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METHODOLOGY IV ( II Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)


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Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja …

Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja
Ciclo Académico Abril Agosto 2011
Carrera: Inglés
Docente: Mgs. Gina Camacho Minuche
Ciclo: Octavo
Bimestre: Segundo

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    • 1. METHODOLOGY IV Primer o Segundo ENGLISH SCHOOL Mgs. Gina Camacho Minuche Second Term cuela a la que pertenece Abril Agosto 2011
    • 2. CONTENTS SECOND TERM Techniques in Teaching Organization Techniques in Responding to Student’s Writing Integrating the Four Skills
    • 3. Chapter Six
      • Techniques
      • in Teaching
      • Practical Writing
    • 4. Forms
      • Ss transfer information from one
      • format to another.
      • Interviewing can help completing a form, one S can interview a partner and fill out a job application for example.
      • Short readings can as well serve, Ss are asked to read a passage and extract the necessary information to
      • fill out a form.
    • 5. Forms
      • Survey forms are used too, ss
      • in small groups discuss and
      • draw up a questionnaire whose goal is to see what attitudes other ss have towards any controversial issue, ss interview their partners and collect responses to be presented in a statistical way or in a
      • graph or a table.
    • 6. Letters
      • The most widespread forms of written communication.
      • To fit the audience, each letter needs
      • to have its own associated vocabulary, connotations, sentence structures, choice of words and tone.
      • In each function there are certain levels of formality and informality.
      • Examples: We use letters to invite, explain, inquire,order, apply, acknowledge, and thank.
    • 7. Letters
      • Informal letters can allow ss to
      • practice daily, for example, how to
      • invite someone to a party, then ss are encouraged to write informal notes to each other, ss can also write a note
      • to the teacher, asking real questions like “What is the meaning of…? Sincerely, Peter.”
    • 8. Lists
      • These forms are a neglected part of writing in a second language.
      • As lists are the basis for conceptual activities, ss can be asked to alphabetize, group, and classify. It is important for ss studying a second language to be aware of the classification systems of that language since they may vary from culture to culture.
    • 9. Daily Notes
      • Daily notebooks or journals kept by many people can be used in the classroom. Ss can be asked to keep a special notebook and write in it in English for a few minutes every day, Ts can check if ss are doing it but not grading this task, Ts can occasionally ask Ss to select something and develop a composition or ask Ss to read for their partners to respond to it.
    • 10. Instructions
      • This is a very common activity when for instance, we write instructions to tell people how to find our house or write a recipe for a friend. For example, Ts ask ss to interview each other and find out what the other person knows how to do, then the interviewer takes notes on the steps and tries to write the instructions.
    • 11. Chapter Seven
      • Techniques
      • in Using
      • Controlled Writing
    • 12. Controlled Writing
      • Controlled Writing is all the writing your Ss do for which a great deal of the content and/or form is supplied by Ts, for instance, an outline to complete, a paragraph to manipulate, a model to follow or a passage to continue.
      • This is a useful tool at all levels of composition teaching.
    • 13. Controlled Writing
      • These tasks give Ss focused practice in getting words down on paper and in concentrating on one or two problems at a time. For Ts, this is easy to mark and less time-consuming, so more can be assigned.
      • This can be applied before or after free writing activities in the following way:
    • 14. Controlled Writing
      • Before free writing when ss practice a grammatical point within a text and not just as a sentence exercise and use this text as a source of vocabulary, ideas, idioms to help them planning their own piece of writing.
      • After free writing when Ts see what problems our ss are having and assign a controlled task to give them practice about the problem areas.
    • 15. Controlled Composition
      • Ss are given a passage to work with, Ss do not have to concern with content, organization, finding ideas, and forming sentences. Ss write the given passage down, making a few specified changes usually about grammar or structure i.e. changing from singular to plural, present tense to past, or direct to indirect speech .
    • 16. Controlled Composition
      • It focuses the Ss’ attention on specific features of the written language, such as reinforcing grammar, vocabulary and syntax in context; while Ss do this, they as well use certain conventions of written English such as indentation, punctuation, connecting words, and spelling.
    • 17. Question and Answer
      • Ss are given series of questions, the answers to which form the text. Carefully constructed questions will produce a coherent text.
      • This format allows ss a little more freedom in structuring sentences.
      • Questions can ask about info which is given in notes or a list or even a picture sequence.
    • 18. Guided Composition
      • This is an extension of controlled composition, but less controlled.
