METHODOLOGY I Abril – Agosto 2011 ENGLISH LANGUAGE SCHOOL PRIMER ESCUELA: BIMESTRE: NOMBRE: M.S. NINA NESTERENKO
What is METHODOLOGY? Teaching - is “ showing or helping someone to learn how to do something giving instructions, guiding in the study of something, providing with knowledge, causing to know or understand “ Method – is a plan for presentation of language material.
Methods are distinctive at the early stage, and rather indistinguishable from each other at later stages. It is not proved which method is the best. It depends on the situation There will never be a method for all. The focus on the development of classroom tasks and activities.
TEACHERS AND TEACHING SUCCESSFUL teacher: 1.has a practical command of English, not just a knowledge of grammar rules. 2.uses English most of the time in every class, including beginner classes 3.thinks mostly in terms of learner practice, not teacher explanations
4.finds time for really communicative activities, not just practice of language forms. 5.Focuses the teaching on learner`s needs, not just on “ finishing” the syllabus or course book.
Establishing Goals and Objectives in Teaching English The clear definition of appropriate goals is vital to successful English language teaching – learning process. Establishing short - and long – term goals.
VARIATIONS IN COURSE GOALS 1.enable the learners to communicate in real English (both spoken and written) 2.enable the learners to read technical publications in real English. 3.get the learners to me - morize English grammar rules and vocabulary. Thegoals of differentcoursesshould
is to achieve good results The main goal of teaching English Attention, clear interest toward the teacher‘s explanation,listening, asking and answering questions, following instructions, active participation
GRAMMAR – TRANSLATION METHOD Why Grammar – Translation? It dominated European language Teaching (1840s -1940s )
to learn language in order to read the target language literature 1. Analysis of grammar rules followed by translating exercises 2. Reading and writing ( little attention to speaking / listening) . Reading of difficult classical texts is begun at an early stage of studying. 3. Vocabulary is based on reading texts used (words are taught through bilingual isolated word lists) . : GOAL CHARACTERISTICS
5.Accuracy is emphasized– ( high standards in translation ) 6. Grammar is taught deductively 7.Little or no attention is given to pronunciation. 8.Class is taught in the student’s mother tongue.
NEGATIVE POINTS It may create a sense of frustration ( memorizing rules and isolated vocabulary, translation exercises) There is no theory how to teach There is no literature that offers a rationale or justification for it or that attempts to relate it to issues of linguistics, psychology or educational theory . It makes few demands on teachers
Positive Points . It is useful when understanding texts is the primary focus of foreign language study little need for speaking no specialized training on the part of teachers tests of grammar rules and of translations are easy to construct and score objectively no special material for teaching It is successful in leading a student toward a reading knowledge of a foreign language.
The DIRECT METHOD(XIX) , Charles Berlitz “ “ naturalistic “ or “natural” method – child language acquisition Meaning is conveyed directly through demonstration and action. Emphasis on speaking skills
1.Classroom instruction - exclusively in the target language 2. Everyday vocabulary is taught. 3.Oral communication- around question/answer exchanges between teachers and students in small, intensive class. 4.Concrete vocabulary is taught through demon- strations, pictures, objects. Characteristics
Characteristics 5.Grammar is taught inductively 6.Listening and speaking are emphasized 7.Emphasis on correct grammar and pronunciation. 8. New teaching items are introduced orally
LIMITATIONS of D. M. 1.The D.M. requires native speaker teachers (or who have native- like fluency ) 2.It is dependent on the teacher’s skills, rather on the textbook. 3.Problems with following strict D.M. techniques.
Limitations of The D.M. 4.It is difficult to apply in public secondary school education 5.It is counterproductive (long teacher explanation in order to avoid using the native language) The D.M. declined in Europe by the 1920s It was implemented in American schools with some modifications.
