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Methodology III

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Language varies according to its uses as well as its users, according to where it is used and to whom, as well as according to who is using it.

Language varies according to its uses as well as its users, according to where it is used and to whom, as well as according to who is using it.

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  • 1. METHODOLOGY III ENGLISH SCHOOL NOMBRES: Lic. Gina Camacho Minuche PERIODO: ABRIL – AGOSTO 2009 1
  • 2. CONTENTS
  • 3. Style, context and register  Language varies according to its uses as well as its users, according to where it is used and to whom, as well as according to who is using it.  The better you know someone, the more casual and relaxed the speech style you will use to them.  People use more standard forms to those they do know well, and more vernacular forms to their friends. 3
  • 4. The speaker’s relationship to the addressee is crucial in determining the appropriate style of speaking. And how well you know someone or how close you feel to them, is one important dimension of social relationships. 4
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  • 6. The addresee or audience is a very important influence on a speaker’s style. For example: A person reading the news on the middle-level station reads in a very much less formal style than on the higher- brow radio station. 6
  • 7. Accomodation theory Speech convergence When people talk to each other their speech often becomes more similar, that is to say each person’s speech converges towards the speech of the person they are talking to. This process is called speech accomodation. It often occurs when the speakers like one another, or where one speaker has a vested interest in pleasing the other. Converging towards the speech of another person is usually a polite speech strategy. 7
  • 8. Examples People may converge: 89
  • 9. How do speakers accommodate?  When people simplify their vocabulary and grammar in talking to foreigners and children, they are converging downwards towards the lesser linguistic proficiency of their addressees.  People may accomodate to others by selecting the code that is most comfortable for their addressees.  Example: In the market you usually acccomodate to the language of the person selling goods in order to secure good will 9 and good bargain.
  • 10. Speech divergence  Choosing a language not used by one’s addressee is the clearest example of speech divergence.  The use of metaphors in Literature, in that the message cloaked in this kind of register is accessible only to those who are conversant with the code is another example of divergence. 10
  • 11.  Convergence happens when an individual adjusts his speech patterns to match those of people belonging to another group or social identity.  Divergence happens when an individual adjusts his speech patterns to be distinct from those of people belonging to another group or social identity. 11
  • 12. ACCOMMODATION PROBLEMS When someone mispronounces a word in a conversation with you, for instance, how do you react? Do you converge and misprounce it too? Do you diverge and pronounce it the way you know it ought to be pronounced? Note: The best way of solving an accommodation problem will depend on the context. 12
  • 13. CONTEXT, STYLE AND CLASS When we combine information about the way people from different social groups speak with information about the way people speak in different contexts, it is clear that features of social class and contextual style interact. When a person wants to shift style, the obvious way to vary your speech is to imitate the speech of another person. 13
  • 14. Example: to sound more casual at a party, people model their speech of thatt of a lower social group.  When people shift styles, they often adopt the linguistic features of a different group. 14
  • 15. Hypercorrection It is a sociolinguistic term that refers to the social function of certain linguistic phenomena. It may be defined as an incorrect analogy with a form in a prestige dialect which the speaker has imperfectly mastered. The use of I rather than me in constructions such as between You and I you and I illustrates structural hypercorrection. 15
  • 16. Speech functions, politeness and cross- cultural communication 16
  • 17. The Phatic communication conveys an effective or social message rather than a referential one. The way a message is given is always going to depend on the intonation, tone of voice and context the speaker uses. The form people choose in a particular context depends on the social distance between participants, their relatives status, and the formality of the context. 17
  • 18. Politeness and address forms Being polite is a complicated business in any language. It is difficult to learn because it involves understanding not just the language, but also the social and cultural values of the community. Being polite is not as simply as a matter of saying please and thank you. Politeness involves taking account of the feelings of others. 18
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  • 20. Anyone who has travelled outside their own speech community is likely to have had some experience of miscommunication based on cultural differences. Often, these relate to different assumptions deriving from different ‘normal’ environments. We need to know what people mean in the cultural context. Culture 20
  • 21.  Example: In New Zealand a commonly quoted phrase is Ladies a plate, gentlemen a crate, meaning women should bring some food and men some beer. 21
  • 22. The Cultural Dimension in Foreign Language Learning  Linguistic competence goes together with culture  The importance of including culture in planning lessons as a strategy for students to find their own way to speak in the second language speech community through activities that enable them to observe and differentiate the culture diversity behaviors and ways to address information. 22
  • 23.  Learners require to learn and understand the customs, habits, beliefs, behavior, and language patterns of the culture of this new language and establish differences with their own language in view of the fact that both can be perceived in different ways from each culture. 23
  • 24. they require to learn and understand the customs, habits, beliefs, behavior, and language patterns of the culture of this new language and establish differences with their own language in view of the fact that both can be perceived in different ways from each culture. 24
  • 25.  When in class, it is necessary to avoid of making judgments about other students cultures especially the ones based on personal opinions, this would create an environment of respect about other cultures 25
  • 26.  Some authors suggest to use authentic materials such as: photographs, newspapers, travel brochures to help students to be involved in authentic cultural experiences as well as the use of proverbs, role play, culture capsules, ethnographic studies, literature, films and television to establish differences or similarities in their use from one language to another. 26
  • 27. Sharing, learning and contributing in the use of target language in appropriate way in a multicultural classroom, to use actual objects from their own and target culture and discover experiences from invited students who live in native countries 27
  • 28. COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE This model was developed to account for the kinds of knowledge people need in order to use language in meaningful interaction . 28
  • 29. Grammatical competence Is the ability to use the forms of the language (sounds, words, and sentence structures) Is knowing how to use the grammar, syntax, and vocabulary of a language. 29
  • 30. Discourse competence  Is the ability to undersatnd and create forms of the language that are longer than sentences, such as stories, conversations, or business letters. It includes understanding how particular instances of language use a re internally constructed.  Discourse competence also includes understanding how texts relate to the context or situation in which they are used. 30
  • 31. Sociolinguistic Competence  Is the ability to use language appropriately in different contexts. It overlaps significantly with discourse competence because it has to do with expressing, interpreting and negotiating menaing according to culturally-derived norms and expectations. 31
  • 32.  It is our sociolinguistic competence that allows us to be polite according to the situation we are in and to be able to infer the intentions of the others. 32
  • 33. Strategic Competence Is the ability to compensate for lack of ability in any of the other areas. What do you do when you do not know a word that you need? How do you manage a social situation when you aren’t quite sure about the rules of etiquette? 33
  • 34. In both cases, you rely on your strategic competence to help you communicate. If you don’t know how to express something you use gestures and facial expressions. 34
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