METHODOLOGY I ( I Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)
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METHODOLOGY I ( I Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)

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Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja

Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja
Ciclo Académico Abril Agosto 2011
Carrera: Inglés
Docente: M S. Nina Aleksandrovna Nesterenko
Ciclo: Quinto
Bimestre: Primero

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METHODOLOGY I ( I Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011) METHODOLOGY I ( I Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011) Presentation Transcript

  • METHODOLOGY I
    Abril – Agosto 2011
    ENGLISH LANGUAGE SCHOOL
    PRIMER
    ESCUELA:
    BIMESTRE:
    NOMBRE:
    M.S. NINA NESTERENKO
  • What is METHODOLOGY?
    Teaching - is “ showing or helping someone to learn how to do something giving instructions, guiding in the study of something, providing with knowledge, causing to know or understand “
    Method – is a plan for presentation of language material.
  • Methods are distinctive at the early
    stage, and rather indistinguishable
    from each other at later stages.
    It is not proved which method is the best. It depends on the situation
    There will never be a method for all.
    The focus on the development of
    classroom tasks and activities.
  • TEACHERS AND TEACHING
    SUCCESSFUL teacher:
    1.has a practical command of English, not just a knowledge of grammar rules.
    2.uses English most of the time
    in every class, including
    beginner classes
    3.thinks mostly in terms of learner
    practice, not teacher explanations
  • 4.finds time for really communicative activities, not just practice of language forms.
    5.Focuses the teaching on learner`s needs, not just on “ finishing” the syllabus or course book.
  • Establishing Goals and
    Objectives in Teaching English
    The clear definition of appropriate goals is
    vital to successful English language teaching – learning process.
    Establishing short - and long – term goals.
  • VARIATIONS IN COURSE GOALS
    1.enable the learners to communicate in real English (both spoken and written)
    2.enable the learners to read technical
    publications in real English.
    3.get the learners to me -
    morize English grammar
    rules and vocabulary.
    Thegoals of differentcoursesshould
  • is to achieve good results
    The main goal of teaching English
    Attention, clear interest toward the teacher‘s explanation,listening, asking and answering questions, following instructions, active participation
  • GRAMMAR – TRANSLATION METHOD
    Why Grammar – Translation?
    It dominated European language
    Teaching (1840s -1940s )
  • to learn language in order to read the
    target language literature
    1. Analysis of grammar rules followed by translating exercises
    2. Reading and writing ( little attention to speaking / listening) . Reading of difficult classical texts is begun at an early stage of studying.
    3. Vocabulary is based on reading texts used
    (words are taught through bilingual isolated word lists)
    .
    :
    GOAL
    CHARACTERISTICS
  • 5.Accuracy is emphasized–
    ( high standards in translation )
    6. Grammar is taught deductively
    7.Little or no attention is given to
    pronunciation.
    8.Class is taught in the student’s mother tongue.
  • NEGATIVE POINTS
    It may create a sense of frustration ( memorizing rules and isolated vocabulary, translation exercises)
    There is no theory how to teach
    There is no literature that offers a rationale or justification for it or that attempts to relate it to issues of linguistics, psychology or educational
    theory .
    It makes few demands on teachers
  • Positive Points
    .
    It is useful when understanding texts is the primary focus of foreign language study
    little need for speaking
    no specialized training on the part of teachers
    tests of grammar rules and of translations are easy to construct and score objectively
    no special material for teaching
    It is successful in leading a student toward a reading knowledge of a foreign language.
  • The DIRECT METHOD(XIX) , Charles Berlitz
    “ “ naturalistic “ or “natural” method – child language acquisition
    Meaning is conveyed directly through demonstration and action.
    Emphasis on speaking skills
  • 1.Classroom instruction -
    exclusively in the target language
    2. Everyday vocabulary is taught.
    3.Oral communication- around question/answer exchanges between teachers and students in small, intensive class.
    4.Concrete vocabulary is
    taught through demon-
    strations, pictures, objects.
    Characteristics
  • Characteristics
    5.Grammar is taught
    inductively
    6.Listening and speaking are
    emphasized
    7.Emphasis on correct grammar
    and pronunciation.
    8. New teaching items are
    introduced orally
  • Principles of The Direct Method
    • Never translate : demonstrate
    • Never explain : act
    • Never make a speech : ask
    questions
    • Never imitate mistake : correct
    • Never speak with single words:
    use sentences
    • Never speak too much : make students speak much
    • Never use your book : use your lesson plan
    • Never jump around : follow your plan
    • Never go too fast : keep the pace of the student
    • Never speak too slowly : speak normally
    • Never speak too quickly : speak naturally
  • LIMITATIONS of D. M.
    1.The D.M. requires native
    speaker teachers (or who have native-
    like fluency )
    2.It is dependent on the teacher’s skills, rather on the textbook.