POSITIVE POINTS High motivation Focus on conversational skills Native-speaking teachers (good speaking model)
The Oral Approach and Situational Language Teaching ( 1930`s – 1960`s, Harold Palmer and A. Hornby ) Palmer and Hornby -grammar as the underlying sentence patterns of the spoken language Speech - is the basis of language, and grammar – is the heart of speaking ability.
CHARACTERISTICS teaching begins with the spoken language. Material is taught orally before it s presented in written form. The target language is the language of the classroom. Language is introduced and practiced situationally. Grammar:simple forms are taught before complex ones. Reading and writing are introduced once a sufficient lexical and grammatical basis is established. Emphasis on accuracy (grammar and pronunciation), avoid errors at all costs. Writing derives from speech.
situational, situation : the use of concrete objects, pictures, and realia, which together with actions and gestures can be used to demonstrate the meaning of new language items. The model sentences and vocabulary are taken from a single situation.
Meaning, context, and situation are given a prominent place. Language is related to goals and situations in the real world. The word meaning and grammar are deduced from the way they are used in a situation.
OBJECTIVES To teach a practical command of four basic skills. Accuracy in both pronunciation and grammar (avoid errors )
LEARNERS ROLES More active participation is encouraged at later stages. Learners have no control over the content of learning
TEACHER`S ROLES Teacher serves as a model to create the new structures for students to repeat Teacher is a “skillful manipulator” using questions,commands to elicit correct sentences from the learners Class is teacher – centered
The Role of Instructional Materials SLT is dependant on both a textbook and visual aids Textbook – contains organized lesson planned around diff. grammar structures Visual aids may be produced by the teacher (wall harts, flashcards, pictures, stick figures, so on )
Typical OA / SLT class 1.PRESENTATION:introductionof a new teaching item in a context or situation 2.PRACTICE:controlled practice of the item 3.PRODUCTION : a freer practice phase
THE AUDIOLINGUAL METHOD (The Army method) Speech is language: we first learn to speak,and then to read and write Speechis a primarygoal Language skills are learned more effectively if the items are presented in the spoken form first before they are seen in written form
Short –term : training in listening comprehension, accurate pronunciation , acquaintance with vocabulary items, meaning Long – term :“ must be language as the native speaker uses it “ (Brook ) Emphasis : - accurate pronunciation - correct grammar - ability to respond quickly in speech situations Objectives
Characteristics 1 Structural patterns are taught using repetitive drills New material is presented in dialogue form Vocabulary is limited and learned in context , not in isolation Correct pronunciation and grammar are emphasized The mother tongue is not permitted. Successful responses are immediately reinforced Reading and writing may be taught but they are dependant on prior oral skills
Classroom ACTIVITIES After a dialogue has been presented and memorized, specific grammatical patterns in the dialogues are selected and become a focus of various kinds of drills. Imitation Drills Repetition Dialogues Memorization
Teacher `s Role The Role of Instructional Materials This is a teacher- centered method. Instructional materials assist the teacher to develop language mastery in the learner. Language laboratory is essential. Tape-recorder and audiovisual equipment have central roles
Total Physical Response James Asher, ( 1970s – 1980s ,USA) Main objective Teach oral proficiency at a beginning level Achieve comprehension Teach basic speaking skills
TEORY OF LANGUAGE AND LEARNING * It is built around the coordination of speech and action (child language acquisition)). * A stimulus – response view ( memory connection ) *Listening should be accompanied by physical movement. *Speech and other productive skills should come later.
Commands are used Commands are accompanied by physical actions No verbal response is necessary Special attention to feedback(teacher should not interrupt for correction ) Much affection Grammaristaughtinductively Characteristics
Stress - free learning environment More complex syntax could be incorporated into the imperative mood. Sentence-based syllabus vs grammar–based Detailedlesson plan
It is a teacher – centered method: teacher decides what to teach, models and presents the new materials Teacher provides the exposure to language Teacher uses classroomobjects and othersupportingmaterials (pictures, realia, slides, word charts )
THE SILENT WAY by CALEB GATTEGNO The Silent Way – is “ learning to learn” Primacy of learning over teaching. Emphasis on learner's priorities and commitments. Problem-solving approaches to learning , represented in the words of Benjamin Franklin:Tell me and I forget, teach me and I remember, Involve me and I learn.
