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METHODOLOGY I ( I Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)

METHODOLOGY I ( I Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)



Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja

Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja
Ciclo Académico Abril Agosto 2011
Carrera: Inglés
Docente: M S. Nina Aleksandrovna Nesterenko
Ciclo: Quinto
Bimestre: Primero



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    METHODOLOGY I ( I Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011) METHODOLOGY I ( I Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011) Presentation Transcript

      Abril – Agosto 2011
    • What is METHODOLOGY?
      Teaching - is “ showing or helping someone to learn how to do something giving instructions, guiding in the study of something, providing with knowledge, causing to know or understand “
      Method – is a plan for presentation of language material.
    • Methods are distinctive at the early
      stage, and rather indistinguishable
      from each other at later stages.
      It is not proved which method is the best. It depends on the situation
      There will never be a method for all.
      The focus on the development of
      classroom tasks and activities.
      SUCCESSFUL teacher:
      1.has a practical command of English, not just a knowledge of grammar rules.
      2.uses English most of the time
      in every class, including
      beginner classes
      3.thinks mostly in terms of learner
      practice, not teacher explanations
    • 4.finds time for really communicative activities, not just practice of language forms.
      5.Focuses the teaching on learner`s needs, not just on “ finishing” the syllabus or course book.
    • Establishing Goals and
      Objectives in Teaching English
      The clear definition of appropriate goals is
      vital to successful English language teaching – learning process.
      Establishing short - and long – term goals.
      1.enable the learners to communicate in real English (both spoken and written)
      2.enable the learners to read technical
      publications in real English.
      3.get the learners to me -
      morize English grammar
      rules and vocabulary.
      Thegoals of differentcoursesshould
    • is to achieve good results
      The main goal of teaching English
      Attention, clear interest toward the teacher‘s explanation,listening, asking and answering questions, following instructions, active participation
      Why Grammar – Translation?
      It dominated European language
      Teaching (1840s -1940s )
    • to learn language in order to read the
      target language literature
      1. Analysis of grammar rules followed by translating exercises
      2. Reading and writing ( little attention to speaking / listening) . Reading of difficult classical texts is begun at an early stage of studying.
      3. Vocabulary is based on reading texts used
      (words are taught through bilingual isolated word lists)
    • 5.Accuracy is emphasized–
      ( high standards in translation )
      6. Grammar is taught deductively
      7.Little or no attention is given to
      8.Class is taught in the student’s mother tongue.
      It may create a sense of frustration ( memorizing rules and isolated vocabulary, translation exercises)
      There is no theory how to teach
      There is no literature that offers a rationale or justification for it or that attempts to relate it to issues of linguistics, psychology or educational
      theory .
      It makes few demands on teachers
    • Positive Points
      It is useful when understanding texts is the primary focus of foreign language study
      little need for speaking
      no specialized training on the part of teachers
      tests of grammar rules and of translations are easy to construct and score objectively
      no special material for teaching
      It is successful in leading a student toward a reading knowledge of a foreign language.
    • The DIRECT METHOD(XIX) , Charles Berlitz
      “ “ naturalistic “ or “natural” method – child language acquisition
      Meaning is conveyed directly through demonstration and action.
      Emphasis on speaking skills
    • 1.Classroom instruction -
      exclusively in the target language
      2. Everyday vocabulary is taught.
      3.Oral communication- around question/answer exchanges between teachers and students in small, intensive class.
      4.Concrete vocabulary is
      taught through demon-
      strations, pictures, objects.
    • Characteristics
      5.Grammar is taught
      6.Listening and speaking are
      7.Emphasis on correct grammar
      and pronunciation.
      8. New teaching items are
      introduced orally
    • Principles of The Direct Method
      • Never translate : demonstrate
      • Never explain : act
      • Never make a speech : ask
      • Never imitate mistake : correct
      • Never speak with single words:
      use sentences
      • Never speak too much : make students speak much
      • Never use your book : use your lesson plan
      • Never jump around : follow your plan
      • Never go too fast : keep the pace of the student
      • Never speak too slowly : speak normally
      • Never speak too quickly : speak naturally
    • LIMITATIONS of D. M.
      1.The D.M. requires native
      speaker teachers (or who have native-
      like fluency )
      2.It is dependent on the teacher’s skills, rather on the textbook.
