2nd two-month period
ESCUELA: ENGLISH LANGUAGE SCHOOL
NOMBRES: M.S. NINA NESTERENKO
FECHA: ABRIL- AGOSTO 09
John Grindler ( linguist ) Richard Bandler( psychologist)
It’s a humanistic training philosophy and set
of suggestions and training techniques
therapist could use in building rapport with
clients, gathering information about their
internal and external views of the world,
and helping them achieve goals and bring
about personal change, and designed to
convince people that they have the power
to control their own and other people’s lives
for the better, and prescriptions on how to
do that. 2
Approach: Theory of Language and
NLP – is an interpersonal
“ neuro “ refers to the brain and how it functions.
“ Neuro” part of NLP is concerned with how we
experience the world through our 5 senses and represent
it in our minds through neurological process.
“ Linguistic” – refers to a theory communication.
It tries to explain both verbal and non-verbal
“Linguistic“ part of NLP is concerned with
the way the language we use shapes and
reflects our thinking and experience of the 3
“Programming” refers to patterns or
“programs”of thoughts and behaviour.
This part of NLP is concerned with training
ourselves to think, to speak, and act in
new and positive ways in order to release
our potential and reach the achievements
we dream about.
Principles of NLP
Outcomes: or “ know what you want”
knowing what you want helps you achieve it.
“Establish rapport with yourself and then
with others” – it is essential for communication
(maximize similarities and minimize differences between
Sensory acuity people)
Use your senses” – look at,
listen to, and feel
what is happening.
“ Keep changing what you do until you until
you get what you want” – have a range of
skills to do something else if what you are
doing is not working.
SKILLS vs PHILOSOPHY
Modelling is central to NLP.
- The effectiveness of successful people lies not in
their skills but in their attitudes, approaches and
philosophies they have in common which make
them capable of efective work, and these could be
lerned and transmitted.
Others could learn from thse models to be
effective the same way.
In NLP “change “ in a person is
WHAT TEACHER SHOULD
TAKE INTO ACCOUNT
1. Mind and body are interconnected: they are
parts of the same system, and each affects the
2. We all have different maps of he world.
3. There is no failure, only feedback and
the opportunity for success.
4. Knowing what you want helps you
to get it.
5. The resources we need are within us..
7. Communication is nonverbal as well as verbal.
2. Communication is nonconscious as well as
9. All behaviour has a positive intention.
10. The meaning of my communication
is the response I get.
11. Modeling excellent behaviour
leads to excellence.
12. In any system, the element with the greatest
flexibility will have the most influence on that
Teachers seek to apply the principles
in their teaching and this leads to
different responses to many classroom events and
processes. (need for rapport )
RAPPORT – meeting others in their
world, to understand their needs,
values and their culture and communicating
in the congruent ways.
(“Putting yourself in someone's shoes”)
NLP can be applied to the teaching of
all aspects of language.
The suggested lesson sequence is “ to help students
become aware of a feeling level of the conceptual
meaning of a grammatical structure”.
Main point of LA
belief that “building blocks “ of language learning and
communication are not grammar, functions,notions,
LEXIS – words and word combinations
( word collocations) .
Collocations – are regular occurrence
together of words.
Phrasal verbs and idioms are varieties of collocations.
Lexis plays a central role in language learning. 13
Krashen – through reading
Lewis (2000) – through teacher’ s talk
(teacher is a “knower”, learner – a “discoverer “ )
Teacher's talk is a major source of learner
input in demonstrating how lexical phrases
are used for different functional purposes.
Computer – based applications - through
investigations and comparison.
1. texts, tapes, teacher's manual.
2.collections of vocabulary teaching activities.
3. printout versions of computer
corpora collections in text format.
4. computer programs ( CD ROM
format, to downloaded from sites on the
Should involve the use of tasks that that draw
student’s attention to lexical collocations and seek
to enhance their retention and use of collocations.
Use of exercises that focus on lexical phrases
through debates, analyzing contexts.
Use of comparative analysis via computers
Use of reading or contexts that enable students to
discover the collocations; select the collocations
which are crucial for student’s needs.
Use of exercises that involve teaching
individual collocations. 16
Give synonyms / antonyms
Write the sentences with the new words
Store collocations or phrase verbs
and idioms in a lexical notebook
Give feedback on learner’s errors.
