Methodology I


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Difficult tasks may reduce the attention, therefore, fluency may develop at the expense of accuracy

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Methodology I

  2. 2. 1970`s John Grindler ( linguist ) Richard Bandler( psychologist) It’s a humanistic training philosophy and set of suggestions and training techniques therapist could use in building rapport with clients, gathering information about their internal and external views of the world, and helping them achieve goals and bring about personal change, and designed to convince people that they have the power to control their own and other people’s lives for the better, and prescriptions on how to do that. 2
  3. 3. Approach: Theory of Language and Learning NLP – is an interpersonal communication model “ neuro “ refers to the brain and how it functions. “ Neuro” part of NLP is concerned with how we experience the world through our 5 senses and represent it in our minds through neurological process. “ Linguistic” – refers to a theory communication. It tries to explain both verbal and non-verbal information processing. “Linguistic“ part of NLP is concerned with the way the language we use shapes and reflects our thinking and experience of the 3 world.
  4. 4. “Programming” refers to patterns or “programs”of thoughts and behaviour. This part of NLP is concerned with training ourselves to think, to speak, and act in new and positive ways in order to release our potential and reach the achievements we dream about. 5
  5. 5. Principles of NLP Outcomes: or “ know what you want” knowing what you want helps you achieve it. Rapport “Establish rapport with yourself and then with others” – it is essential for communication (maximize similarities and minimize differences between Sensory acuity people) Use your senses” – look at, listen to, and feel what is happening. 5
  6. 6. Flexibility “ Keep changing what you do until you until you get what you want” – have a range of skills to do something else if what you are doing is not working. 6
  7. 7. SKILLS vs PHILOSOPHY Modelling is central to NLP. - The effectiveness of successful people lies not in their skills but in their attitudes, approaches and philosophies they have in common which make them capable of efective work, and these could be lerned and transmitted. Others could learn from thse models to be effective the same way. In NLP “change “ in a person is very important 7
  8. 8. WHAT TEACHER SHOULD TAKE INTO ACCOUNT 1. Mind and body are interconnected: they are parts of the same system, and each affects the other. 2. We all have different maps of he world. 3. There is no failure, only feedback and the opportunity for success. 4. Knowing what you want helps you to get it. 5. The resources we need are within us.. 8
  9. 9. 7. Communication is nonverbal as well as verbal. 2. Communication is nonconscious as well as conscious. 9. All behaviour has a positive intention. 10. The meaning of my communication is the response I get. 11. Modeling excellent behaviour leads to excellence. 12. In any system, the element with the greatest flexibility will have the most influence on that system. 9
  10. 10. Teachers seek to apply the principles in their teaching and this leads to different responses to many classroom events and processes. (need for rapport ) 10
  11. 11. RAPPORT – meeting others in their world, to understand their needs, values and their culture and communicating in the congruent ways. (“Putting yourself in someone's shoes”) 11
  12. 12. NLP can be applied to the teaching of all aspects of language. The suggested lesson sequence is “ to help students become aware of a feeling level of the conceptual meaning of a grammatical structure”. 12
  13. 13. THE LEXICAL APPROACH Main point of LA belief that “building blocks “ of language learning and communication are not grammar, functions,notions, but LEXIS – words and word combinations ( word collocations) . Collocations – are regular occurrence together of words. Phrasal verbs and idioms are varieties of collocations. Lexis plays a central role in language learning. 13
  14. 14. Krashen – through reading Lewis (2000) – through teacher’ s talk (teacher is a “knower”, learner – a “discoverer “ ) Teacher's talk is a major source of learner input in demonstrating how lexical phrases are used for different functional purposes. Computer – based applications - through investigations and comparison. 14
  15. 15. 1. texts, tapes, teacher's manual. 2.collections of vocabulary teaching activities. 3. printout versions of computer corpora collections in text format. 4. computer programs ( CD ROM format, to downloaded from sites on the Internet). 15
  16. 16. Classroom activities Should involve the use of tasks that that draw student’s attention to lexical collocations and seek to enhance their retention and use of collocations. Use of exercises that focus on lexical phrases through debates, analyzing contexts. Use of comparative analysis via computers Use of reading or contexts that enable students to discover the collocations; select the collocations which are crucial for student’s needs. Use of exercises that involve teaching individual collocations. 16
