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Psichology And Languaje Learning
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Psichology And Languaje Learning


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The study of the people and of the process. …

The study of the people and of the process.
They want to know about the differences and similarities between languages being learned.

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  • Transcript

    • 2.
      • The study of the people and of the process
      • Areas of study are both the formal and informal settings for SLA
      • The broad questions in SLA are:
        • What does the second language learner come to know?
        • How do they come to know it?
        • Why are some more successful than others ?
    • 3.
      • Linguists:
        • They want to know about the differences and similarities between languages being learned
        • They want to understand the linguistic competence, or the underlying knowledge and linguistic performance, or what is being produced, at different stages in the language learning process
      • Sociolinguists:
        • They are interested in how differences in the learners themselves accounts for their communicative competence, or the ability to successfully communicate in the second language
      • Social Psychologists:
        • They are curious about how the social context of learners influences the process
    • 4.
      • They may take one or many approaches to understanding language acquisition but their final goal is to identify the implications of research findings in the teaching realm.
      • They are our allies, as they help us to be scientifically grounded, and therefore, better teachers
    • 5.
      • Each field of SLA study approaches the questions from different angles
      • Sometimes findings conflict and contradict
      • Each offers insight to one or more aspects of this very complicated process
    • 6.
      • Linguistics of Second Language Acquisition
    • 7.
      • What do all languages have in common
        • Languages are systematic
        • Languages are symbolic
        • Languages are social
    • 8.
      • Lexicon (vocabulary)
        • Meaning
        • Pronunciation, spelling,
        • Part of speech
        • Collocations
      • Phonology (sound system)
        • Phonemes (sounds that make a difference in meaning
        • Possible sequences of vowels and consonents
        • Intonation patterns (stress, pitch, duration)
        • Rhythmic patterns (starts and stops)
    • 9.
      • Morphology (word structure)
        • Morphemes
        • Inflections that have grammatical information
        • Suffixes and prefixes that change meaning or grammatical category
      • Syntax (grammar)
        • Word order
        • Agreement between sentence elements (nouns and verbs, articles and gender, etc.)
        • Ways to form questions, negate assertions , etc.
    • 10.
      • Discourse
        • Ways to connect sentences, paragraphs, etc.
        • Ways to tell stories, have conversations, etc.
        • Scripts for interacting and events
    • 11.
      • FACTS:
      • Children come to master all these aspects of language by the time they are 6, with further refinement as they mature and gain more experience
      • Second language learners rarely master all linguistics categories
    • 12.
      • Contrastive Analysis (CA)
        • Predicts and explains SL learner problems by comparing and contrasting L1 and L2
        • Goal was to improve language teaching and testing
    • 13.
      • Assumes language learning to involve mainly habit formation
        • Stimulus-Response-Reinforcement (S-R-R)
    • 14.
      • SLA success in part attributed to the differences and similarities of the L1 and L2
      • More important are insistences of good or poor habit formation
        • Warns against attaining fluency too soon in the SLA process
    • 15.
      • Compares and describes languages level by level in a specific order from smaller to larger units
        • Phonology
        • Morphology
        • Syntax
        • Lexicon (little emphasis)
        • Discourse (very little emphasis)
      • Gives more importance to structure than to meaning for language learning
        • hence the term Structural Linguistics
    • 16.
      • Elements habituated in L1 are applied to the learning of the L2
          • Positive transfer (same structures present in both languages)
            • eg. Plurals indicated by adding an “s” to the end of the noun. This rule is the same in English and in Spanish
          • Negative transfer (when L1 structures are applied when they don’t exist in the L2)
            • eg. Page 36 has several examples
    • 17.
      • Described L1 and L2 at each level
      • Analyzed comparable segments of the languages in search of things that are likely to cause problems for the L2 learner
      • These elements were given attention in the development of lessons and determine
        • What needs to be practiced
        • What order to present structures
    • 18.