      3.Problems with following strict D.M. techniques.
    • Limitations of The D.M.
      4.It is difficult to apply in
      public secondary school
      5.It is counterproductive
      (long teacher explanation in order to avoid using the native language)
      The D.M. declined in Europe by the 1920s
      It was implemented in American schools
      with some modifications.
      High motivation
      Focus on conversational skills
      Native-speaking teachers
      (good speaking model)
    • The Oral Approach and Situational Language Teaching ( 1930`s – 1960`s, Harold Palmer and A. Hornby )
      Palmer and Hornby -grammar as
      the underlying sentence patterns
      of the spoken language
      Speech - is the basis of language,
      and grammar – is the heart of speaking
      teaching begins with the spoken language.
      Material is taught orally before it s presented in written form.
      The target language is the language of the classroom.
      Language is introduced and practiced situationally.
      Grammar:simple forms are taught before complex ones.
      Reading and writing are introduced once
      a sufficient lexical and grammatical
      basis is established.
      Emphasis on accuracy (grammar
      and pronunciation), avoid errors at all
      Writing derives from speech.
    • situational, situation : the use of concrete objects, pictures, and realia, which together with actions and gestures can be used to demonstrate the meaning of new language items.
      The model sentences and
      vocabulary are taken
      from a single situation.
    • Meaning, context, and situation
      are given a prominent place.
      Language is related to goals
      and situations in the real world.
      The word meaning and grammar
      are deduced from the way they
      are used in a
      To teach a practical command of four
      basic skills.
      Accuracy in both pronunciation and
      grammar (avoid errors )
      More active participation is encouraged
      at later stages.
      Learners have no control over the content of learning
      Teacher serves as a model to create
      the new structures for students to repeat
      Teacher is a “skillful manipulator”
      using questions,commands to elicit
      correct sentences from the learners
      Class is teacher – centered
    • The Role of Instructional Materials
      SLT is dependant on both a textbook
      and visual aids
      Textbook – contains organized lesson planned around diff. grammar structures
      Visual aids may be produced by the teacher
      (wall harts, flashcards, pictures, stick
      figures, so on )
    • Typical OA / SLT class
      1.PRESENTATION:introductionof a new teaching item in a context or situation
      practice of the item
      3.PRODUCTION :
      a freer practice phase
    • THE AUDIOLINGUAL METHOD (The Army method)
      Speech is language: we first learn
      to speak,and then to read and write
      Speechis a primarygoal
      Language skills are learned
      more effectively if the items are
      presented in the spoken form first
      before they are seen in written form
    • Short –term : training in listening
      comprehension, accurate pronunciation ,
      acquaintance with vocabulary items, meaning
      Long – term :“ must be language as the native speaker uses it “ (Brook )
      Emphasis :
      - accurate pronunciation
      - correct grammar
      - ability to respond quickly in
      speech situations
    • Characteristics
      Structural patterns are taught using repetitive
      New material is presented
      in dialogue form
      Vocabulary is limited and
      learned in context , not in
      Correct pronunciation and grammar are emphasized
      The mother tongue is not
      Successful responses
      are immediately
      Reading and writing may be
      taught but they are dependant on prior oral skills
    • Classroom ACTIVITIES
      After a dialogue has been presented and memorized,
      specific grammatical patterns in the dialogues are
      selected and become a focus of various kinds of drills.
    • Teacher `s Role
      The Role of Instructional Materials
      This is a teacher- centered method.
      Instructional materials assist the teacher to develop language mastery
      in the learner.
      Language laboratory is essential. Tape-recorder and audiovisual equipment have central roles
    • Total Physical Response
      James Asher, ( 1970s – 1980s ,USA)
      Main objective
      Teach oral proficiency at a beginning
      Achieve comprehension
      Teach basic speaking skills
      * It is built around the coordination of
      speech and action (child
      language acquisition)).
      * A stimulus – response view
      ( memory connection )
      *Listening should be accompanied
      by physical movement.
      *Speech and other productive
      skills should come later.
    • Commands are used
      Commands are accompanied by
      physical actions
      No verbal response is necessary
      Special attention to feedback(teacher
      should not interrupt for correction )
      Much affection
    • Stress - free learning environment
      More complex syntax could be incorporated into the imperative mood.