  17. 17. Classroom Activities Give synonyms / antonyms Write the sentences with the new words Store collocations or phrase verbs and idioms in a lexical notebook Give feedback on learner’s errors. Teaching individual collocations Making students aware of collocations 17 Write word definitions
  18. 18. COMPETENCY – BASED LANGUAGE TEACHING USA, 1970`s ( CBLT ) Educational movement that is based on programs that consist in the following: . tasks that lead to a demonstrated mastery of language associated with specific skills that are necessary for individuals to function proficiently in the society. 18
  19. 19.  How appropriate is our vocabulary?  How would we speak in different situations?  How can we apply our vocabulary focusing on life skills?  How is the function of our language in different contexts? 19
  20. 20. Characteristics of CBLT: - -. 20
  21. 21. Characteristics of CBLT It has the notion that certain life encounters certain language (designers of CBLT can predict the vocabulary and structures likely to be encountered in those particular situations) CBLT is built around communicative competence and seeks to develop functional communication skills in learners. ( through specific real – world tasks) Competencies are designed to enable learners to participate effectively in society. 21
  22. 22. Description of Competencies Knowledge and learning competencies Oral competencies Reading competencies Writing competencies 22
  23. 23. CBLT design  It designed around the notion of competency Competencies consist of description of essential skills, attitudes, and behaviours required for effective performance of a real - world tasks or activities (they may be related to any domain in life , or linked to the field of work or to social survival in a new environment ) 23
  24. 24. According to Auerbach (1986), factors involved in implementation of CBE in ESL : 1.The focus on successful functioning in society. 2. A focus on life skills. 3.Task – or performance-centered orientation (what students can do as a result of instruction) 4. Modularized instruction ( objectives and sub- objectives- to have a clear sense of progress). 24
  25. 25. 5. Outcomes that are made explicit a priori : students know exactly what behaviours are expected of them. 6. Continuous and ongoing assessment. ( students determine what skills they lack). 7. Demonstrated mastery of performance objectives – abilities to demon- strate prespecified behaviours. 8.Individualized, student-centered instruction : objectives are defined in terms if individual needs, students progress at their own rate and on those areas in which they lack competence. 25
  26. 26. Activities  Fill job application  Perform job interview  Follow instructions to carry out a simple task  Respond appropriately to supervisor’ s comments  Use social language  Understand and comment work schedules , fill paychecks  Read charts labels, forms written instructions to perform a task 26  State problem and ask for help if necessary
  27. 27. Activities Follow simple oral directions to locate a place. Report completion of task to supervisor. Respond appropriately to work interruption or modification Ask where object is located: follow oral directions to locate an object 27
  28. 28. 1.The competencies are specific and practical and relate to learners needs. 2. The learners can judge whether the competencies are relevant and useful. 3. Learner knows exactly what needs to be learned. 4. Competencies can be mastered one at a time so the learner can see what has been learned and what still remains to be learned. 28
  29. 29. Negative Points - There are no valid procedures available to develop competency lists for more programs. - Many of the areas for which competencies are needed are impossible to operationalize ( areas of “adult living”,“survival”, “functioning proficiency in the community”, etc). 29
  30. 30. ( British language teaching, late 1960s) THEORY OF LANGUAGE It starts from a theory of a language as communication. Language is a system for the expression of meaning. The primary function of language is to allow interaction and communication. The focus on communicative and contextual factors in language use. Communicative acts underline the ability to use language for different purposes. 30
  31. 31. British linguist, D:A Wilkins( 1972) proposed functional definition of language Two types of meaning: 1.Notional categories – time, sequence, quantity, location, frequency 2. Categories of communicative function: requests, denials, offers, complaints The goal develop communicative
  32. 32. STRANDS OF CLT Language is not just bits of grammar, it also involves language functions( inviting, agreeing, suggestions etc ) which students should learn how to use. If students get enough exposure to language and have opportunities to use it and if they are motivated, then language learning will be successful. The main point of CLT is to remind teachers that people learn languages not so they “know“them 32 but so that they can communicate.
