary Language Classrooms Content and methodology decided with reference to the classroom Content and methodology match learner needs beyond the classroom Learning facts about language rather than how to use it communicatively Learners are actively involved in using language Grammar is taught as rules to be memorized Grammar and language are taught communicatively. Learners do not learn how to become better language learners on their own Learners learn strategies and they apply them to their own learning outside the class. Learners just listen and repeat what the teacher says. They do not express their own ideas. Learners interact with their partners and express their opinions, ideas and feelings.
CONCEPT MAP OF CHAPTER 3 CONTEMPORARY TRENDS Classroom organization and resources Out of class Syllabus design Learner roles Teaching issues Language Issues Learning issues Assessment
Chapter 4, the author looks at language in context, focusing in particular on those aspects of language that can provide teachers with insights for developing materials and pedagogical procedures. In fact, in Section Three of the book, the author draws on the ideas developed here to present some of his own ideas for teaching spoken and written language.
Grammar: A description of the structure of a language and the way in which linguistic units such as words and phrases are combined to produce sentences in the language.
Grammaticality: The conformoty of a sentence or part of a sentence to the rules defined by a particular grammar of the language.
According to Larsen-Freeman grammar has three interrelated dimensions: Form (syntax), meaning (semantics), and use (pragmatics). So, grammar is the study of how form, meaning, and use work together to enable individuals to communicate through language.
Chapter 5 considers the learner. It elaborates on the concept of learners-centeredness presented in Chapter I, and looks at the practical implications of a view of learning that places learners themselves in the center of the process.