      • CA doesn’t explain how learners know more than they have heard or have been taught (Logical problem of language learning)
      • CA analysis not always validated by actual learner errors
        • Some expected errors didn’t happen
        • Some unexpected errors did
        • Not as much positive transfer as expected happened
      • Not very useful as a pedagogical tool
        • Too language specific, doesn’t work in a multilingual L1 classroom (may work better in EFL classrooms
    • 19.  
    • 20.
      • Focus on learners creative abilities
      • Based on actual learner errors, rather than predicted errors
      • By 1970’s had pretty much replaced CA for the following reasons:
        • Real learner errors couldn’t be explained by transfer of L1 to L2
        • Shift in linguistics focus from surface structures to underlying rules
        • Behaviorist assumptions called into question
          • Mentalism (focus on innate capacities)
        • Shift away from purely teaching concerns
        • Norm Chomsky’s theories
    • 21.
      • Inner forces work with environment for language acquisition
        • Child is active participant in the process, not simply the receiver of stimuli
      • Child language and SL learner language come to be regarded in their own right
    • 22.
      • Not considered bad habits
      • Offer insight to the process of language learning
      • Errors are part of learning itself
    • 23.
      • Collected of a sample of learner language
      • Identified errors
        • Errors vs. mistakes
      • Described errors
        • Usually as one of the linguistic categories of language
      • Explained errors
        • Interlingual (interference, techniques from CA)
        • Intralingual
          • Incomplete L2 knowledge
          • Over-generalizing L2 rules
      • Evaluated errors
        • Seriousness of error in communication
    • 24.
      • Ambiguity in classification (how do we really know what has occurred is an error or a mistake?)
      • Lack of positive data
        • What the learner knows
        • Correct use overlooked
      • Potential for avoidance
        • Learners avoid difficult language
    • 25.  
    • 26.
      • Term coined by Larry Selinker in 1972
      • Refers to language states in progress towards the final state of L2
    • 27.
      • Creative process
      • Inner forces in interaction with the environment
      • Influenced by L1 and target language
      • Considered as a language of its own
        • World English?
    • 28.
      • Systematic
        • During stages of L2 development, language is governed by rules or internal grammar
        • Rules can be discovered by analyzing the grammar used by the learner at any point in L2 development
      • Dynamic
        • Rules are frequently changing
          • Succession of interim grammars
          • Moves from plateau to plateau
      • Variable
        • Different contexts results in different language use
      • Reduced system
        • Form
        • Function
    • 29.
      • Boundaries unclear
        • Begins when a person first attempts to express meaning in L2 or when some grammatical structures change?
        • Ends when learning permanently stops
    • 30.
      • Fossilization
        • Disagreement about at what level of L2 achievement is considered to complete the process
          • Accents?
          • Grammatical errors that don't interfere with communication?
    • 31.  
    • 32.
      • Is there a natural order or universal sequence for learning a second language across languages?
        • If so, does L1 transfer really exist?
      • Is this natural order that same in L2A and L1A?
    • 33.
      • L1 and L2 order of acquisition very similar
      • L2 order of acquisition almost identical independent of the L1 of the learner
      • These conclusions provide further evidence of innate language acquisition
      • Later studies made to see if syntactical order the same in L2 acquisition
    • 34.
      • Assumes a Language Acquisition Device
      • Made up of 5 hypotheses
        • Acquisition-learning hypothesis
        • Monitor hypothesis
          • What is learned serves only to alter what has been acquired
        • Natural order hypothesis
        • Input hypothesis (Comprehensible input)
        • Affective Filter Hypothesis
    • 35.
      • This model made a huge impact in the teaching field
        • Communicative approach
          • Indirect grammar teaching
    • 36.
      • Claims not scientifically verifiable
      • Definitions vague and imprecise
    • 37.
      • What is being acquired in SLA is a rule governed system
        • Development is progression through dynamic interlanguage which differs from L1 and from L2
        • Final state of L2 differs from the native speaker system
    • 38.