    3.Problems with following strict D.M. techniques.
  • Limitations of The D.M.
    4.It is difficult to apply in
    public secondary school
    education
    5.It is counterproductive
    (long teacher explanation in order to avoid using the native language)
    The D.M. declined in Europe by the 1920s
    It was implemented in American schools
    with some modifications.
  • POSITIVE POINTS
    High motivation
    Focus on conversational skills
    Native-speaking teachers
    (good speaking model)
  • The Oral Approach and Situational Language Teaching ( 1930`s – 1960`s, Harold Palmer and A. Hornby )
    Palmer and Hornby -grammar as
    the underlying sentence patterns
    of the spoken language
    Speech - is the basis of language,
    and grammar – is the heart of speaking
    ability.
  • CHARACTERISTICS
    teaching begins with the spoken language.
    Material is taught orally before it s presented in written form.
    The target language is the language of the classroom.
    Language is introduced and practiced situationally.
    Grammar:simple forms are taught before complex ones.
    Reading and writing are introduced once
    a sufficient lexical and grammatical
    basis is established.
    Emphasis on accuracy (grammar
    and pronunciation), avoid errors at all
    costs.
    Writing derives from speech.
  • situational, situation : the use of concrete objects, pictures, and realia, which together with actions and gestures can be used to demonstrate the meaning of new language items.
    The model sentences and
    vocabulary are taken
    from a single situation.
  • Meaning, context, and situation
    are given a prominent place.
    Language is related to goals
    and situations in the real world.
    The word meaning and grammar
    are deduced from the way they
    are used in a
    situation.
  • OBJECTIVES
    To teach a practical command of four
    basic skills.
    Accuracy in both pronunciation and
    grammar (avoid errors )
  • LEARNERS ROLES
    More active participation is encouraged
    at later stages.
    Learners have no control over the content of learning
  • TEACHER`S ROLES
    Teacher serves as a model to create
    the new structures for students to repeat
    Teacher is a “skillful manipulator”
    using questions,commands to elicit
    correct sentences from the learners
    Class is teacher – centered
  • The Role of Instructional Materials
    SLT is dependant on both a textbook
    and visual aids
    Textbook – contains organized lesson planned around diff. grammar structures
    Visual aids may be produced by the teacher
    (wall harts, flashcards, pictures, stick
    figures, so on )
  • Typical OA / SLT class
    1.PRESENTATION:introductionof a new teaching item in a context or situation
    2.PRACTICE:controlled
    practice of the item
    3.PRODUCTION :
    a freer practice phase
  • THE AUDIOLINGUAL METHOD (The Army method)
    Speech is language: we first learn
    to speak,and then to read and write
    Speechis a primarygoal
    Language skills are learned
    more effectively if the items are
    presented in the spoken form first
    before they are seen in written form
  • Short –term : training in listening
    comprehension, accurate pronunciation ,
    acquaintance with vocabulary items, meaning
    Long – term :“ must be language as the native speaker uses it “ (Brook )
    Emphasis :
    - accurate pronunciation
    - correct grammar
    - ability to respond quickly in
    speech situations
    Objectives
  • Characteristics
    1
    Structural patterns are taught using repetitive
    drills
    New material is presented
    in dialogue form
    Vocabulary is limited and
    learned in context , not in
    isolation
    Correct pronunciation and grammar are emphasized
    The mother tongue is not
    permitted.
    Successful responses
    are immediately
    reinforced
    Reading and writing may be
    taught but they are dependant on prior oral skills
  • Classroom ACTIVITIES
    After a dialogue has been presented and memorized,
    specific grammatical patterns in the dialogues are
    selected and become a focus of various kinds of drills.
    Imitation
    Drills
    Repetition
    Dialogues
    Memorization
  • Teacher `s Role
    The Role of Instructional Materials
    This is a teacher- centered method.
    Instructional materials assist the teacher to develop language mastery
    in the learner.
    Language laboratory is essential. Tape-recorder and audiovisual equipment have central roles
  • Total Physical Response
    James Asher, ( 1970s – 1980s ,USA)
    Main objective
    Teach oral proficiency at a beginning
    level
    Achieve comprehension
    Teach basic speaking skills
  • TEORY OF LANGUAGE AND LEARNING
    * It is built around the coordination of
    speech and action (child
    language acquisition)).
    * A stimulus – response view
    ( memory connection )
    *Listening should be accompanied
    by physical movement.
    *Speech and other productive
    skills should come later.
  • Commands are used
    Commands are accompanied by
    physical actions
    No verbal response is necessary
    Special attention to feedback(teacher
    should not interrupt for correction )
    Much affection
    Grammaristaughtinductively
    Characteristics
  • Stress - free learning environment
    More complex syntax could be incorporated into the imperative mood.