Teaching individual collocations
Making students aware of collocations
Write word definitions
COMPETENCY – BASED
USA, 1970`s ( CBLT )
Educational movement that is based on
programs that consist in the
. tasks that lead to a demonstrated mastery of
language associated with specific skills that are
necessary for individuals to function proficiently
in the society.
How appropriate is our vocabulary?
How would we speak in different situations?
How can we apply our vocabulary focusing on life skills?
How is the function of our language in different
Characteristics of CBLT
It has the notion that certain life encounters
certain language (designers of CBLT can
predict the vocabulary and structures likely
to be encountered in those particular situations)
CBLT is built around communicative competence and seeks to
develop functional communication skills in learners. ( through
specific real – world tasks)
Competencies are designed to enable learners to
participate effectively in society.
Description of Competencies
Knowledge and learning
It designed around the notion of competency
Competencies consist of description of
essential skills, attitudes, and behaviours required
for effective performance of a real - world tasks or
activities (they may be related to any domain in
life , or linked to the field of work or to social
survival in a new environment )
According to Auerbach (1986), factors
involved in implementation of CBE in ESL :
1.The focus on successful
functioning in society.
2. A focus on life skills.
3.Task – or performance-centered orientation
(what students can do as a result of
4. Modularized instruction ( objectives and sub-
objectives- to have a clear sense of progress).
5. Outcomes that are made explicit a priori : students
know exactly what behaviours are expected of
6. Continuous and ongoing assessment.
( students determine what skills they lack).
7. Demonstrated mastery of performance objectives –
abilities to demon-
strate prespecified behaviours.
instruction : objectives are defined
in terms if individual needs, students progress at
their own rate and on those areas in which they
lack competence. 25
Fill job application
Perform job interview
Follow instructions to carry out a
Respond appropriately to
supervisor’ s comments
Use social language
Understand and comment work
schedules , fill paychecks
Read charts labels, forms written instructions to
perform a task
State problem and ask for help if necessary
Follow simple oral directions to locate a place.
Report completion of task to supervisor.
Respond appropriately to work
interruption or modification
Ask where object is located: follow oral
directions to locate an object
1.The competencies are specific and
practical and relate to learners needs.
2. The learners can judge whether
the competencies are relevant and useful.
3. Learner knows exactly what
needs to be learned.
4. Competencies can be mastered
one at a time so the learner can
see what has been learned and
what still remains to be learned.
- There are no valid procedures
available to develop competency
lists for more programs.
- Many of the areas for which
competencies are needed are
impossible to operationalize
( areas of “adult living”,“survival”,
“functioning proficiency in the
community”, etc). 29
( British language teaching, late 1960s)
THEORY OF LANGUAGE
It starts from a theory of a
language as communication.
Language is a system for the
expression of meaning.
The primary function of language is to
allow interaction and communication.
The focus on communicative and
contextual factors in language use.
Communicative acts underline the ability
to use language for different purposes. 30
British linguist, D:A Wilkins( 1972) proposed
functional definition of language
Two types of meaning:
1.Notional categories – time,
quantity, location, frequency
2. Categories of communicative function:
requests, denials, offers, complaints
The goal develop communicative
STRANDS OF CLT
Language is not just bits of grammar, it
also involves language functions( inviting,
agreeing, suggestions etc ) which students
should learn how to use.
If students get enough exposure
to language and have opportunities
to use it and if they are motivated,
then language learning will be
The main point of CLT is to remind
teachers that people learn
languages not so they
but so that they can communicate.
Theory of Learning
Communication activities that involve real
principle communication promote learning.
activities in which language is used
for carrying out meaningful tasks
Task promote learning.
principle Language that is meaningful to the
learner supports the learning process
Meaningful Learning activities are selected according to how well they
engage the learner in meaningful and authentic language
( rather than mechanical practice of language patterns )
It is a learner – centered approach
Learning a language through using it to
Communication is a creative process
that involves trial and error
Integration of all language skills
Fluency is given priority
Authentic and meaningful communication
is the goal of classroom activities.
Appropriateness - use of formal/informal
language according to the situation.
Message focus: creating/understanding of message ( real
Psycholinguistic processing: engage learners in the use of
cognitive and other processes of SL acquisition.