According to Gattegno: 1. Learning is facilitated if the learner discovers rather than just memorizes and repeats what is to be learned. 2. Learning is viewed as a problem-solving, creative, discovering activity, in which the learner is the principal actor.
Goal and General objectives of the Silent Way to give beginning level students oral facility in basic elements of the target language To provide the learner with a basic practical knowledge of the grammar to achieve near-native fluency and correct pronunciation
Learners are expected to develop independence, autonomy, and responsibility Students correct themselves Students are expected to make generalizations and come to their own conclusions. Learner's Roles
Teacher's Roles To test To teach To get out of the way
Teacher remains silent as much time as possible Teacher monitors learner's interaction with each other Teacher uses gestures, charts, shapes students responses Teacher “writes the script, chooses the props, sets the mood, models the action, designates the players, and is critic for the performance”
The Silent Way Class Presentation of the item using nonverbal clues to get across meanings . Testing follows immediately Elicitation and shaping of student production Students are presentedwiththestructuralpatterns and learnthegrammar rules throughinductiveprocess Lessons are plannedaroundgrammar and relatedvocabulary
The S. W. Class Free conversations and dialogues are transcribed and distributed for study and analysis. Class / group discussion of single topic Analysis /practice of sentencestructure, patterns, vocabulary Summaries based on the discussed topics Workonintonation /pronunciation Practice of thelearned material in a situation
COMMUNITY LANGUAGE LEARNING( Charles Curran, 1970’s, University of Chicago) Counseling- learning (counselor-client relationships). It includes emotions and feelings.
Theory of Language and Learning: LL interactions : between learners (class becomes a community of learners; this interaction is unpredictable and involves exchanges of affect) between learners and teacher ( this interaction is dependant )
CHARACTERISTICS The progression is topic-based ( no specific goal) Learnersnominatethingstheywishtodiscuss Learnerschooseornominatemessagestheywanttotransmittoclassmates Students learn through interacting with the community; learning is achieved collaboratively
* Students learn to work cooperatively (vs competitively) * Ss should create a positive environment to feel comfortable both correcting one another and being corrected by one another. *Ss learn through interaction within the community (teacher-classmates) Learner's Roles
Learner`s Roles to produce target utteranceswithout hesitation toencourageclassmatestointeractwith eachother to share feelings tobecomecounselors of otherlearners LEARNERS ARE EXPECTED
Teacher's Roles Control the usage of correct grammar and vocabulary ( may supply idioms, idiomatic expressions, phrases, phrasal verbs) Developlearningmaterials Helpstudentsacceptcriticism
Teacher's Roles Monitor learner utterances and provide assistance Respond in a supportive manner provide a model
ClassroomActivities Group work (scripts, dialogues, mini-dramas) Free conversations / class /group discussions of controversial topics Exchange of questions : students and a teacheroranotherknower ( invitedperson ) Comments / summary about/of discussed material Use of pictures,puppets,drawings
Negative points - High demand on teachers - Thecouncelingbyteacherisunderthequestion (special training) -No teacningmaterials -Teacherisdependantonthe students`choice of topics -Evaluation is difficult to accomplish - Enadequate control of the oral production and grammar CLL stresses the benefits of humanistic side of language learning
Suggestopedia (1979, GeorgiLozanov) Characteristics - class arrangement : the use of comfortable furniture - music and music rhythm – it helps to increase self-esteem through increased self-satisfaction in musical performance - state of relaxation of learners and highly positive environment
teacher: people remember better and are more influenced if infor- mation comes from anauthorita- tive source Authority (of a teacher) – to suggest a teacher-student relation like that of parent to child.