      • Ss are given some but not all of the content and form of the sentences they will use.
      • Ss are given a first sentence, a last sentence, an outline to fill out, a series of questions to respond to or information to include in their piece of writing.
    • 19. Guided Composition
      • As with any other free writing task, with guided composition, too, ss should be able to discuss, make notes, share findings, and plan strategies to gether before they begin to write.
    • 20. Sentence Combining
      • It is the combining of base sentences into a longer compound or complex sentence.
      • It improves ss’ sentence structure, length of sentence, and sentence variety.
      • It provides plenty of practice with the syntactic structures that are more common in writing than in speech and gives Ss the chance to use the grammatical knowledge they have to make choices about structure
    • 21. Parallel Writing
      • It is the freest kind of controlled writing.
      • Ss read and study a passage and then write their own on a similar theme, using as a guide the vocabulary, sentence structure, cohesive devices, and organization of the model passage.
      • Parallel pictures, readings, dictations, tapes, and textbook dialogs can be used.
    • 22. Chapter Eight
      • Techniques
      • in Teaching
      • Organization
    • 23. Teaching Organization
      • The organization of written discourse depends upon the English culture. There are differences between British and American conventions. Ss need to be aware of the fact that in a piece of writing what works well for one language does not always work in another. Ss have to learn not just how sentences are formed but how paragraphs and longer pieces are constructed.
    • 24. Teaching Organization
      • It’s a process of moving back and forth between reading and writing: writing something down, reading it over, searching for more material by discussion or reading, reading to discover how other writers organize their meaning, and then writing again. The aim of the process is going from general statements to specific details and arrange them in the most effective order.
    • 25. Outlines
      • There are two kinds: before writing the text and the one the writer makes of what he/she has already written.
      • The first should be brief and made only after extensive discussion, reading, list-making, brainstorming, and other pre-writing activities. It should be a device to guide the writer and not a cage that locks him/her into that couldn’t escape from it.
    • 26. Outlines
      • The outline that is made after (the first draft) a text has been produced helps the writer see clearly what he has done and what he needs to do to make his meaning clearer to the reader. It also points to new directions the piece of writing might take.
      • Analysis of pieces of writing by professional writers (or textbook writers) is helpful.
    • 27. Analysis
      • We can all learn a great deal about how writing works if we concentrate not only on what the writer has written but on how has written it. If we ask our ss to analyze a reading passage, we are asking them to ask questions about a piece of writing. This is an extremely valuable aid to critical reading of one’s own writing, to revising, and to editing.
    • 28. Models
      • Some textbooks present reading passages for ss to analyze and
      • imitate in their own writing. The ss might read a passage comparing two things and then they write their own composition comparing two other things, following the organization and structural patterns of the model as closely as possible. Or Ss can keep the first topic and write about but varying the audience, organization and purpose.
    • 29. Models
      • A problem of models is that they encourage ss to think that form comes first. But writing seldom works like that; we find the form to fit our meaning, not the other way around. The use of a model to imitate a piece of writing doesn’t allow the writer to discover that shape that best fits the ideas he wants to express for a particular purpose.
    • 30. A model of structure can be presented in a diagram, too, either for a paragraph as in
    • 31. From Meaning to Organization
      • When people write outside the classroom, they don’t begin with form but with meaning.
      • Ts should devise writing tasks so that when Ss write they are engaged in searching for the right organization for the ideas they want to express .
    • 32. Chapter Nine
      • Techniques
      • in Responding
      • to Students’
      • Writing
    • 33. Responding to Ss’ Writing
      • Ts need to read the whole piece of writing through first before Ts write anything.
      • Ts have to look for strengths as well as weaknesses, and let ss know what the strengths are.
      • If Ts use symbols to correct, make sure ss are familiar with all of them and what to do when ss see one. Ts should ask ss to use symbols, too.
      • Examples: sp= spelling error
      • gr= grammar error
    • 34. Responding to Ss’ Writing
      • Ts may work out their own strategy for handling errors and have to explain that to their ss. Decide if you will correct errors or just indicate where they occur, if you as a T will only deal with errors discussed in class or with any error.
      • Ts should help the writer see what to do next to improve the paper.
    • 35. Written Comments
      • Ts need to comment on Ss’ papers that take the form of a paraphrase of the ideas expressed. Ss have to receive praising of the strengths and then the T has to give directions that Ss can follow step by step.
      • Ts can suggest what else to do by using questions without necessarily saying those options as Ts ourselves.