  33. 33. Theory of Learning Communication activities that involve real principle communication promote learning. activities in which language is used for carrying out meaningful tasks Task promote learning. principle Language that is meaningful to the learner supports the learning process Meaningful Learning activities are selected according to how well they principle: engage the learner in meaningful and authentic language ( rather than mechanical practice of language patterns ) 33
  34. 34. It is a learner – centered approach Learning a language through using it to communicate Communication is a creative process that involves trial and error Integration of all language skills Fluency is given priority Authentic and meaningful communication 34 is the goal of classroom activities.
  35. 35. Appropriateness - use of formal/informal language according to the situation. Message focus: creating/understanding of message ( real meaning). Psycholinguistic processing: engage learners in the use of cognitive and other processes of SL acquisition. Free Risk – taking Practice 35
  36. 36. are unlimited. All the activities should engage learner in Purpose: communication. enable learners to attain communicative objectives of the curriculum, engage learners in communication and require the use of such communicative processes as information sharing, negotiation of meaning, and interaction. 36
  37. 37. Functional communication activities: 1. Task- Based : Comparing set of pictures and noting similarities and differences Working out a sequence of events in a set of pictures Discovering missing pictures in a map or pictures Giving instructions on how to draw a picture or shape or how to complete a map Following directions and solving a problem 37
  38. 38. Conversation and discussion sessions Debates Dialogues and role plays Simulations and improvisations 38
  39. 39. games pair work Interview 39
  40. 40. Students interact with each other rather than with the teacher. Learners see that failed communication is the joint responsibility, and not the fault of listener or speaker Successful communication is achieved collabora-tively. 40
  41. 41. Teacher’s roles Facilitate the communication between all participants n classroom, and between the participants and the various activities and the text. To act as an independent participant within the learning – teaching group As a researcher and learner, counselor, group manager. 41
  42. 42. Teacher assumes the responsibility through: one-to-one sessions In groups Planning group and individual instructions 42
  43. 43. Text – based: a lesson topic (purpose: asking comprehen- sion questions, taking notes, task analysis for thematic development , understanding the message), asking for more information) a practice situation, description , conversa- tion ), etc 43
  44. 44. - exercise hand-book( text-book, student book) - activity cards, - pair – communication practice material, - drills material 44
  45. 45. Realia: “from life “ materials Authentic materials: signs, magazines, advertisements, newspapers, use of maps, charts, graphs. 45
  46. 46. 1.Presentation of a dialogue ( or a situation ) and discussion of language function – formality / informality, setting, topic . 2. Oral parctice of each utterance of the dialogue ( situation ) – individually,in groups, as a whole class. Similar dialogues may be created. 3. Questions – answers based on the situation / dialogue. 4. Questions – answers based on the students personal experience. 46
  47. 47. 5.Study of basic communicative expressions in the dialogue or the structures which exemplify the function ( provide additional examples) 6. Generalization of the rules ( oral and written forms) ; position in the utterance; formality / informality; the meaning and grammatical function; 7. Oral production activities – from guided to freer communication activities 8. Evaluation of learning ( orally )- Ex: How would you ask your friend / me to … ? 47
  48. 48. THEORY of LANGUAGE It is a communicatie approach. Language is viewed as a vehicle for communicating meaning and message. GOALS to achieve basic personal communication skills: oral ( listening to public announcements) - Basic personal communication skills : written ( reading and writing ) - Academic learning skills: oral ( listening to a lecture ) - Academic learning skills : written ( taking notes in class) 48
  49. 49. Help beginners become intermediates Specific objectives depend on learners needs and the skill ( reading, writing, listening , and speaking ) Develop basic communication skills , both oral and written, in every day situations.
