Does the organization of the brain for L2 in relation to L1 differ with age acquisition, how it is learned, or level of proficiency?
Vaid (1983) concludes that individuals who acquire L2 later in life show more right hemisphere involvement
Cook suggests that the variation in right hemisphere involvement may be due to the lack of a single route to L2 knowledge
The organization of L2 knowledge is more diffuse for lower levels of proficiency and more compact for highly fluent L2 users.
Do two or more languages show the same sort of loss or disruption after brain damage?
Obler and Gjerlow (1999) conclude rather that a significant factor in initial recovery is which language was most used in the years prior to the incident which caused the damage, whether this is L1 or L2.
Not only can different languages be affected differentially by brain damage, but different abilities in the same language may be differentially impaired.
What is being added in the brain when a second language is acquired is not very different from, nor usually entirely separate from, what is already there for the first.
Learners acquire certain grammatical structures in a developmental sequence.
Developmental sequences reflect how learners overcome processing limitation
Language instruction which targets developmental features will be successful only if learners have already mastered the processing operations which are associated with the precious stage of acquisition
The form of a lexical item is represented by its auditory properties, and its function by its semantic properties; the forms of strings of lexical items are word-order patterns and morphological inflections, and their functions are grammatical
It refers to individuals’ preferred way of processing, conceptualizing, organizing, and recalling information.
It is also related to and interacts with personality factors (imaginative, self-confident, risk-taking, etc) and learning strategies (behaviors and techniques they adopt in their efforts to learn a second language).