Phonology
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  • 1. ESCUELA : CIENCIAS DE LA EDUCACIÓN NOMBRES ENGLISH PHONOLOGY FECHA : Dra: Carmen Benítez C. OCTUBRE 2008-FEBRERO 2009
  • 2.
    • LANGUAGE
    • SPEECH HABITS
    • PRONUNCIATION
    • NATIVE LANGUAGE INTERFERENCE
    • THE FOREIGN ACCENT
  • 3. PHONOLOGY
    • BRANCH OF LINGUISTICS
    • SPEECH SOUNDS
    • PRODUCTION articulation
    • COMPOSITION formation
    • DISTRIBUTION place in a word
    • FUNCTION vowel or cons.
  • 4. BRANCHES OF PHONOLOGY 5 PHONOLOGY PHONETICS PRODUCTION/ARTICULATION PHONEMICS DISTRIBUTION/FUNCION Acoustic properties Auditory perception Articulatory articulation
  • 5. IMPORTANT CONCEPTS
    • PHONEME: unit of sound different from another one
    • seat /s//i://t/ sit /s// ɪ /t/
    • ALLOPHONE: variations same sound
    • pear captain stop
    • p ʰ er k æ pt ə n sta:p=
  • 6. KINDS OF PHONEMES PHONEMES SEGMENTAL SUPRASEGMENTAL Vowels/Vocoids nonfriction, open, continuous a ɪ æ ^ u ɔ : ʊ Consonants/Contoids friction,short, lack of sonority ƞ ʃ ʧ ʤ θ І Pitch ( melody ) Stress (force/articulation) Juncture (transition)
  • 7. Symbols for vowel phonemes / ə / as in 'about, 'upper' ə ba ʊ t, ʌ p ʊ /e ɪ / as in 'bay' be ɪ /a ɪ / as in 'buy' ba ɪ / ɔɪ / as in 'boy' b ɔɪ / ɪə / as in 'peer' p ɪə /e ə / as in 'pear' pe ə / ʊə / as in 'poor' p ʊə / əʊ / as in 'go' g əʊ /a ʊ / as in 'cow' ka ʊ / ɪ / as in ‘pit’ p ɪ t /e/ as in 'pet' pet /æ/ as in 'pat' pæt / ʌ / as in 'putt' p ʌ t / ɒ / as in 'pot' p ɒ t / ʊ / as in 'put' p ʊ t /i:/ as in 'key' ki: / ɑ :/ as in 'car' k ɑ : / ɔ :/ as in 'core' k ɔ : /u:/ as in 'coo' ku: / ɜ :/ as in 'cur' k ɜ :
  • 8. Symbols for consonant phonems /z/ as in 'zip' z ɪ p / ʃ / as in 'ship' ʃɪ p / ʒ / as in 'measure' me ʒə /h/ as in 'hat' hæt /m/ as in 'map' mæp /n/ as in 'nap' næp /ŋ/ as in 'hang' hæŋ /I/ as in 'led' led /r/ as in 'red' red /j/ as in 'yet' jet /w/ as in 'wet' wet / ʤ as in 'gin' ʤɪ n /p/ as in 'pea' pi: /b/ as in 'bee' bi: /t/ as in 'toe' t ə ʊ /d/ as in 'doe' d ə ʊ /k/ as in 'cap' k æ p /g/ as in 'gap' g æ p /f/ as in 'fat' f æ t /v/ as in 'vat' v æ t /θ/ as in 'thing' θ ɪ ŋ /ð/ as in 'this' ð ɪ s /s/ as in 'sip' s ɪ p
  • 9. PARTS INVOLVED IN THE RODUCTION OF SPEECH
    • MOTOR: lungs, trachea, larynx, diaphragm
    • VIBRATOR: vocal cords
    • RESONATOR: larynx, pharynx, nose, mouth
    • ARTICULATORS: lips, tongue, uvula, lower jaw
    • POINTS OF ARTICULATION: teeth, upper lip, alveolar, hard palate, soft palate, walls of the pharynx, glottis.
  • 10. THE THREE POSITIONS OF THE VOCAL CORDS pos. 1 pos. 2 pos. 3 1.Wide apart: normal breathing, VOICELESS 2: Closely together: impede the flow of air. 3: Light contact: VOICED SOUNDS
  • 11. ARTICULATORS
  • 12. POINTS OF ARTICULATION
  • 13.
    • DEFINITION OF CONSONANTS
    • PHONETICALLY.- made by a closure or narrowing in the vocal tract, the air flow is either completely blocked, or so restricted producing friction.
    • PHONOLOGICALLY.- margins of syllables, singly/clusters, short, lack of sonority / predominance of friction noise, oral or nasal,
  • 14.
    • MANNER OF ARTICULATION
    • degree or type of obstruction to the air flow
      • STOPS or PLOSIVES
      • FRICATIVES
      • AFFRICATES
      • NASALS
      • LATERAL,
      • R-SOUNDS
      • SEMICONSONANTS
  • 15.
    • PLACE OR POINT OF ARTICULATION
    • place in the vocal tract
    • Bilabial
    • Labiodental
    • Dentals or Interdental
    • Alveolar
    • Palatal
    • Velar
    • Glottal
  • 16.
    • DISTRIBUTION OF CONSONANT PHONEMES
    • Phonetically, DISTRIBUTION refers to the total set of contexts, in which a sound unit can occur according to the word.
    • water team boat
  • 17.
    • CONSONANT ALLOPHONES
    • Special phonetic symbols, identify allophonic differences in the same phoneme.
    • A small (h) the upper-right side of the consonant symbol, ASPIRATED STOP.
    • Ex. [t ʰ ] as in T EN.
    • Two parallel hyphens (=) at the lower-right of the consonant symbol, means unreleased stop . Ex. [ p= ] as in ZI P
  • 18.
    • An (r) with an apostrophe (') in its upper side, represents a voiced intervocalic tap . Ex. [ ŕ ] as in WE DD ING.
    • A slanted line (/) crossing the consonant /l/, means that this is a VELAR LATERAL or DARK- /l/. Ex.:[ ł ] as in A LL .
  • 19.
    • MINIMAL PAIRS
    • Sets of monosyllabic words differing in only one sound.
    • Consonant contrast p e t b et
    • Vowel contrast s i t s ea t
  • 20.
    • CONSONANT CLUSTERS
    • CONSONANT CLUSTER two or more consonants together with no vowels in between, at the beginning or end of a word
    • INITIAL CLUSTERS: beginning
    • b r ead /br/, st op /st/, cl ean /kl/, etc.
    • (fifty-two)
    • FINAL CLUSTERS: word final position
    • Clusters of 2, 3, and 4 consonants can occur at the end
    • ado pts /-pts/, ti pped /-pt /, la psed /-pst/ (170).
  • 21.
    • INITIAL CLUSTERS: beginning
    • b r ead /br/, st op /st/, cl ean /kl/, etc. (fifty-two)
    • FINAL CLUSTERS: final position
    • Clusters of 2, 3, and 4 consonants can occur at the end.
    • ado pts /-pts/, ti pped /-pt /,
    • la psed /-pst/ (170)
  • 22.
    • THANK YOU