  50. 50. - NA places no emphasis on teacher monologues, direct repetition, and formal question and answer. - less focus on accuracy BUT it emphasizes - Exposure(input ), rather then practice50 - Central role of Comprehension
  51. 51. - Informal settings - affection and - emotional preparedness for learning - prolonged period of attention before language production ( Silent period) 51
  52. 52. 1. The Acquisition / Learning Hypothesis – Acquisition is the “natural way”- it refers to an unconscious process that involves the development of language proficiency through understanding and through meaningful communication. 52
  53. 53. Learning – is a process of development of conscious rules about a language. - Ability to verbalize this knowledge. -The need for formal teaching and error correction . 53
  54. 54. 2. The Monitor Hypothesis – ability to correct our mistakes while communicating. CONDITIONS • Time - there must be sufficient time for a learner to choose and apply the learned rule. • Focus on form – focus on correctness. • Knowledge of rules 54
  55. 55. 3. The Natural Order Hypothesis- the acquisition of grammatical structures is in a predictable order. Errors are signs of naturalistic developmental processes. 55
  56. 56. 4. The input Hypothesis – relationship between the learner's exposure to language and language acquisition: situation and context, extralinguistic information (knowledge of the world) . Fluency appears independently in time, after the learner has acquired linguistic competence. Comprehensible input refers to understanding of the context .
  57. 57. 5. The Affective Filter Hypothesis- importance of learner's emotional state. - Motivation - Self – confidence - Anxiety - Low affective filter leads to interaction with more confidence. 57
  58. 58. Teacher`s role 58
  59. 59. Pre-production stage response to physical commands, pointing at something, etc
  60. 60. Early – production single words, simple questions and, short phrases and simple answers.
  61. 61. Speech – emergent phase – role- plays, games, exchange of opinions, group problem solving , etc
  62. 62. Goal make class activities meaningful, relate them to the real world, foster comprehension and communication among learners. The use of realia : pictures, visual aids, schedules, advertisements, maps, books, etc. 63
  63. 63.  The use of imperative mood( commands )  Demonstrations (realia)  The use of pictures, flashcards  Physical descriptions  Simple questions and answers
  64. 64. The use of visuals to introduce new vocabulary Identifiying the picture according to description Short dialogues Conversations
  65. 65. Cooperative Language Teaching Learning id dependent on the socially structured exchange of information between learners and in which each lerner is motivated to increase the learning of others ( Olsen and Kagan 1992:8 )
  66. 66. MA I Emphasis on maximum use N PO of cooperative activities INT involving pairs and small groups of learners in the classroom.
  67. 67. to increase cooperation rather then competition to develop critical thinking skills to develop communicative competence through socially structured interaction activities
  68. 68. to provide opportunities for second language learning through the use of interactive pair/group work to provide teachers with a methodology to enable them to achieve this goal and one that can be applied in a variety of curriculum settings to focus attention on language structures, particular lexical items, and communication through interactive tasks
  69. 69. Lev Vygotsky and Jean Piaget - stress the central role of social interaction in learning. CLL is contrasted with competitive learning. Cooperation is working together to accomplish shared goals.
  70. 70. Advantages of CLL Increased frequency and variety of practice through interaction Possibility for development or use of language in ways that support cognitive development and increased language skills Integration of language with content – based instruction.
  71. 71. Advantages of CLL opportunities to use a greater variety of materials to stimulate language as well as concept learning. opportunities for teachers to master profe- ssional skills, emphasizing communication. students act as resources for each other, they become more active in their learning.
  72. 72. Learning occurs in groups. groups 1. Formal cooperative learning – are established to achieve specific tasks. 2. Informal cooperative learning groups - facilitate learning during direct teching. 3. Cooperative base groups – give each member support, help, encouragement, and assistance to succeed academically.