Risk – taking
are unlimited. All the activities should engage learner
enable learners to attain communicative objectives
of the curriculum, engage learners in communication
and require the use of such communicative processes
as information sharing, negotiation of meaning, and
1. Task- Based :
Comparing set of pictures and noting similarities
Working out a sequence of events in a set of
Discovering missing pictures in a map or pictures
Giving instructions on how to draw a
picture or shape or how to complete
and solving a problem
Dialogues and role plays
Simulations and improvisations
Students interact with
each other rather than with the teacher.
Learners see that failed communication
is the joint responsibility, and not the
fault of listener or speaker
Successful communication is achieved
Facilitate the communication between all participants
n classroom, and between the participants and the
various activities and the text.
To act as an independent participant within the
learning – teaching group
As a researcher and learner, counselor,
group manager. 41
Teacher assumes the responsibility
Planning group and
Text – based:
a lesson topic (purpose: asking comprehen-
sion questions, taking notes, task analysis
for thematic development , understanding
the message), asking for more information)
a practice situation, description , conversa-
tion ), etc
- exercise hand-book( text-book, student
- activity cards,
- pair – communication practice material,
- drills material
“from life “
Authentic materials: signs,
newspapers, use of maps,
1.Presentation of a dialogue ( or a situation )
and discussion of language function –
formality / informality, setting, topic .
2. Oral parctice of each utterance of the
dialogue ( situation ) – individually,in groups,
as a whole class. Similar dialogues may be
3. Questions – answers based on the
situation / dialogue.
4. Questions – answers based on the students
5.Study of basic communicative expressions in the
dialogue or the structures which exemplify the
function ( provide additional examples)
6. Generalization of the rules ( oral and written
forms) ; position in the utterance; formality /
informality; the meaning and grammatical
7. Oral production activities – from guided to freer
8. Evaluation of learning ( orally )- Ex: How would
you ask your friend / me to … ?
THEORY of LANGUAGE
It is a communicatie approach. Language is viewed as
a vehicle for communicating meaning and message.
GOALS to achieve basic personal
communication skills: oral
to public announcements)
- Basic personal communication skills : written
( reading and writing )
- Academic learning skills: oral ( listening to a
- Academic learning skills : written ( taking
notes in class) 48
Help beginners become intermediates
Specific objectives depend on learners
the skill ( reading, writing, listening , and
Develop basic communication skills , both oral and written, in every
- NA places no emphasis on teacher
monologues, direct repetition, and
formal question and answer.
- less focus on accuracy
BUT it emphasizes
- Exposure(input ), rather then practice50
- Central role of Comprehension
- Informal settings
- affection and
- emotional preparedness
- prolonged period of attention before
language production ( Silent period)
1. The Acquisition / Learning
Acquisition is the “natural way”- it refers to
an unconscious process that involves the
development of language proficiency through
understanding and through meaningful
Learning – is a process of development
of conscious rules about a language.
- Ability to verbalize this knowledge.
-The need for formal teaching and
error correction .
2. The Monitor Hypothesis –
ability to correct our mistakes
• Time - there must be sufficient time
for a learner to choose and apply the
• Focus on form – focus on correctness.
• Knowledge of rules
3. The Natural Order Hypothesis-
the acquisition of grammatical
structures is in a predictable order.
Errors are signs of naturalistic
4. The input Hypothesis – relationship between the
learner's exposure to language and language acquisition:
situation and context, extralinguistic information
(knowledge of the world) .
Fluency appears independently in time, after the
learner has acquired linguistic competence.
Comprehensible input refers to understanding of
the context .
5. The Affective Filter Hypothesis-
importance of learner's
- Self – confidence
- Low affective filter leads to interaction with
response to physical
commands, pointing at
Early – production
single words, simple
questions and, short
phrases and simple
Speech – emergent phase – role- plays, games,
exchange of opinions, group problem solving , etc
Goal make class activities meaningful, relate
them to the real world, foster comprehension
and communication among learners.
The use of realia : pictures, visual aids, schedules,
advertisements, maps, books, etc.
The use of imperative mood( commands )
The use of pictures, flashcards
Simple questions and answers
The use of visuals to introduce new
Identifiying the picture
according to description
Learning id dependent on the socially
structured exchange of information
between learners and in which each
lerner is motivated to increase the
learning of others ( Olsen and Kagan
MA I Emphasis on maximum use
N PO of cooperative activities
involving pairs and
small groups of learners
in the classroom.
to increase cooperation rather then
to develop critical thinking skills
to develop communicative competence
through socially structured interaction
to provide opportunities for second
language learning through the use of
interactive pair/group work
to provide teachers with a methodology to enable
them to achieve this goal and one that can be
applied in a variety of curriculum settings
to focus attention on language
structures, particular lexical
items, and communication
through interactive tasks
Lev Vygotsky and Jean Piaget - stress the central role of
social interaction in learning.