      Sentence-based syllabus vs grammar–based
      Detailedlesson plan
    • It is a teacher – centered method: teacher decides what to teach, models and presents the new materials
      Teacher provides the exposure
      to language
      Teacher uses classroomobjects and
      (pictures, realia, slides, word charts )
    • Classroom Activities
      Imperative drills –to elicit physical
      Role- plays: everyday situations
      (ex.in a restaurant, supermarket,
      hotel, gas station, hospital, etc)
      The Silent Way – is “ learning to learn”
      Primacy of learning over teaching.
      Emphasis on learner's priorities and commitments.
      Problem-solving approaches to learning , represented in the words of Benjamin Franklin:Tell me and I forget, teach me and I remember, Involve me and I learn.
    • According to Gattegno:
      1. Learning is facilitated if the learner discovers rather than just memorizes and repeats what is to be learned.
      2. Learning is viewed as a problem-solving, creative, discovering activity, in which the learner is the principal actor.
    • Goal and General objectives of the Silent Way
      to give beginning level students oral facility in basic elements of the target language
      To provide the learner with a basic practical knowledge of the grammar
      to achieve near-native fluency and correct pronunciation
    • Learners are expected to develop independence, autonomy, and responsibility
      Students correct themselves
      Students are expected to make
      generalizations and come
      to their own conclusions.
      Learner's Roles
    • Teacher's Roles
      To test
      To teach
      To get out of the way
    • Teacher remains silent as much time as possible
      Teacher monitors learner's interaction with each other
      Teacher uses gestures, charts, shapes students responses
      Teacher “writes the script, chooses the props, sets the mood, models the action, designates the players, and is critic for the performance”
    • The Silent Way Class
      Presentation of the item using nonverbal
      clues to get across meanings
      Testing follows immediately
      Elicitation and shaping of student production
      Students are presentedwiththestructuralpatterns and learnthegrammar rules throughinductiveprocess
      Lessons are plannedaroundgrammar and
    • The S. W. Class
      Free conversations and dialogues are transcribed and distributed for study and analysis.
      Class / group discussion of single topic
      Analysis /practice of sentencestructure, patterns, vocabulary
      Summaries based on the discussed topics
      Workonintonation /pronunciation
      Practice of thelearned material in a situation
    • COMMUNITY LANGUAGE LEARNING( Charles Curran, 1970’s, University of Chicago)
      Counseling- learning (counselor-client relationships). It includes emotions and feelings.
    • Theory of Language and Learning:
      LL interactions :
      between learners (class becomes a community of learners; this interaction is unpredictable and involves exchanges of affect)
      between learners and teacher ( this interaction is dependant )
      The progression is topic-based ( no specific goal)
      Students learn through interacting with the community; learning is achieved collaboratively
    • * Students learn to work
      cooperatively (vs competitively)
      * Ss should create a positive environment to feel
      comfortable both correcting one another and
      being corrected by one another.
      *Ss learn through interaction
      within the community
      Learner's Roles
    • Learner`s Roles
      to produce target utteranceswithout
      to share feelings
      of otherlearners
    • Teacher's Roles
      Control the usage of correct grammar and vocabulary ( may supply idioms, idiomatic expressions, phrases, phrasal verbs)
    • Teacher's Roles
      Monitor learner
      utterances and provide assistance
      Respond in a supportive
      provide a model
    • ClassroomActivities
      Group work (scripts, dialogues, mini-dramas)
      Free conversations / class /group discussions of
      controversial topics
      Exchange of questions : students and a teacheroranotherknower
      ( invitedperson )
      Comments / summary about/of
      discussed material
      Use of pictures,puppets,drawings
    • Negative points
      - High demand on teachers
      - Thecouncelingbyteacherisunderthequestion (special training)
      -No teacningmaterials
      students`choice of topics
      -Evaluation is difficult to
      - Enadequate control of the
      oral production and grammar
      CLL stresses
      the benefits of
      humanistic side of
      language learning
    • Suggestopedia
      (1979, GeorgiLozanov)
      - class arrangement : the use of comfortable furniture
      - music and music rhythm – it helps to increase self-esteem through increased self-satisfaction in musical performance
      - state of relaxation of learners and highly positive environment
    • Characteristics
      • authoritative behaviour of the
      teacher: people remember better
      and are more influenced if infor-
      mation comes from anauthorita-
      tive source
      Authority (of a teacher) –
      to suggest a teacher-student
      relation like that of parent to child.