      • How SLA takes place?
        • Creative mental process
        • Development follows predictable sequences similar for both L1 and L2 acquisition
      • Why some learners are more successful in SLA than others?
        • Relative success attributed mostly to the age of the learner
    • 39.
      • Norm Chomsky
      • Two questions still of interest in the linguists field:
        • What do language learners really know about the language they are learning?
        • How do learners know more than the input they receive?
          • Logical problem of language learning =Poverty of the stimulus
    • 40.
      • Learner competence only explainable by an innate capacity
        • Genetically endowed ability- Language Faculty
        • All children born with the general knowledge needed to learn language
        • All children already “know” the rules that govern all natural languages
      • Language Faculty a potential solution to the Logical Problem
        • Children only need to build upon an already existing system.
        • Social interaction determines what is built upon the innate system
    • 41.
      • So what is happening in the mind of the language learner?
      • Principles are the elements that all languages of the world share
      • Some principles have parameters, or limitations depending on the specific language
    • 42.
      • Since P&P are innate, the child is able to interpret and analyze input to construct the correct grammar
      • UG strictly constrains the process, which explains why children lean so quickly
    • 43.
      • Lexical items include rich specification of properties
      • These important because needed for parameter setting and other features of grammar and semantics
      • Knowing a word means knowing its meaning, pronunciation, place in the sentence
    • 44.
      • The Initial State of L1A is UG.
        • What is acquired in the process is information from input (especially vocabulary) that learner matches with UG options
      • The Final State of L1A is adult grammar
      • The Intermediate States are:
        • The initial state transformed by experience and determined by the processes of maturation
        • Several stable stages, finally end at about puberty
    • 45.
      • Natural, instinctive, internal to the cognitive system
      • Attitudes, motivation and social context (beyond minimal input) play no role
    • 46.
      • What is the initial state in SLA?
      • What is the nature of interlanguage ?
      • How does interlanguage change over time?
      • What is the final state of SLA
    • 47.
      • At the beginning of L2A, the learner has already gone through the process of L1A
      • Some L1 knowledge is transferred to L2
      • Circumstances of L2 learning
      • When L1 and L2 parameter settings are the same, positive transfer is likely
      • When L1 and L2 parameter settings are different, negative transfer (interference) may occur
    • 48.
      • Disagreement about whether or not L2 learners have access to UG
      • Four Possibilities
        • Learners have full access to UG in L2 learning
        • Learners have partial access
        • Learners retain indirect access , through what they know in the L1
        • Learners have no access , but must learn the L2 through different means
    • 49.
      • Interlanguage=intermediate states of L2 development=interim grammars
      • If some access to UG is available, IL is a matter of “resetting” the parameters on the basis of input of new language
        • This happens because new input doesn’t match the L1 parameters
        • Choices limited and thus new language won’t deviate from UG
      • If learning principles that are part of the language faculty are still available there is enough information is available to make changes
        • Positive Evidence: input from natural or formal setting
        • Negative Evidence: explicit correction
    • 50.
      • If L2 learners don't have access to UG then L2A needs to be explained in a fundamentally different process
      • Arguments against the no access hypothesis
        • No evidence that IL violates UG
        • L1 transfer and L2 input can’t account entirely for the L2A process
    • 51.
      • Why are some SL learners more successful than others? Huge variability in learner “success”
        • All may not have same access to UG
        • Different relationships between L1s and L2s = different levels of transfer
        • Different access to L2 input
        • Some learners more sensitive to the mismatches in L2 input and L1 parameters
        • Different degrees of specification of lexical features
    • 52.
      • Functional Approaches
        • Originate in Eastern Europe in the early 1900’s
        • Emphasize information of language produced in real situations
        • Consider language as a means of communication rather than a set of rules
        • Greater interest in discourse structure, how language used for interaction, include aspects of communication beyond language
    • 53.  
    • 54.