CLL is contrasted with competitive learning.
Advantages of CLL
Increased frequency and variety of
practice through interaction
Possibility for development or use of
language in ways that support cognitive
development and increased language skills
Integration of language with
content – based instruction.
Advantages of CLL
opportunities to use a greater variety of
materials to stimulate language as well as
opportunities for teachers to master profe-
ssional skills, emphasizing communication.
students act as resources for each other,
they become more active in their learning.
Learning occurs in groups. groups
1. Formal cooperative learning
– are established to achieve specific
2. Informal cooperative learning
groups - facilitate learning during
3. Cooperative base groups – give each
member support, help,
encouragement, and assistance
to succeed academically.
IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF GROUP WORK
For one group:
- All students work on the same material
- Teacher directs presentation of the task
- Everyone should know what to do
- Any group member should know the answer and be ready
to report and explain.
For different groups in the same class
Topics may be different for each group
Students may use different sources for
Work may be presented in oral or writen form
Each group presents work for the whole class
(not only for the teacher )
Exchange of opinions
Sharing information and discussing it
Information-gap activities ( filling missing
information during interaction with another
group or partner )
Learner is a member of
Learners are responsible of their own
learning: they plan, monitor , and
evaluate their own learning
Teacher creates a well-organized
T. establishes goals, plans and
T. assigns students in pairs or groups
T. selects material and time
T. is facilitator of learning – helping
students during the class
Content – Based Instruction
. In this approach, teaching is organized
around the content or information that
students will acquire, rather then around a
linguistic type of syllabus.
CBI is based on the principles
of Communicative Language
Teaching – class should be
focused on real communication
and the exchange of information.
Main point language is used for
specific purposes ( academic, vocational, social).
Learning is believed to be more motivating when
students use topics of a particular interest.
The language that is being taught could be used to
present subject matter
Objectives of CBI
• To activate and develop
existing English language skills.
2. To acquire learning skills and
strategies that could be applied in future language
3. To develop general academic skills applicable to
university studies in all subject areas
4. To broaden student`s understanding of English –
People learn a second language more
successfully when they use the language
as a means of acquiring information.
CBI better reflects learner's needs for
learning a second language – prepare
students for academic studies, and to
be able to access the content of
academic learning and teaching as
quickly as possible.
- Vocabulary building
- Communicative inter –
- Study skills
- Group work and team-building techniques
- Jigsaw reading arrangements
- Much writing
- Language skill improvement
TEACHER must be good knower of the subject,
besides of English.
- He/ she selects, adapts authentic
material for class use;
- analyzes the students needs,
- develops high- level of student
- uses appropriate error correction
LEARNERS are sources of content and
active participants in the
selection of topics.
CBI is based on content area , or theme – based
model in which content and instructional sequence is
chosen according to language learning goals.
- Authentic texts, subject textbooks,
articles related to the subject.
Materials could be adapted or modified
to achieve maximum comprehensibility.
TBLT is an approach based on the use of
tasks requiring increasingly complex use
The tasks are done in groups where learners use English
they already know.
TBLT emphasizes the importance
- Which involve real communication (conversation )
- In which language is meaningful and is used for carrying out
TASKS a. real world tasks
(ex: phone conversation,
filling hotel forms, etc )
b. pedagogical tasks
(ex: doing a grammar exercise,etc)
PRE- TASK : - introduction to a topic, listening, reading,
brainstorming; activation of essential language previously
TASK : - Planning the task, doing the task ( finding
solution to a puzzle, reading a map, writing a
letter, making a phone call, etc) , and reporting
on the task or presenting the product of task.
POST –TASK : - Focus on language used, error
correction, comments on tasks; practice of the
language ( reviewing new grammar or vocabulary
used during the task, etc; discussion of the task.
Important clear objectives and a sense of
Tasks improve learners motivation and
Tasks require the learners to use authentic
Tasks are varied in format and operation
Tasks include physical activity, they involve
partnership and collaboration
Difficult tasks may reduce the attention,
therefore, fluency may develop at the
expense of accuracy
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