OBJECTIVE – to deliver advanced conversational profociency quickly DIRECT : text and tape The text should have emotional force, literary quality, and interesting characters. - INDIRECT: classroom décor, music. Materials:
Typical class: 1 1stpart-oral review section.Previously learned material is a basis for discussion. Attention to grammar, vocabulary. Emphasis on role- plays (in a hotel,description of tourist or other places, etc) 2nd part - presentation and discussion of new material(students may analyze a new dialogue and its translation, grammar, vocabulary. This section is exclusively in the target language) 3rd part – concert session– teacher reads the text. Students listen and at the end, leave the room in silence. No homework.
NEGATIVE ASPECT-much memorization POSITIVE POINTS -We learn about how to believe in the power of the human brain; - The state of relaxation may be beneficial in the classroom.
Whole Language ( 1980’s -1990’s) The WhL- language should be taught as a “whole” Emphasis on learning to read and write naturally with a focus on real communication and reading and writing for pleasure Language is seen as something that is used for meaningful purposes and to carry out authentic functions
MAIN PRINCIPLES: 1.The use of authentic literature and real world materials rather than specially prepared texts. 2.Focus on real and natural events rather than on specially written stories that do not relate to student’s experience. 3.Reading for comprehension
Main Principles 4.Readingof texts of high interest (literature) 5. Writing for a real audience and not simply to practice writing skills. 6. The use of student-produced texts
Main Principles 7.Integration of all four skills – reading, writing, listening and speaking 8. It is a student –centered learning 9. Encouragement of risk –taking and the acceptance of errors as signs of learningrather than of failure
TEACHER`S ROLES The teacher is a facilitator and negotiates a plan of work with the learners. The Teacher is an active participant in the learning community rather than an expert passing on knowledge. The Teacher creates a supportive and collaborative climate.
Learner's Roles The learner is a collaborator (with classmates, with the teacher) The learner is evaluator of his/her own and other's leaning The learners select learning materials and activities.
Classroom activities -Individual /small group reading and writing -Writing conferences -Story – writing - Dialogue journals - Student – made books
Negative Point WhLapproach is seen as anti – direct teaching, anti-skills, anti–materials. Positive Points * It focuses on experiences and activities that are relevant to learner’ s lives and needs * It uses authentic materials * It facilitates the development of all aspects of a second language.
(Howard Gardner, 1993) MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES It focuses on differences between learners and the need to recognize learner differences in teaching. All learners have individual styles, preferences or intelligences. Teaching is most successful when these learner differences are acknowledged and applied in teaching. MI approach must be used in design of lesson planning.
Kinds of intelligences and Language – Learning Activities Student speeches, storytelling, debates, word games, creating class newspapers 1.Linguistic-the ability to use language in special and creative ways.(Lawyers,writers, editors, interpreters
Kinds of intelligences and Language Learning Activities *puzzles,story problems, calculations,codes,scien- tific demonstrations, logic problems 2.Logical- mathematical – the ability to think rationally (doctors, engineers, scientists )
*Charts,maps,video, diagrams, movies, optical illusions, student drawing, imaginative storytelling 3.Spatial-the ability to form mental models of the world(architects, decorators sculptors, painters )
4.Musical-a good ear for music (singers,composers) * Playing rerecorded music, singing, group singing
*Creative movement, role-plays, hands-on activities, miming 5.Bodily /Kinesthetic –having a well- coordinating body (athletes and craftsperson )
*Cooperative groups,peer teaching,group brainstorming, board games, pair work 6. Interpersonal– the ability to be able to work well with people (salespeople, politicians, teachers)
*Independent student work, options for homework, reflective learning, goal setting 7.Intrapersonal- the ability to under- stand oneself and apply one’s talent successfully.
8.Naturalist– the ability to understand and organize the patterns of nature