    • 36. Talking About the Paper
      • One of the best ways to help a S revise a paper is to discuss it with the S in person.
      • Ts need to try a conference of just a few minutes before and after and even during class while other Ss are writing or working together in groups.
      • The virtue of the individual conference, however short it is, is that a real discussion takes place.
    • 37. Checklists
      • Ts as well as Ss can use editing checklists. For grammar, checklists can contain each new grammatical item covered in class.
      • Checklists can contain questions about manuscript form, instructions about grammar, tasks to analyze content and organization or just words to jog memory .
    • 38. Ss’ Responses to Student Writing
      • When Ts send a lot of material to write, they could use the aid of other ss in the class as readers. Ss need to be alerted to what to look for and how to look for it so that they can be helpful to each other.
      • With guidance, clear and specific instructions on what to look for and what to do, ss can be useful as readers of drafts.
    • 39. Self-Editing
      • Ss need to develop the ability to read their own writing and to examine it critically, to learn what to improve, how to express meaning fluently, logically and accurately.
      • Ss need to know when is the right time to edit their own ideas. Encourage Ss to proofread by covering all lines below the one they are reading and pointing at each word with a pencil. Teach Ss how to use a dictionary and a grammar reference book .
    • 40. Ways of Dealing with Errors
      • Ts need to decide which errors to deal with. Correct them ones taught in class or concentrate primarily on errors that makes it difficult to understand the Ss’ meaning.
      • Ts have to determine the cause of the error, it helps to know what Ss know and what they need to know; it serves us to plan our syllabus.
    • 41. Ways of Dealing with Errors
      • Also Ts need to point out what Ss have done correctly, so that Ss know that they have demonstrated knowledge of the grammatical feature.
      • Ts should provide a reason for careful editing and elimination of errors, publication of a piece of writing where it will be read by others is a good motivation.
    • 42. Chapter Ten
      • Integrating the
      • Four Skills
    • 43. The Language Laboratory
      • The modern language lab is equipped with a CD player, headphones, microphones and computers. Ss are organized in such a way that they can work on their own, can be paired or grouped, or can interact on a one-to-one basis with the teacher. Ts can broadcast the same material to each booth or can have different Ss or groups work with different material.
    • 44. Advantages of the Language Lab
      • Comparing: the double track allows ss to compare the way they say things with correct pronunciation on a source tape. Ss can monitor and get feedback on their own performance.
      • Privacy: Ss can talk to each other, record, wind and rewind listening activities or type on computer keyboards without disturbing their colleagues.
    • 45. Advantages of the Language Lab
      • Individual Attention: Ts speak to individual Ss from the console. The attention that the T gives to one S does not distract the others.
      • Learner training: the lab allows ss to listen to what they say and how they say it, when Ss compare the pronunciation with the correct version helps to hear and pronounce English better.
    • 46. Advantages of the Language Lab
      • Learner motivation: a worry about learner autonomy is general since some Ss are better at working on their own than others.
      • The language lab offers a good half-way house between teacher control and learner autonomy since Ss are more open to the guidance of the T, altho ugh Ss work at their own pace.
    • 47. Activities in Language Labs
      • Repetition: Ss hear a word, phrase or sentence, a space is left for them to repeat what they heard and the word, phrase or sentence is said again, so that Ss get instant feedback on whether they have spoken correctly.
      • Drills: Ss have to work out what to say based on a cue before the tape voice gives the correct response.
    • 48. Activities in Language Labs
      • Speaking: Ss can record their own talks and speeches and then listen back to them and make adjustments in the same way as they draft and redraft written text. As well ss can be asked a series of questions that are on a tape which encourages Ss practice language which they have been focusing on.
    • 49. Activities in Language Labs
      • Listening: this can be practiced in many different ways such as: note taking, dictation, finding differences between a written text and taped account of the events, and answering comprehension questions can all be performed successfully in the lab setting.
    • 50. Activities in Language Labs
      • Reading: Ss can read texts and then record their answers on tape. In computer-equipped labs both text and answers can be supplied on the computer itself. The T can also have all Ss reading material from the same Internet web site.
    • 51. Activities in Language Labs
      • Writing and correcting writing: labs allow Ts to give individual, private spoken feedback on Ss’ written work. In computer-equipped labs Ss can write at their individual machines and the T can then correct their work either orally or in writing since the T can look at each other S’s work from the console.
    • 52. Thanks for your attention !
    • 53.