  73. 73. IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF GROUP WORK For one group: - All students work on the same material - Teacher directs presentation of the task - Everyone should know what to do - Any group member should know the answer and be ready to report and explain.
  74. 74. For different groups in the same class Topics may be different for each group Students may use different sources for research Work may be presented in oral or writen form Each group presents work for the whole class (not only for the teacher )
  75. 75.  Exchange of opinions  Sharing information and discussing it  group projects  Pair work  Information-gap activities ( filling missing information during interaction with another group or partner )  Interviews  Round tables  Solving problems
  76. 76. Learners Roles  Learner is a member of a group  Learners are responsible of their own learning: they plan, monitor , and evaluate their own learning
  77. 77. Teacher's Roles  Teacher creates a well-organized learning environment  T. establishes goals, plans and structures tasks  T. assigns students in pairs or groups  T. selects material and time  T. is facilitator of learning – helping students during the class
  78. 78. Content – Based Instruction (1980`s) . In this approach, teaching is organized around the content or information that students will acquire, rather then around a linguistic type of syllabus. CBI is based on the principles of Communicative Language Teaching – class should be focused on real communication and the exchange of information.
  79. 79. Main point language is used for specific purposes ( academic, vocational, social). Learning is believed to be more motivating when students use topics of a particular interest. The language that is being taught could be used to present subject matter
  80. 80. Objectives of CBI • To activate and develop existing English language skills. 2. To acquire learning skills and strategies that could be applied in future language development opportunities 3. To develop general academic skills applicable to university studies in all subject areas 4. To broaden student`s understanding of English – speaking peoples.
  81. 81. People learn a second language more successfully when they use the language as a means of acquiring information. . CBI better reflects learner's needs for learning a second language – prepare students for academic studies, and to be able to access the content of academic learning and teaching as quickly as possible.
  82. 82. CLASS ACTIVITIES - Vocabulary building - Communicative inter – action - Study skills - Group work and team-building techniques - Jigsaw reading arrangements - Much writing - Language skill improvement
  83. 83. TEACHER`S ROLES TEACHER must be good knower of the subject, besides of English. - He/ she selects, adapts authentic material for class use; - analyzes the students needs, - develops high- level of student esteem, and - uses appropriate error correction techniques.
  84. 84. LEARNER`S ROLES LEARNERS are sources of content and active participants in the selection of topics.
  85. 85. MATERIALS CBI is based on content area , or theme – based model in which content and instructional sequence is chosen according to language learning goals. MATERIALS - Authentic texts, subject textbooks, articles related to the subject. Materials could be adapted or modified to achieve maximum comprehensibility.
  86. 86. TBLT is an approach based on the use of tasks requiring increasingly complex use of language. The tasks are done in groups where learners use English they already know.
  87. 87. TBLT emphasizes the importance of activities: - Which involve real communication (conversation ) - In which language is meaningful and is used for carrying out meaningful tasks. TASKS a. real world tasks (ex: phone conversation, filling hotel forms, etc ) b. pedagogical tasks (ex: doing a grammar exercise,etc)
  88. 88. PRE- TASK : - introduction to a topic, listening, reading, brainstorming; activation of essential language previously learned)
  89. 89. Procedure TASK : - Planning the task, doing the task ( finding solution to a puzzle, reading a map, writing a letter, making a phone call, etc) , and reporting on the task or presenting the product of task.
  90. 90. Procedure POST –TASK : - Focus on language used, error correction, comments on tasks; practice of the language ( reviewing new grammar or vocabulary used during the task, etc; discussion of the task. Important clear objectives and a sense of achievement
  91. 91. POSITIVE POINTS Tasks improve learners motivation and promote learning Tasks require the learners to use authentic language Tasks are varied in format and operation Tasks include physical activity, they involve partnership and collaboration
  92. 92. NEGATIVE aspects Difficult tasks may reduce the attention, therefore, fluency may develop at the expense of accuracy
  93. 93. THANK YOU! (Ext . 2327) It is all! It was a pleasure for me!
  94. 94. 95
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