      • The Psychology of Second Language Acquisition
    • 55.
      • Languages and the brain
      • Pierre (1861, 1865) observed an area in the left frontal lobe appeared to be responsible for the ability to speak.
      • Wernicke (1874) identified a nearby area which is adjacent to the part of the cortex that processes audio input as also being central to language processing.
    • 56.
      • The following questions help us to know how the brain might be organized for multiple languages
      • How independent are the languages?
        • Multiple language systems are neither completely separate nor completely fused.
        • Ervin and Osgood (1954) suggested a three way possibility for how languages relate in an individual’s mind: coordinate, compound and subordinate
      • How are multiple language structures organized in relation to one another in the brain? Are both languages stored in the same areas?
        • L1 and L2 are stored predominantly in areas of the left hemisphere, near the Sylvian fissure
    • 57.
      • Does the organization of the brain for L2 in relation to L1 differ with age acquisition, how it is learned, or level of proficiency?
        • Vaid (1983) concludes that individuals who acquire L2 later in life show more right hemisphere involvement
        • Cook suggests that the variation in right hemisphere involvement may be due to the lack of a single route to L2 knowledge
        • The organization of L2 knowledge is more diffuse for lower levels of proficiency and more compact for highly fluent L2 users.
      • Do two or more languages show the same sort of loss or disruption after brain damage?
        • Obler and Gjerlow (1999) conclude rather that a significant factor in initial recovery is which language was most used in the years prior to the incident which caused the damage, whether this is L1 or L2.
        • Not only can different languages be affected differentially by brain damage, but different abilities in the same language may be differentially impaired.
        • What is being added in the brain when a second language is acquired is not very different from, nor usually entirely separate from, what is already there for the first.
    • 58.
      • Learning processes
      • Learning language is essentially like learning other domains of knowledge
      • Information Processing
      • Stages
        • Input (Perception)
        • Central processing
        • Controlled-automatic processing
        • Declarative-procedural knowledge
        • Restructuring
        • Output (Production) Fluency
    • 59.
      • Theories regarding order of acquisition
      • Multidimensional Model
        • Learners acquire certain grammatical structures in a developmental sequence.
        • Developmental sequences reflect how learners overcome processing limitation
        • Language instruction which targets developmental features will be successful only if learners have already mastered the processing operations which are associated with the precious stage of acquisition
    • 60.
      • Competition Model
        • The form of a lexical item is represented by its auditory properties, and its function by its semantic properties; the forms of strings of lexical items are word-order patterns and morphological inflections, and their functions are grammatical
    • 61.
      • Differences in Learners
      • AGE
      • Younger advantage : brain plasticity, not analytical, fewer inhibitions, weaker group identity, simplified input more likely
      • Older advantage : learning capacity, analytic ability, pragmatic skills, greater knowledge of L1, real-world knowledge
      • SEX
      • Females : to be better at memorizing complex forms
      • Males : to be better at computing compositional rules
    • 62.
      • APTITUDE
        • Phonemic coding ability
        • Inductive language learning ability
        • Grammatical sensitivity
        • Associative memory capacity
        • Sigificant goal or need
        • Desire to attain the goal
        • Perception that learning L2 is relevant to fulfilling the goal or meeting the need
        • Belief in the likely success or failure of learning L2
        • Value of potential outcomes/rewards
    • 63. Cognitive style
      • It refers to individuals’ preferred way of processing, conceptualizing, organizing, and recalling information.
      • It is also related to and interacts with personality factors (imaginative, self-confident, risk-taking, etc) and learning strategies (behaviors and techniques they adopt in their efforts to learn a second language).
    • 64.
      • The effects of multilingualism
      • Multilingualism has positive effects on intellectual functions
        • Advantages in tasks of both verbal and nonverbal abilities
        • Advanced metalinguistic abilities
        • Cognitive and metalinguistic advantages
        • Advantages in the use of language for verbal mediation
    • 65.
      • THANK YOU
    • 66.