    Sentence-based syllabus vs grammar–based
    Detailedlesson plan
  • It is a teacher – centered method: teacher decides what to teach, models and presents the new materials
    Teacher provides the exposure
    to language
    Teacher uses classroomobjects and
    othersupportingmaterials
    (pictures, realia, slides, word charts )
  • Classroom Activities
    Imperative drills –to elicit physical
    actions
    Role- plays: everyday situations
    (ex.in a restaurant, supermarket,
    hotel, gas station, hospital, etc)
  • THE SILENT WAY
    by CALEB GATTEGNO
    The Silent Way – is “ learning to learn”
    Primacy of learning over teaching.
    Emphasis on learner's priorities and commitments.
    Problem-solving approaches to learning , represented in the words of Benjamin Franklin:Tell me and I forget, teach me and I remember, Involve me and I learn.
  • According to Gattegno:
    1. Learning is facilitated if the learner discovers rather than just memorizes and repeats what is to be learned.
    2. Learning is viewed as a problem-solving, creative, discovering activity, in which the learner is the principal actor.
  • Goal and General objectives of the Silent Way
    to give beginning level students oral facility in basic elements of the target language
    To provide the learner with a basic practical knowledge of the grammar
    to achieve near-native fluency and correct pronunciation
  • Learners are expected to develop independence, autonomy, and responsibility
    Students correct themselves
    Students are expected to make
    generalizations and come
    to their own conclusions.
    Learner's Roles
  • Teacher's Roles
    To test
    To teach
    To get out of the way
  • Teacher remains silent as much time as possible
    Teacher monitors learner's interaction with each other
    Teacher uses gestures, charts, shapes students responses
    Teacher “writes the script, chooses the props, sets the mood, models the action, designates the players, and is critic for the performance”
  • The Silent Way Class
    Presentation of the item using nonverbal
    clues to get across meanings
    .
    Testing follows immediately
    Elicitation and shaping of student production
    Students are presentedwiththestructuralpatterns and learnthegrammar rules throughinductiveprocess
    Lessons are plannedaroundgrammar and
    relatedvocabulary
  • The S. W. Class
    Free conversations and dialogues are transcribed and distributed for study and analysis.
    Class / group discussion of single topic
    Analysis /practice of sentencestructure, patterns, vocabulary
    Summaries based on the discussed topics
    Workonintonation /pronunciation
    Practice of thelearned material in a situation
  • COMMUNITY LANGUAGE LEARNING( Charles Curran, 1970’s, University of Chicago)
    Counseling- learning (counselor-client relationships). It includes emotions and feelings.
  • Theory of Language and Learning:
    LL interactions :
    between learners (class becomes a community of learners; this interaction is unpredictable and involves exchanges of affect)
    between learners and teacher ( this interaction is dependant )
  • CHARACTERISTICS
    The progression is topic-based ( no specific goal)
    Learnersnominatethingstheywishtodiscuss
    Learnerschooseornominatemessagestheywanttotransmittoclassmates
    Students learn through interacting with the community; learning is achieved collaboratively
  • * Students learn to work
    cooperatively (vs competitively)
    * Ss should create a positive environment to feel
    comfortable both correcting one another and
    being corrected by one another.
    *Ss learn through interaction
    within the community
    (teacher-classmates)
    Learner's Roles
  • Learner`s Roles
    to produce target utteranceswithout
    hesitation
    toencourageclassmatestointeractwith
    eachother
    to share feelings
    tobecomecounselors
    of otherlearners
    LEARNERS ARE EXPECTED
  • Teacher's Roles
    Control the usage of correct grammar and vocabulary ( may supply idioms, idiomatic expressions, phrases, phrasal verbs)
    Developlearningmaterials
    Helpstudentsacceptcriticism
  • Teacher's Roles
    Monitor learner
    utterances and provide assistance
    Respond in a supportive
    manner
    provide a model
  • ClassroomActivities
    Group work (scripts, dialogues, mini-dramas)
    Free conversations / class /group discussions of
    controversial topics
    Exchange of questions : students and a teacheroranotherknower
    ( invitedperson )
    Comments / summary about/of
    discussed material
    Use of pictures,puppets,drawings
  • Negative points
    - High demand on teachers
    - Thecouncelingbyteacherisunderthequestion (special training)
    -No teacningmaterials
    -Teacherisdependantonthe
    students`choice of topics
    -Evaluation is difficult to
    accomplish
    - Enadequate control of the
    oral production and grammar
    CLL stresses
    the benefits of
    humanistic side of
    language learning
  • Suggestopedia
    (1979, GeorgiLozanov)
    Characteristics
    - class arrangement : the use of comfortable furniture
    - music and music rhythm – it helps to increase self-esteem through increased self-satisfaction in musical performance
    - state of relaxation of learners and highly positive environment
  • Characteristics
    • authoritative behaviour of the
    teacher: people remember better
    and are more influenced if infor-
    mation comes from anauthorita-
    tive source
    Authority (of a teacher) –
    to suggest a teacher-student
    relation like that of parent to child.