    • OBJECTIVE – to deliver advanced conversational profociency quickly
      DIRECT : text and tape
      The text should have emotional force,
      literary quality, and interesting characters.
      - INDIRECT: classroom décor, music.
    • Classroom activities
      Listening activities
    • Typical class:
      1stpart-oral review section.Previously learned material is a basis for discussion. Attention to grammar, vocabulary. Emphasis on role- plays
      (in a hotel,description of tourist or other places, etc)
      2nd part - presentation and discussion of new material(students may analyze a new dialogue and its translation, grammar, vocabulary. This section is exclusively in the target language)
      3rd part – concert session– teacher reads the text. Students listen and at the end, leave the room in silence. No homework.
    • NEGATIVE ASPECT-much memorization
      -We learn about how to believe in the power of the human brain;
      - The state of relaxation may be beneficial in the classroom.
    • Whole Language
      ( 1980’s -1990’s)
      The WhL- language should be taught as a “whole”
      Emphasis on learning to read and write naturally with
      a focus on real communication and reading
      and writing for pleasure
      Language is seen as something that is used
      for meaningful purposes and to carry out
      authentic functions
      1.The use of authentic
      literature and real world
      materials rather than specially prepared
      2.Focus on real and natural events rather than on specially written stories that do not relate to student’s experience.
      3.Reading for comprehension
    • Main Principles
      4.Readingof texts of high interest (literature)
      5. Writing for a real audience and not simply to practice writing skills.
      6. The use of student-produced texts
    • Main Principles
      7.Integration of all four skills – reading, writing, listening and speaking
      8. It is a student –centered learning
      9. Encouragement of risk –taking and the acceptance of errors as signs of learningrather than of failure
      The teacher is a facilitator and negotiates a plan of work with the learners.
      The Teacher is an active participant in the learning community rather than an expert passing on knowledge.
      The Teacher creates a supportive and collaborative climate.
    • Learner's Roles
      The learner is a collaborator
      (with classmates, with the teacher)
      The learner is evaluator of his/her own and other's
      The learners select
      learning materials
      and activities.
    • Classroom activities
      -Individual /small group
      reading and writing
      -Writing conferences
      -Story – writing
      - Dialogue journals
      - Student – made books
    • Negative Point
      WhLapproach is seen as anti – direct
      teaching, anti-skills, anti–materials.
      Positive Points
      * It focuses on experiences and activities that are relevant to learner’ s lives and needs
      * It uses authentic materials
      * It facilitates the development of all aspects of a second language.
    • (Howard Gardner, 1993)
      It focuses on differences between learners
      and the need to recognize learner differences in
      All learners have individual styles,
      preferences or intelligences.
      Teaching is most successful when these
      learner differences are acknowledged
      and applied in teaching.
      MI approach must be used in design of
      lesson planning.
    • Kinds of intelligences and Language – Learning Activities
      Student speeches, storytelling, debates, word games, creating class newspapers
      1.Linguistic-the ability
      to use language in
      special and creative
      editors, interpreters
    • Kinds of intelligences and Language Learning Activities
      *puzzles,story problems,
      tific demonstrations,
      logic problems
      mathematical –
      the ability to think
      rationally (doctors,
      engineers, scientists )
    • *Charts,maps,video, diagrams, movies, optical illusions, student drawing, imaginative storytelling
      3.Spatial-the ability to
      form mental models of
      the world(architects,
      decorators sculptors,
      painters )
    • 4.Musical-a good ear for music
      * Playing rerecorded music, singing, group singing
    • *Creative movement,
      role-plays, hands-on activities, miming
      5.Bodily /Kinesthetic
      –having a well-
      coordinating body
      (athletes and
      craftsperson )
    • *Cooperative
      board games,
      pair work
      6. Interpersonal–
      the ability to be able
      to work well with
      people (salespeople,
      politicians, teachers)
    • *Independent
      student work,
      options for
      reflective learning,
      goal setting
      the ability to under-
      stand oneself and
      apply one’s talent
    • 8.Naturalist– the ability to understand and organize the patterns of nature
    • nnesterenko@utpl.edu.ec
      072 – 570-275 ( ext. 2327 )
      THANK YOU!