  • OBJECTIVE – to deliver advanced conversational profociency quickly
    DIRECT : text and tape
    The text should have emotional force,
    literary quality, and interesting characters.
    - INDIRECT: classroom décor, music.
    Materials:
  • Classroom activities
    Listening activities
    Readings
    Role-plays
  • Typical class:
    1
    1stpart-oral review section.Previously learned material is a basis for discussion. Attention to grammar, vocabulary. Emphasis on role- plays
    (in a hotel,description of tourist or other places, etc)
    2nd part - presentation and discussion of new material(students may analyze a new dialogue and its translation, grammar, vocabulary. This section is exclusively in the target language)
    3rd part – concert session– teacher reads the text. Students listen and at the end, leave the room in silence. No homework.
  • NEGATIVE ASPECT-much memorization
    POSITIVE POINTS
    -We learn about how to believe in the power of the human brain;
    - The state of relaxation may be beneficial in the classroom.
  • Whole Language
    ( 1980’s -1990’s)
    The WhL- language should be taught as a “whole”
    Emphasis on learning to read and write naturally with
    a focus on real communication and reading
    and writing for pleasure
    Language is seen as something that is used
    for meaningful purposes and to carry out
    authentic functions
  • MAIN PRINCIPLES:
    1.The use of authentic
    literature and real world
    materials rather than specially prepared
    texts.
    2.Focus on real and natural events rather than on specially written stories that do not relate to student’s experience.
    3.Reading for comprehension
  • Main Principles
    4.Readingof texts of high interest (literature)
    5. Writing for a real audience and not simply to practice writing skills.
    6. The use of student-produced texts
  • Main Principles
    7.Integration of all four skills – reading, writing, listening and speaking
    8. It is a student –centered learning
    9. Encouragement of risk –taking and the acceptance of errors as signs of learningrather than of failure
  • TEACHER`S ROLES
    The teacher is a facilitator and negotiates a plan of work with the learners.
    The Teacher is an active participant in the learning community rather than an expert passing on knowledge.
    The Teacher creates a supportive and collaborative climate.
  • Learner's Roles
    The learner is a collaborator
    (with classmates, with the teacher)
    The learner is evaluator of his/her own and other's
    leaning
    The learners select
    learning materials
    and activities.
  • Classroom activities
    -Individual /small group
    reading and writing
    -Writing conferences
    -Story – writing
    - Dialogue journals
    - Student – made books
  • Negative Point
    WhLapproach is seen as anti – direct
    teaching, anti-skills, anti–materials.
    Positive Points
    * It focuses on experiences and activities that are relevant to learner’ s lives and needs
    * It uses authentic materials
    * It facilitates the development of all aspects of a second language.
  • (Howard Gardner, 1993)
    MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES
    It focuses on differences between learners
    and the need to recognize learner differences in
    teaching.
    All learners have individual styles,
    preferences or intelligences.
    Teaching is most successful when these
    learner differences are acknowledged
    and applied in teaching.
    MI approach must be used in design of
    lesson planning.
  • Kinds of intelligences and Language – Learning Activities
    Student speeches, storytelling, debates, word games, creating class newspapers
    1.Linguistic-the ability
    to use language in
    special and creative
    ways.(Lawyers,writers,
    editors, interpreters
  • Kinds of intelligences and Language Learning Activities
    *puzzles,story problems,
    calculations,codes,scien-
    tific demonstrations,
    logic problems
    2.Logical-
    mathematical –
    the ability to think
    rationally (doctors,
    engineers, scientists )
  • *Charts,maps,video, diagrams, movies, optical illusions, student drawing, imaginative storytelling
    3.Spatial-the ability to
    form mental models of
    the world(architects,
    decorators sculptors,
    painters )
  • 4.Musical-a good ear for music
    (singers,composers)
    * Playing rerecorded music, singing, group singing
  • *Creative movement,
    role-plays, hands-on activities, miming
    5.Bodily /Kinesthetic
    –having a well-
    coordinating body
    (athletes and
    craftsperson )
  • *Cooperative
    groups,peer
    teaching,group
    brainstorming,
    board games,
    pair work
    6. Interpersonal–
    the ability to be able
    to work well with
    people (salespeople,
    politicians, teachers)
  • *Independent
    student work,
    options for
    homework,
    reflective learning,
    goal setting
    7.Intrapersonal-
    the ability to under-
    stand oneself and
    apply one’s talent
    successfully.
  • 8.Naturalist– the ability to understand and organize the patterns of nature
  • nnesterenko@utpl.edu.ec
    072 – 570-275 ( ext. 2327 )
    THANK YOU!